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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Plant Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Plant Biotechnology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified Herbicide-Tolerant zoysiagrass (Event: Jeju Green21)
Bae, Tae-Woong ; Kang, Hong-Gyu ; Song, In-Ja ; Sun, Hyeon-Jin ; Ko, Suk-Min ; Song, Pill-Soon ; Lee, Hyo-Yeon ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 105~116
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.105
Transgenic zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) expressing the bar gene inserted in the plant genome has been generated previously through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The GM zoysiagrass (event: JG21) permits efficient management of weed control of widely cultivated zoysiagrass fields, reducing the frequency and cost of using various herbicides for weed control. Now we have carried out the environmental risk assessment of JG21 prior to applying to the governmental regulatory agency for the commercial release of the GM turf grass outside of test plots. The morphological phenotypes, molecular analysis, weediness and gene flow from each test plot of JG21 and wild-type zoysiagrasses have been evaluated by selectively analyzing environmental effects. There were no marked differences in morphological phenotypes between JG21 and wild-type grasses. The JG21 retained its stable integration in the host plant in T1 generation, exhibiting a 3:1 segregation ratio according to the Mendelian genetics. We confirmed the copy number (1) of JG21 by using Southern blot analysis, as the transgenic plants were tolerant to ammonium glufosinate throughout the culture period. From cross-fertilization and gene flow studies, we found a 9% cross-pollination rate at the center of JG21 field and 0% at distances over 3 m from the field. The JG21 and wild-type zoysiagrass plants are not considered "weed" because zoysiagrasses generally are not dominant and do not spread into weedy areas easily. We assessed the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the transgene DNA to soil microorganisms from JG21 and wild-type plants. The bar gene was not detected from the total genomic DNA extracted from each rhizosphere soil of GM and non-GM Zoysia grass fields. Through the monitoring of JG21 transgene`s unintentional release into the environment, we found no evidence for either pollen mediated gene flow of zoysiagrass or seed dispersal from the test field within a 3 km radius of the natural habitat.
Agricultural biotechnology: Opportunities and challenges associated with climate change
Chang, An-Cheol ; Choi, Ji-Young ; Lee, Shin-Woo ; Kim, Dong-Hern ; Bae, Shin-Chul ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 117~124
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.117
Considering that the world population is expected to total 9 billion by 2050, it will clearly be necessary to sustain and even accelerate the rate of improvement in crop productivity. In the 21st century, we now face another, perhaps more devastating, environmental threat, namely climate change, which could cause irreversible damage to agricultural ecosystem and loss of production potential. Enhancing intrinsic yield, plant abiotic stress tolerance, and pest and pathogen resistance through agricultural biotechnology will be a critical part of feeding, clothing, and providing energy for the human population, and overcoming climate change. Development and commercialization of genetically engineered crops have significantly contributed to increase of crop yield and farmer`s income, decrease of environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide, and to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from this cropping area. Advances in plant genomics, proteomics and system biology have offered an unprecedented opportunities to identify genes, pathways and networks that control agricultural important traits. Because such advances will provide further details and complete understanding of interaction of plant systems and environmental variables, biotechnology is likely to be the most prominent part of the next generation of successful agricultural industry. In this article, we review the prospects for modification of agricultural target traits by genetic engineering, including enhancement of photosynthesis, abiotic stress tolerance, and pest and pathogen resistance associated with such opportunities and challenges under climate change.
Strategies for the development of GM crops in accordance with the environmental risk assessment (I)
Lee, Shin-Woo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 125~129
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.125
Environmental risk assessment (RA) is essential prior to the environmental release of GM crops. RA, however, costs at least 7 to 15 million US dollars and requires several years to complete field tests. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that developers of GM crops must consider all criteria for RA at the beginning stage of the development if it aims for commercialization. Previous review papers have pointed out that the "death valley" for the commercialization of GM crops is the screening stage of early GM events since many candidates are given up due to insufficient data on the molecular characterization of a GM event such as inserted gene`s copy number, position of inserted site of a chromosome, flanking sequence of recombinant T-DNA, rearrangement of chromosome, and knock out of endogenous gene of host plant. Recently, Rural Development Administration (RDA) in South Korea has launched a Grand National Project named as "Next Generation of BioGreen 21 Project" from 2011 to 2020 and research funding for the development of global GM crops has been allocated to accelerate the commercialization of GM crops. In this regard, I strongly suggest that researchers involved in the development of GM crops for commercialization must conduct RA by themselves at the screening stage of pre-GM event based on the data for molecular characterization.
Proteomics of ionic stresses in rice: An overview
Kim, Sang-Gon ; Wang, Yiming ; Huh, Hyun-Hye ; Kim, Yong-Chul ; Choi, In-Soo ; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar ; Rakwal, Randeep ; Kang, Kyu-Young ; Kim, Sun-Tae ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 130~136
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.130
Ions deficiency or excess remains one of the critical ground level environmental problems, affecting crop productivity. In this overview, we will discuss an increased application of proteomics technology in addressing this issue using rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a model crop plant. Proteomics analyses have revealed that rice proteome undergoes changes in the proteins composition and expression in response to several ionic stresses, including mineral nutrients (aluminum, nitrogen, and phosphorous) and heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and copper). Developed inventory of responsive proteins and their correlation with changes in physiological symptoms and parameters are a major step forward in: (i) better understanding the underlying mechanisms of ionic stresses-triggered responses in rice; (ii) comparative proteomics studies; and (iii) designing a novel strategy to improve crop plants.
Improvement of crop traits using auxin binding protein gene abp57
Kim, Dong-Hern ; Lee, Keun-Pyo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 137~142
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.137
Auxin is a group of small natural and synthetic molecules having diverse regulatory functions in plant growth and development. In this review, two auxin binding proteins identified by biochemical experiments to measure their auxin binding activities and biochemical functions are described. ABP1, a 22 kDa auxin binding protein, shows strong auxin binding affinity and possibly plays an important role in plant development, although its biochemical function are still unclear. ABP57, a 57 kDa soluble protein from rice shoots, has both of IAA binding activity and the plasma membrane proton pump activation. Although it is yet to be accomplished, the improvement of agronomic traits using auxin binding proteins is worth to be considered, since auxin is known to be related to such a diverse crop traits.
Current status on the development of detection methods for genetically modified plants
Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Kim, Young-Rok ; Kim, Hae-Yeong ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 143~150
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.143
Since the first commercial GM plant, the FlavrSavr tomato, authorized in 1994, more than 140 GM plants were authorized for marketing globally. For the authorization and labelling of GM plants, the detection methods for genes introduced and proteins expressed in GM plants were developed qualitatively and quantitatively. This review presented the detection methods, conventional PCR, multiplex PCR and real-time PCR, for soybean, maize, canola and cotton as the dominant GM plants. Also, microarray assay and nanotechnology as new approaches for detection methods for GM plants were investigated.
Korean plant proteomics: pioneers in plant stress physiology
Lee, Young-Woo ; Bea, Suh-Yeon ; Seo, Sang-Gyu ; Shim, Ie-Sung ; Kim, Sun-Hyung ; Kim, Sang-Gon ; Kang, Kyu-Young ; Kim, Sun-Tae ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 151~161
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.151
Plant proteomics is the large-scale studies of proteins, particularly on their structures and functions, governed by the physiological metabolism of plant cells. With the development of techniques and strategies in proteomics, proteomics approach is moving forward in systems biology handling sophisticated components of major signaling and biochemical pathways in plants responding to their environment. In Korea, pioneers in plant proteomics are trying to catch up with global trends in plant proteomics; these researchers are not only improving existing techniques in protein extraction but also developing new techniques in proteomics context. In the hot field of abiotic and biotic stress proteomics, 29 and 9 out of 74 papers have been published during the review period from 2005 to 2010, respectively. This present review article provides an overview on the output of Korean plant proteomers while paying special attention to both abiotic and biotic stress proteomics.
Functional characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana BLH 8, BEL1-Like Homeodomain 8 involved in environmental stresses
Park, Hyeong-Cheol ; Park, Ji-Young ; Baek, Dong-Won ; Yun, Dae-Jin ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 162~168
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.162
High salinity is a common stress condition that adversely affects plant growth and crop production. In response to various environmental stresses, plants activate a number of defense genes that function to increase the tolerance. To isolate Arabidopsis genes that are involved in abiotic stress responses, we carried out genetic screening using various mutant lines. Among them, the blh8 (
) mutant specifically shows chlorotic phenotypes to ionic (specifically,
) stresses, but no differences in root growth. In addition, BLH8 is related to plant development and abiotic stress as predicted by a Graphical Gaussian Model (GGM) network program. It implies that BLH8 functions as a putative transcription factor related to abiotic stress responses. Collectively, our results show that gene network analysis is a useful tool for isolating genes involved in stress adaptation in plants.
The vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) mutation suppresses an HR-like cell death induced by the double knockout mutant of vacuolar Ca
-ATPases in Arabidopsis
Park, Hyeong-Cheol ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Kim, Ho-Soo ; Chung, Woo-Sik ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 169~175
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.169
) signals have been implicated in regulating plant development and responses to the environmental stresses including a programmed cell death pathway. In animals and plants, cytosolic
signals have been involved in the activation of programmed cell death (PCD). Recently, we reported that disruption of Arabidopsis vacuolar
TPases (ACAs), ACA4 and ACA11, resulted in the activation of a salicylic acid-dependent programmed cell death pathway. Although extensive studies have revealed various components of a PCD in plants, executors to directly induce PCD are well unknown. Here, we provide that the vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) are involved in a PCD induced by the double knockout mutant of vacuolar
-ATPases in Arabidopsis. The gene expression of VPE was rapidly up-regulated and the enzyme activity of VPE was increased in the double mutant plants. We also generated aca4/aca11/avpe, aca4/aca11/
vpe and aca4/aca11/avpe/
vpe mutant plants. Although cell death phenotype of the double mutant plants was not completely disappeared in the triple and quadruple mutant plants, the triple and quadruple mutant plants showed to significantly delay cell death phenotype of the double mutant plants. These results suggest that the VPE is involved in the HR-like cell death in the double mutant of vacuolar
-ATPases in Arabidopsis.
Structural and expression analysis of glutelin genes in Oryza sativa L.
Yoon, Ung-Han ; Kim, Chang-Kug ; Lee, Gang-Seob ; Hahn, Jang-Ho ; Lee, Jeong-Hwa ; Kim, Yeon-Ki ; Ji, Hyeon-So ; Mun, Jeong-Hwan ; Lee, Tae-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 176~185
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.176
Rice is one of the most important crop in the world, in particular for food resources. With its small genome size of 383 Mb, the Oryza sativa is a model plant for genome research. Indeed, it`s grain provides human with a source of carbohydrates and proteins. Rice grain has relatively low protein contents (around 8%) compared to other legume seeds (around 40%). Osborne classified seed proteins into water soluble albumin, salt soluble globulin, alcohol soluble prolamin and acidic/alkaline solution soluble glutelin. Glutelin and prolamin are the major storage proteins in rice. For the gene expression study of seed storage proteins, we analyzed 33,192 EST clones at immature stages in a rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L. cv. `Ilpum`). Based on the expression analysis, we cloned 11 glutelin genes and figured out the 8 genes are located on Chromosome 2. The expression of glutelin genes appears to be about 28.2% of total level in immature seeds. Interestingly, glu-04 is duplicated as inverted sequences on the same chromosomes as far 4.5 kb. Our results indicate that glutelin genes, evolutionarily, were replicated on the chromosome and thus expressed as specific manners. In a whole protein composition analysis, glu05 (type B7) contains the highest lysin contents (4.51%) among the 11 rice glutelin genes. It will be an interesting future work to increase lysin contents by the gene overexpressor strategy with the aim of improved diet nutritionally fortified.
Effects of ABA, reduced nitrogen source and osmoticum for somatic embryogenesis in Liriodendron tulipifera
Kim, Yong-Wook ; Han, Mu-Seok ; Moon, Heung-Kyu ; Park, So-Young ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 38, issue 2, 2011, Pages 186~190
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2011.38.2.186
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of various kinds or concentrations in abscisic acid (ABA), reduced nitrogen sources (casein hydrolysate, casamino acid and L-glutamine) and osmoticum for production of somatic embryos (SEs) from pro-embryogenic mass (PEM) in yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). In comparison of various concentrations of ABA, the highest number (640/10 mg PEM) of SEs was marked in the treatment of 0.5 mg/L. With higher concentration than 0.5 mg/L ABA, number of induced SEs were decreased. And the lowest number of SEs were obtained from the treatment of 20 mg/L ABA. Differences of 8 treatments of the nitrogen sources in the medium were also compared. In the experiment of 8 treatments for SEs production, the highest result showed in the treatment of 500 mg/L casamino acid (223/5 mg PEM). In comparison of different kinds/concentrations of osmotica for SEs induction, the best response was obtained from the treatment of 4% sucrose (317/5 mg PEM). In contrast, no SEs were found from the treatments supplemented with any concentrations of maltose.