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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Plant Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Plant Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Biosynthetic pathway of shikimate and aromatic amino acid and its metabolic engineering in plants
Lim, Sun-Hyung ; Park, Sang Kyu ; Ha, Sun-Hwa ; Choi, Min Ji ; Kim, Da-Hye ; Lee, Jong-Yeol ; Kim, Young-Mi ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 135~153
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.135
The aromatic amino acids, which are composed of
-tryptophan, are general components of protein synthesis as well as precursors for a wide range of secondary metabolites. These aromatic amino acids-derived compounds play important roles as ingredients of diverse phenolics including pigments and cell walls, and hormones like auxin and salicylic acid in plants. Moreover, they also serve as the natural products of alkaloids and glucosinolates, which have a high potential to promote human health and nutrition. The biosynthetic pathways of aromatic amino acids share a chorismate, the common intermediate, which is originated from shikimate pathway. Then, tryptophan is synthesized via anthranilate and the other phenylalanine and tyrosine are synthesized via prephenate, as intermediates. This review reports recent studies about all the enzymatic steps involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathways and their gene regulation on transcriptional/post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, results of metabolic engineering are introduced as efforts to improve the production of the aromatic amino acids-derived secondary metabolites in plants.
An efficient gene targeting system using homologous recombination in plants
Kwon, Yong-Ik ; Lee, Hyo-Yeon ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 154~160
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.154
The plant breeding technology was developed with genetic engineering. Many researchers and breeders have turned from traditional breeding to molecular breeding. Genetically modified organisms (GMO) were developed via molecular breeding technology. Currently, molecular breeding technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing foreign genes, in virtue by of gene editing technology. Gene targeting (GT) via homologous recombination (HR) is one of the best gene editing methods available to modify specific DNA sequences in genomes. GT utilizes DNA repair pathways. Thus, DNA repair systems are controlled to enhance HR processing. Engineered sequence specific endonucleases were applied to improve GT efficiency. Engineered sequence specific endonucleases like the zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), TAL effector nuclease (TALEN), and CRISPR-Cas9 create DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) that can stimulate HR at a target site. RecQl4, Exo1 and Rad51 are effectors that enhance DSB repair via the HR pathway. This review focuses on recent developments in engineered sequence specific endonucleases and ways to improve the efficiency of GT via HR effectors in plants.
Current status of sweetpotato genomics research
Yoon, Ung-Han ; Jeong, Jae Cheol ; Kwak, Sang-Soo ; Yang, Jung-Wook ; Kim, Tae-Ho ; Lee, Hyeong-Un ; Nam, Sang-Sik ; Hahn, Jang-Ho ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 161~167
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.161
Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] grows well in harsh environmental conditions, and is cultivated as one of the top seven food crops in the world. Recently, sweetpotato is drawing interest from people as a healthy food because it is high in dietary fiber, vitamins, carotenoids and overall nutrition value. However, few studies have been conducted on sweetpotato genome sequencing in spite of its importance. This review is aimed at increasing the efficiency of sweetpotato genome sequencing research as well as establishing a base for gene utilization in order to control useful traits. Recently, animal and plant genome sequencing projects increased significantly. However, sweetpotato genome sequencing has not been performed due to polyploidy and heterogeneity problems in its genome. Meanwhile research on its transcriptome has been conducted actively. Recently, a draft of the diploid sweetpotato genome was reported in 2015 by Japanese researchers. In addition, the Korea-China-Japan Trilateral Research Association of Sweetpotato (TRAS) has conducted research on gene map construction and genome sequencing of the hexaploid sweetpotato Xushu 18 since 2014. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the 'sweetpotato genomic sequencing to develop genomic tools for Sub-Sahara Africa breeding program'. The chloroplast genome sequence acquired during sweetpotato genome sequencing is used in evolutionary analyses. In this review, the trend of research in the sweetpotato genome sequencing was analyzed. Research trend analysis like this will provide researchers working toward sweetpotato productivity and nutrient improvement with information on the status of sweetpotato genome research. This will contribute to solving world food, energy and environmental problems.
Alteration of plant hormones in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) by overexpression of anti-apoptosis genes during salinity stress
Ubaidillah, Mohammad ; Safitri, Fika Ayu ; Lee, Sangkyu ; Park, Gyu-Hwan ; Kim, Kyung-Min ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 168~179
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.168
We previously identified the rice gene, OsSAP, as an encoder of a highly conserved putative senescence-associated protein that was shown to have anti-apoptotic activity. To confirm the role of OsSAP in inducing abiotic stress tolerance in rice, we introduced OsSAP and AtBI-1, a plant homologue of Bax inhibitor-1, under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter into the rice genome through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The OsSAP transformants showed a similar chlorophyll index after salinity treatments with AtBI-1. Furthermore, we compared the effects of salinity stress on leaves and roots by examining the hormone levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), gibberellic acid (GA3), and zeatin in transformants compared to the control. With the exception of phytohormones, stress-induced changes in hormone levels putatively related to stress tolerance have not been investigated previously. Hormonal level analysis confirmed the lower rate of stress in the transformants compared to the control. The levels of ABA and JA in OsSAP and AtBI-1 transformants were similar, where stress rates increased after one week and decreased after a two week period of drought; there was a slightly higher accumulation compared to the control. However, a similar trend was not observed for the level of zeatin, as the decrease in the level of zeatin accumulation differed in both OsSAP and AtBI-1 transformants for all genotypes during the early period of salinity stress. The GA3 level was detected under normal conditions, but not under salinity stress.
Development of transgenic strawberry plants expressing monellin, a sweet protein
Min, Sung Ran ; Ko, Suk Min ; Lyu, Jae Il ; Park, Ji Hyun ; Yi, So Young ; Lee, In-Ha ; Kim, Hyun Sook ; Kim, Tae Il ; Choi, Pil Son ; Jeong, Won-Joong ; Kim, Suk Weon ; Kim, Jonghyun ; Liu, Jang R. ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 180~185
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.180
Leaf discs from 'Yeobong' and 'Maehyang' strawberry plants were used as explants for transformation. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the monellin gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter was used in co-cultivation experiments. The frequencies of callus formation and plant regeneration from leaf explants after co-cultivation in 'Yeobong' were higher than those of 'Maehyang'. These transgenic plants showed normal growth patterns and flowering. PCR and Southern hybridization confirmed that 1 to 2 copies of the monellin gene were integrated into genome of the transgenic strawberry plants. Northern blot analysis confirm that the transcripts were expressed in transgenic strawberry plants. Although long-term subcultured transgenic strawberry plants showed a phenomenon to escape the transgene, the transformation system established in this study provides new opportunities for genetic improvement of strawberry plants.
Development of high tryptophan GM rice and its transcriptome analysis
Jung, Yu Jin ; Nogoy, Franz Marielle ; Cho, Yong-Gu ; Kang, Kwon Kyoo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 186~195
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.186
Anthranilate synthase (AS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of tryptophan (Trp), which is the precursor of bioactive metabolites like indole-3-acetic acid and other indole alkaloids. Alpha anthranilate synthase 2 (OsASA2) plays a critical role in the feedback inhibition of tryptophan biosynthesis. In this study, two vectors with single (F124V) and double (S126F/L530D) point mutations of the OsASA2 gene for feedback-insensitive
subunit of rice anthranilate synthase were constructed and transformed into wildtype Dongjinbyeo by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic single and double mutant lines were selected as a single copy using TaqMan PCR utilized nos gene probe. To select intergenic lines, the flanking sequence of RB or LB was digested with a BfaI enzyme. Four intergenic lines were selected using a flanking sequence tagged (FST) analysis. Expression in rice (Oryza sativa L.) of the transgenes resulted in the accumulation of tryptophan (Trp), indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in leaves and tryptophan content as a free amino acid in seeds also increased up to 30 times relative to the wildtype. Two homozygous event lines, S-TG1 and D-TG1, were selected for characterization of agronomic traits and metabolite profiling of seeds. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), related to ion transfer and nutrient supply, were upregulated and DEGs related to co-enzymes that work as functional genes were down regulated. These results suggest that two homozygous event lines may prove effective for the breeding of crops with an increased level of free tryptophan content.
Establishment of detection methods for approved LMO in Korea
Seol, Min-A ; Lee, Jung Ro ; Choi, Wonkyun ; Jo, Beom-Ho ; Moon, Jeong Chan ; Shin, Su Young ; Eum, Soon-Jae ; Kim, Il Ryong ; Song, Hae-Ryong ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 196~203
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.196
AbstractLiving modified organisms (LMO) are one of the most widespread products of modern biotechnology after DNA discovery. Due to the decline of grain self-sufficiency rate and the increase of reliance on LMO imports in Korea, a series of concerns with regard to safety of living modified(LM) crops has been raised. The aim of this study is to establish the detection methods for unintentional release or growing of LMO plants in environmental conditions. To detect LM crop events, general concepts of specific primer design and PCR conditions were provided by the Joint Research Centre (JRC). The certified reference materials of seven LM events (4 soybean, 2 cotton and 1 corn) were obtained from the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) and the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS). Genomic DNA from seven LM events were purified and PCR amplifications were carried out by using individual event-specific primer sets. LM-specific PCR products of all seven events were efficiently amplified by our methods. The results indicate that the established detection method for LMOs is suitable as a scientific tool to monitor whether the crops found in natural environments are LMOs.
Effects of Brassica rapa SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE overexpression on petunia growth and development
Hong, Joon Ki ; Suh, Eun Jung ; Lee, Su Young ; Song, Cheon Young ; Lee, Seung Bum ; Kim, Jin A ; Lee, Soo In ; Lee, Yeon-Hee ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 204~214
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.204
SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE (SRS) genes are plant-specific transcription factors that contain a zinc-binding RING finger motif, which play a critical role in plant growth and development. Among Brassica rapa SRS genes, BrSRS7 and BrLRP1 genes, isolated from shoot apical regions are important regulators of plant growth and development. In order to explore the function of BrSRS genes in horticultural plant growth and development, two constructs containing BrSRS7 and BrLRP1 under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were introduced into petunia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The resulting transgenic plants were dwarf and compact plants with reduced plant height and diameter. Additionally, these transgenic plants had upward-curled leaves of narrow width and short internodes. Interestingly, the flower shapes of petunia were different among transgenic plants harboring different kinds of SRS genes. These phenotypes were stably inherited through generations
. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses of transgenic plants revealed that BrSRS7 and BrLRP1 regulate expression of gibberellin (GA)- and auxinrelated genes, PtAGL15- and PtIAMT1-related, involved in shoot morphogenesis. These results indicate that the overexpression of BrSRS7 and BrLRP1 genes suppressed the growth and development of petunia by regulating expression of GA- and auxin-related genes. From these data, we deduce that BrSRS7 and BrLRP1 genes play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development in petunia. These findings suggest that transformation with the BrSRS genes can be applied to other species as a tool for growth retardation and modification of plant forms.
Physiological and molecular characterization of two inbred radish lines with different bolting times
Park, Hyun Ji ; Jung, Won Yong ; Lee, Sang Sook ; Lee, Joo won ; Kim, Youn-Sung ; Cho, Hye Sun ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 215~222
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.215
The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop worldwide. Several studies have been conducted concerning radish breeding. There are major challenges to prevent premature bolting in spring plantings. Here, we performed the characterization of two inbred radish lines which vary in bolting time. "Late bolting radish" (NH-JS1) and "early bolting radish" (NH-JS2) were generated by a conventional breeding approach. The two inbred lines showed different bolting phenotypes depending on vernalization time at
. NH-JS1, the late bolting radish, was less sensitive to cold treatment and the less sensitivity was inversely proportional to the duration of the vernalization. We also measured gene expression levels of the major bolting time related genes in the NH-JS1 and NH-JS2 lines. RsFLC1 plays a central role in the timing of flowering initiation. It is a strong repressor and it's transcript is highly expressed in NH-JS1 compared to NH-JS2 under no treatment and vernalization conditions. RsFRI, a positive regulator of RsFLC, is also highly expressed in NH-JS1 compared to NH-JS2 regardless of vernalization. In contrast, RsSOC1, suppressed by FLC as a floral integrator gene, showed the most difference, a 5-fold increase, between NH-JS1 and NH-JS2 under vernalization conditions. From these results, we conclude that NH-JS1 showed a late flowering phenotype after cold treatment due to the expression differences of flowering time regulator genes rather than difference sensitivity to cold. These results may be useful to understand the control mechanisms of flowering time and may help identify molecular markers for selecting late bolting trait in radish.
Initiation of embryogenic callus from mature zygotic embryos in Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi)
Kim, Yong-Wook ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 223~227
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.223
Embryogenic callus (EC) was created from mature embryos of Larix kaempferi. With the mature embryos, keeping the culture in dark conditions throughout the experiment (38.2%) seemed to give better results than exposing them to 16 h light (
) for the first week (21.9%). EC was obtained most frequently from Quoirin and Lepoivre (LP) mediums with 1.0 mg/L 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (Picloram), plus 1.0 mg/L benzyladenine (BA) (62.8%) or Litvay's medium (LM) containing 1.0 mg/L p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (pCPA) plus 1.0 mg/L BA (62.8%) treatment. In both cases, best results were obtained when zygotic embryos were cultured in darkness. As for the effective sucrose concentration on initiation of EC, 29.2 mM sucrose (38.6%) gave the best results.
Effect of explant's position and culture method on shoot proliferation and micro-cuttings for a rare and endangered species, Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai
Lee, Na Nyum ; Kim, Ji-Ah ; Kim, Yong-Wook ; Choi, Yong Eui ; Moon, Heung Kyu ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 228~234
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.228
Using either the apical or axillary bud of the endangered species Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai, we tested the effect of bud position and culture method on shoot proliferation and rooting. In shoot proliferation, the axillary bud explant was more effective than the apical bud and the effect was fostered by BA treatment, whereas no differences were observed in shoot elongation by the explant position. Spontaneous rooting was observed in the MS basal medium and resulted in conspicuous differences in the explant position : more than 80% in apical bud explant and 28% in axillary bud explant was achieved, respectively. The positional effects were also observed in BA pre-treatments: generally vertical culture method appeared to be better in shoot proliferation, growth, and rooting than that of the horizontal culture method regardless of the BA pre-treatment duration. The highest shoot multiplication was achieved through the vertical culture method with axillary bud explant, whereas the best shoot elongation and rooting was obtained using the vertical culture method with the apical bud explant. Apical bud explant was superior to axillary bud explant in ex vitro micro-cuttings and revealed a significant difference in shoot growth and root development. The above results suggest that explant position and culture method influence the efficiency of micropropagation for a rare and endangered plant Abeliophyllum distichum.
In vitro introduction adventitious shoots and plant regeneration of sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen)
Kim, Ji Ah ; Moon, Heung Kyu ; Kim, Yong Wook ; Bae, Eun Kyung ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 235~238
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.235
Adventitious buds were obtained from isolated cotyledons cultured on MS medium with various concentrations of 6-benzylamino purine (BA) and thidiazuron (TDZ). The highest numbers of adventitious buds were obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BA. Experimental culturing with half the petiole portion and half with the terminal segments were grown on MS medium contained with 0.2 mg/L BA. Frequency of the adventitious bud induction was variable accordingly to the type of cultured explants. Explants with the half petiole showed the highest adventitious bud induction rate (80%) compared to explants of half with terminal segment (20%). An elongated shoot from the buds and growth of advent roots were both possible on the 1/2 MS medium without a plant growth regulator. These results offer an effective way in which clonal propagation can be accomplished.
Asymbiotic germination and seedling growth of Calanthe striata f. sieboldii Decne. ex Regel
Bae, Kee Hwa ; Kim, Soo-Young ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 239~244
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.239
Calanthe striata f. sieboldii Decne. ex Regel is a terrestrial orchid with beautiful flowers arranged in racemose inflorescences. This species is threatened due to over-collection and loss of suitable habitats. Asymbiotic germination is useful in the conservation efforts to re-establish plants in the wild, and for commercial propagation. In this study, we investigate the effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), three types of culture media (Phytomax Orchid Maintenance - POM, Seed Germination Maintenance - SGM, and Murashige and Skoog 1962 - MS), and plant growth regulators on embryo swelling, protocorm formation, and embryo diameter of C. striata f. sieboldii. Treatment with 1% NaOCl for 30 min greatly enhanced embryo swelling (28.3%), embryo diameter (
), and embryo protocorm formation (54.8%) compared to seeds without NaOCl treatment (embryo swelling 8.5%, embryo diameter
, and protocorm formation 13.4%) on POM medium. Protocorm formation on POM medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L N6-benzyladenine (BA) (95.6%) was better than the control (54.5%). Additionally, the effects of activated charcoal (AC) and sucrose on seedling growth in in vitro culture were examined. The protocorm converted into healthy plants with well-developed shoot primordia on the POM medium with AC and sucrose. The most suitable conditions for seedling growth after 10 weeks of culture were the POM medium with AC or sucrose. These results show effective asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling growth of C. striata f. sieboldii.
Effect of LED mixed light conditions on the glucosinolate pathway in brassica rapa
Moon, Junghyun ; Jeong, Mi Jeong ; Lee, Soo In ; Lee, Jun Gu ; Hwang, Hyunseung ; Yu, Jaewoong ; Kim, Yong-Rok ; Park, Se Won ; Kim, Jin A ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 245~256
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.245
In the agricultural industries, LEDs are used as supplementary, as well as main lighting sources in closed cultivation systems. In cultivation using artificial light sources, various light qualities have been tried to supplement fluorescent lamps to promote plant growth and metabolism. Microarray analysis of Brassica rapa seedlings under blue and fluorescent mixed with blue light conditions identified changes in three genes of the glucosinolate pathway. This attracted attention as functional materials highly expressed 3.6-4.6 fold under latter condition. We selected four more genes of the glucosinolate pathway from the Brassica database and tested their expression changes under fluorescent light mixed with red, green, and blue, respectively. Some genes increased expression under red and blue mixed conditions. The Bra026058, Bra015379, and Bra021429; the orthologous genes of CYP79F1, ST5a, and FMOGS-OX1 in Arabidopsis, are highly expressed in Brassica rapa under fluorescent mixed with blue light conditions. Further, Bra029355, Bra034180, Bra024634, and Bra022448; the orthologous genes of MAM1, AOP3, UGT74B1, and BCAT4 in Arabidopsis, are highly expressed in Brassica rapa under fluorescent mixed with red light conditions. The various light conditions had unique effects on the varieties of Brassica, resulting in differences in glucosinolate synthesis. However, in some varieties, glucosinolate synthesis increased under mixed blue light conditions. These results will help to construct artificial light facilities, which increase functional crops production.
Rapid comparison of metabolic equivalence of standard medicinal parts from medicinal plants and their in vitro-generated adventitious roots using FT-IR spectroscopy
Ahn, Myung Suk ; Min, Sung Ran ; Jie, Eun Yee ; So, Eun Jin ; Choi, So Yeon ; Moon, Byeong Cheol ; Kang, Young Min ; Park, So-Young ; Kim, Suk Weon ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 257~264
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.257
To determine whether metabolite fingerprinting for whole cell extracts based on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy can be used to discriminate and compare metabolic equivalence, standard medicinal parts from four medicinal plants (Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley, Atractylodes japonica Koidz, Polygonum multiflorum Thunberg and Astragalus membranaceus Bunge) and their in vitro-produced adventitious roots were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) from the FT-IR spectral data showed that the whole metabolic pattern from Cynanchum wilfordii was highly similar to Astragalus membranaceus. However, Atractylodes japonica and Polygonum multiflorum showed significantly different metabolic patterns. Furthermore, adventitious roots from Cynanchum wilfordii and Astragalus membranaceus also showed similar metabolic patterns compared to their standard medicinal parts. These results clearly show that mass proliferation of adventitious roots may be applied to aquire novel supply of standard medicinal parts from medicinal plants. However, the whole metabolic pattern from adventitious roots of Atractylodes japonica and Polygonum multiflorum were not similar to their standard medicinal parts. Furthermore, FT-IR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analyses established in this study may be applied as an alternative tool to discriminate the whole metabolic equivalence from several standard medicinal parts. Thus, we suggest that these metabolic discrimination systems may be applied for metabolic standardization of herbal medicinal resources.
Effect of elicited by methyl jasmonate on the saponin contents of Codonopsis lanceolata
Kim, Ji-Ah ; Bae, Kee-Hwa ; Choi, Yong-Eui ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 265~270
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.265
The roots of Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) contain several kinds of triterpenoid saponin with high medicinal values, which have been used in traditional medicines. This study investigates the impacts of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) - adding time on the saponin synthesis and the hairy root growth of C. lanceolata. A significant decrease in major saponin (lancemaside of three kinds) content of hairy roots was observed with MeJA treatments. Contents of lancemaside A, B and E decreased about 15% more than non-treated hairy roots. In contrast, minor saponin (foetidissimoside A and aster saponin Hb) accumulation was about 15% higher than the non-treated hairy roots. These results suggest that MeJA treatment could be used in the production of teriterpene saponins.
Evaluation of crab apples for apple production in high-density apple orchards
Kwon, Soon-Il ; Yoo, Jingi ; Lee, Jinwook ; Moon, Yong-Sun ; Choi, Cheol ; Jung, Hee Young ; Lee, Dong Hoon ; Kim, Chang Kil ; Kang, In-Kyu ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 42, issue 3, 2015, Pages 271~276
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2015.42.3.271
Crab apple cultivars, 'Maypole', 'Tuscan', and 'Manchurian', were evaluated as potential pollinizers of major apple cultivars, 'Fuji', 'Hongro', and 'Tsugaru', cultivated in high-density apple orchard systems. Numerous cultivar characteristics, including blooming time, pollen germination, fruit set, disease and pest resistance, and self-incompatibility, were examined. The blooming times of both 'Maypole' and 'Tuscan' ranged from April 19 to May 5, which was 2-4 days earlier than those of the major commercial apple cultivars. PCR analysis did not reveal the presence of any of the S-alleles (S1, S3, S7, or S9) identified in major commercial apple cultivars. In addition, the percentage of the fruit set was high after trees were artificially fertilized with crab apple pollen. Artificially cross-pollinated fruits were of similar or higher quality than open-pollinated fruits. They also demonstrated resistance to apple blotch, sooty blotch, and fly speck. The results indicate that the two crab apples, 'Maypole' and 'Tuscan' would be potential candidates for pollinizers of major apple cultivars in Korea. Use of the pollen of these crap apples in commercial production will improve fruit quality and promote sustainable and robust fruit production.