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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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Korean Institute of Interior Design
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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A Study on the Subtraction Method and Characteristics as Design Organization found in the Architecture of Aires Mateus
Kim, Jong-Jin ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 3~12
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.003
Aires Mateus Architects is one of the most well-known Portuguese architects after
Siza and Eduardo Souto de Moura. The studio shows clear design methods in which the relationship between solid mass and void space are creatively inter-connected. Subtractive transformation of form is the fundamental aspect of this relationship. Most of Aires Mateus` projects were designed based on the subtractive method. Although subtraction can be seen as architectural formal presentation, in Aires Mateus` cases, there are deeper logics, strategies, and meanings. Not only to create a form, subtractive method has been flexibly used to organize and compose different programs and spatial atmosphere. To examine this hidden dimension of Aires Mateus` unique design process, 5 case projects were selected and analyzed in detail based on program, light & visual-perception, and site`s placeness. From the case study results, it is found that there are much deeper role of subtraction: relationship between solid-void are constantly changing to generate serviced and servant spaces, there are central spaces that are contrast against the complexity of exterior forms, aiming to build an archetypal form that transcends ever-changing time, ambivalent balance between universality and peculiarity in the genealogy of contemporary architecture. The study concluded that the unique characteristics of subtraction method as design organization have various possibilities that can apply on other architectural and interior projects which would have similar ideas and circumstances.
The Preference of Geriatric Depression Scale and the Images Applied to Preferable Color of the Elderly - Focused on the Living room -
Park, Sung-Jun ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 13~20
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.013
Recently, the concern of aging society is `Healthy life` for the elderly and pre-elderly. Especially, realizing the `Healthy life`, it is very important for the elderly to establish living environment for holding and maintaining mental depression. Mental depression is related to dysfunction of sensory organ included physical functions. Therefore, the dysfunction of elderly`s sensory organ is required to the guideline of environmental planning. In this study, among five senses, I focused visual sense due to the large proportion of environmental perception. The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of geriatric depression and preference of simulated images applying preferable color for the elderly. This study conducted literature review and questionnaire survey. Firstly, the previous studies related with the melancholy, sense of isolation, self-regard for the elderly analyzed. Secondly, the questionnaire tool measuring the degree of geriatric depression developed. Thirdly, the tool investigating the preference for the simulated images applied main, sub, and accent colors produced. Applied preferable colors were used from the results previous study. Lastly, based on the result, the basic data of color planning were suggested. It was judged that this study is an useful as the basic guideline of color planning for the elderly`s residential spaces and the potential value of considering geriatric depression and the color planning in terms of the elderly`s visual sense.
Method for Extracting Features of Conscious Eye Moving for Exploring Space Information
Kim, Jong-Ha ; Jung, Jae-Young ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 21~29
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.021
This study has estimated the traits of conscious eye moving with the objects of the halls of subway stations. For that estimation, the observation data from eye-tracking were matched with the experiment images, while an independent program was produced and utilized for the analysis of the eye moving in the selected sections, which could provide the ground for clarifying the traits of space-users` eye moving. The outcomes can be defines as the followings. First, The application of the independently produced program provides the method for coding the great amount of observation data, which cut down a lot of analysis time for finding out the traits of conscious eye moving. Accordingly, the inclusion of eye`s intentionality in the method for extracting the characteristics of eye moving enabled the features of entrance and exit of particular objects with the course of observing time to be organized. Second, The examination of eye moving at each area surrounding the object factors showed that [out]
[in], which the line of sight is from the surround area to the objects, characteristically moved from the left-top (Area I) of the selected object to the object while [in]
[out], which is from the inside of the object to the outside, also moved to the left-top (Area I). Overall, there were much eye moving from the tops of right and left (Area I, II) to the object, but the eye moving to the outside was found to move to the left-top (Area I), the right-middle (Area IV) and the right-top (Area II). Third, In order to find if there was any intense eye-moving toward a particular factor, the dominant standards were presented for analysis, which showed that there was much eye-moving from the tops (Area I, II) to the sections of 1 and 2. While the eye-moving of [in] was [I
](16.1%) and [
](13.8%), that of [out] was [
](11.4%) and [
](10.2%). Though the eye-moving toward objects took place in specific directions (areas), that (out) from the objects to the outside was found to be dispersed widely to different areas.
A Study on the Attention Concentration Properties in Convergent Exploration Situations in Cafe Space - Focusing on Gaze and Brain wave Data Analysis -
Kim, Jong-Ha ; Kim, Ju-Yeon ; Kim, Sang-Hee ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 30~40
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.030
This study analyzed the attention concentration tendencies of one(1) subject who showed convergent exploratory acts actively through the gaze-brainwave measurement experiment of cafe space images and our research findings are as follows. First, the areas of interest (AOIs) that the subject gazed visually by paying attention to it and concentrating on it at a cafe space include counter&menu area, sign area, partition area, image wall area, stairs area, and movable furniture area, and built-in furniture area: seven areas in total. Second, conscious gaze frequency appeared the highest in counter&menu area, and conscious gaze appeared more later than in initial times. Third, conscious gaze pattern was divided into the zone that explored various areas dispersely (distributed exploratory zone) and the zone that explored between particular areas concentratedly (intensive exploratory zone). Fourth, as a result of analyzing the brainwave attention concentration, it was found that the attention concentration in prefrontal lobe (Fp1, Fp2) and frontal lobe (F3, F4) rose to a higher level in the zone of 15 to 16 seconds and this time zone was considered to be a zone where gazing at counter&menu area was very active. In addition, the attention concentration appeared higher in the initial zone than in the later zone, among the entire experimental time zones. Finally, as a result of analyzing the changes in activation by brain portion of the SMR wave expressed when maintaining the arousal and attention concentration, it was found that the right prefrontal lobe and the frontal lobe became activated in the time zone when the intensive exploration of "counter&menu area" and "movable furniture
built-in furniture area" had occurred and the time zone when the intensive exploration of "image wall
partition area" and "counter&menu
sign area" had occurred.
The Change of `Attention Resources` and `Space-Memory` by Lighting focusing on `Selective Attention
Seo, Ji-Eun ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 41~49
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.041
The purpose of this study is to analyze the change and to compare to the difference of `selective elements` and `space-memory` focusing on the theory, `selective attention` through the survey results. In this study, In this study, the lighting is considered a important factor in the change of `selective elements`. this survey is to find the selective elements of participants and to measure the spatial sensitivity of respondents through `self- test`. The analysis in this study is conducted by descriptive statistics, t-test and one way ANOVA by SPSS program 22. The results of this study are as following; Firstly, `attention-element` could be classified with 4 types, `shape`, `material`, `contrast` and `combination`. `shape` could divide into `structure` and` furniture and object`. In case of `material`, it could section with `pattern` and `color`. Secondly, through the results of study, `attention-element` is different each space during the day in detail. But we could know that `shape` is the important element of the `attention-elements` during the day through comparison of this result. That means users consider this as a important factor when they evaluate the space. Therefore, it is effective way designers to consider `shape` as the first element when they want to conduct the special sensitivity of users in the space through planning. On the other hand, what selective elements of users are different by the lighting situation should be acknowledged by designers. And they should think the kinds of selective elements are more various when lighting turns on than turns off.. Thirdly, through the results such as the meaningful difference of space-memory of users according to the change of `attention-elements`, designers should judge about which kind of feeling of users to the space do you want lead in the design process. For the effective feedback between spaces and users to induce the same emotion of users, designers need to consider the unified design and the individual design both. Also, we will regard the differences in the users` emotion to the space according to the lighting situation when we design the space.
A Study on Visual Attention on Color Perception by Visitors of Children`s Hospital
Cho, Eun-Kil ; Son, Kwang-Ho ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 50~58
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.050
The design of children`s hospitals is highly dependent on color schemes. As a space shared together by both adults and children, the design of children`s hospitals require color coordination that takes account of the users` characteristics. Visual perception tracking experiment was conducted on the 2 chosen experimental images with a target group made up of adults and children, the following results were found. First, visual attention characteristics of spatial elements` colors were found. The contrast of colors were discovered to effect attention, especially the information desk region showed highest attention. Pillars are subjected to a higher attention relative to other spatial elements, it is suggested when using accent colors to use it only when it is absolutely necessary in partial areas. In contrast, floor patterns were found to be subjected to very low attention relative to other elements. Second, effects of color contrast on visual attention were uncovered. Although color contrast effects attention for both adults and children, children were found to be more effected by color contrast than adults. Especially, children`s tendency to rely on color contrast for visual recognition was higher than adults. Since when using only one type on a wide surface children show higher attention on the < vivid > colors than adults, when planning a color coordination for children using < pale > colors instead of < vivid > ones in background for a large surface is seen as a more desired method to increase attention by putting emphasis on the [sharply contrasting] colors.
Characteristics of the Tactile Brainwave on the Surface of Interior Finishing Materials - Focusing on the measurement of `α-wave against β wave` -
Yeo, Mi ; Lee, Chang No ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 59~69
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.059
This study aimed to understand the importance of applying finishing materials into interior space, and to add meaning to the creation of functional space, associated interior finishing materials with brain science. To achieve this purpose, brainwave(EEG) experiment was conducted. The brainwave appearing when sensing the surface of interior finishing materials with hands was measured. The locations of the electrode were FP1, FP2, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4, O1, O2, F7, F8, T3, T4, T5, T6, CZ, FZ, and PZ and in addition to these, AFZ was added. Eight(8) kinds of finishing materials: metallic material, film paper, lumbar, stone, glass, silk wallpaper, fabric, and paint were used to measure `
wave.` As a result, it was found that the most activated finishing material in term of relaxation was film paper, followed by metallic, glass, paint, fabric, stone, lumbar, and silk wallpaper. To explain in light of this, (1) `
wave` was the most activated at ch1-FP1 and ch2-FP2, and at ch17-AFZ and ch19-FZ, which indicated that metopic-prefrontal lobe showed the highest activation in relaxation. Film paper, among the finishing materials, showed the highest increase in relaxation. (2) In general, `
wave` relaxation was inhibited at ch13-T3 and ch14-T4, and at ch15-T5 and ch16-T6 and the arousal in the temporal lobe was prominent. Silk wallpaper, among the finishing materials, showed the highest arounsal effect. As a result of measuring the superficial touch on the silk wallpaper, which was regarded as the most rough material among the eight finishing materials, the arousal effect of
-wave, among the brainwave characteristics, was found to be the highest. (3) to judge from the scope of this experiment regarding the tactile sensation over the finishing materials, it is considered that the brainwave reaction sometimes appeared contrastive depending on whether the surface was smooth or rough and there also appeared a difference in relaxation and arousal reaction of the brainwave depending on whether the surface was hot or cold, but the sensation on the surface texture was often evaluated differently depending on who you were. For this reason, this study has some limitations.
A Study on the Planning Properties of Ecological Playground through Case Studies
Kim, Ja Kyung ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 70~82
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.070
The playgrounds installed in the city try a variety of changes in play equipment more than traditional playgrounds, these playgrounds with formal rides are still different from nature friendly playground. For this reason, when in 2014 the department of environment pushed forward `Aitteulag` project constructing ecological playground, the department aimed to provide the natural ecological spaces that are insufficient in the city and act as play space for children, leisure and community space for residents. Therefore, after inspecting 10 ecological playgrounds in Europe and Japan, in this study we suggested the construction guidelines of ideal ecological playground by comparing and analyzing these cases. We checked the environment-friendliness of these playgrounds in the 2 fields (playground component, ecological program) based on the ecological playground guidelines presented by the ministry of environment. The playground components are classified as siting location, spatial configurations, natural elements, play area, amusement facilities, play materials, open spaces, additional facilities. The ecological programs are divided into habitat, species, natural material, five senses. The following is the summary of the results about the reflection of eco-friendly planning factors. In terms of "habitat": bush and shade wood were highest at 95%. In terms of "species": local indigene(100%) and habitat for insects(95%) were higher than others. In terms of "natural material": wood(61.1%) was the highest. In terms of "details of wood(61.1%)": wood fence (95%), exploring wood and using sticks(85%) were higher than others. In terms of "five senses": hearing (32.1%), tactile(26.4%), and visual(23.9%) were in order. Therefore, on the basis of these results, this study proposed the planning factors that should be considered and complemented more in the construction of domestic urban ecological playground in future.
A Study on Tendency of Color Consciousness and Preference for Healthcare Environmental Color
Park, Heykyung ; Choi, Inyoung ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 83~91
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.083
This study is a basic research to suggest user-centered healthcare environmental color, which aims to analyze tendency of color consciousness and preference depending on the user characteristics (generation, gender, residential area, and environment). For this purpose, this study constructed an analysis tool through the literature review with regard to environmental color of healthcare facility and influential factors of color preference. Besides, an online survey regarding general usage and satisfaction, health related color consciousness, and color preference tendency of healthcare facility was conducted targeting from 20s to 60s, total 1,500 persons. The results of this study are as follows: (1) The usage and satisfaction of healthcare facilities were higher for older generation and accessible urban area. (2) The respondents were aware that color and health are related, recognizing `green` as healthy and stress relieving color. Besides, `natural` and `clear` was the highest in health related color image. `Light` which relates to vitality was high as well for older generation. (3) In the color preference tendency survey, hue PB was generally the most highly preferred, in details, younger generation preferred B and R while older generation preferred G. The survey also showed high value and chroma were preferred, while female and younger generation preferred high value of 9.0 and low chroma close to achromatic color, which presented older generation preferred vivid color.
The Composition Types of Layout and Three-dimensional of the Public Space(LDK) in Small Houses in Japan
Shen, Mei-Yu ; Yoon, Choon-Sup ; Kim, Nam-Hyo ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 92~100
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.092
Recently, new detached houses on a small plot in low-rise residential urban area have attracted more public interests than ever before. This study aims to categorize basic types of interior plans in small urban detached houses by analyzing the layouts of the public space(LDK) within them which are popular in Japan. The results of this study may be summarized as follows. Unit floor plans were basically classified as 16 types according to the layout of LDK. Among these, the LDK type in a straight line shows the most at 28.9%. Again, these plans were sub-classified into 38 types by plan composition. The new `LDKL` (a new term the authors propose to be used) type was observed in cases where K was directly connected to L. This type appears at 9 out of 38 types. In the connection of LDK, the LDK type shows the most at 60.8%; secondly the L-DK type at 29.9%; thereafter the LD-K type at 6.2%; and lastly L-D-K type, the least frequently at 1.0%. The cases of inter-level connection between LDK and the surrounding space were observed in various cases such as the open workplace of the upstairs hallway visually connected with LDK through the void space and as the attic space of the pitched roof visually linked to it.
A Study on the Characteristics of the Planned New Town Apartments in Vietnam - Focusing on the Ho Chi Minh City the Phu My Hung Area -
Kim, Do-Yeon ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 101~111
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.101
As globalization proceeds, transnational property development is increasing. Vietnam has began to experience a serious housing shortage throughout the urbanization process and they try to solve this housing problem in the city by development of New Town with an excellent technique. Of these, New city, Phu My Hung (PMH) is known as a very successful example. Therefore, this study researched 145 plan of 15 Apartment complexes which were completed after 2008 to analyse the plan characteristic of internal-external of Apartment in PMH New city in Ho Chi Minh City which effected the housing development in Vietnam. We collected the data from Internet and researched the characteristic of complex and an individual unit by visiting 6 Apartment complexes directly on Aug, 2014. In PMH, apartment has pattern of Mixed-use Apartment. There are stores on the 1st ad 2nd floor and consisted of 2 or 3 small complexes. They secure enough Green Space and Community Space and control visitor access for the safety of residents. Inside space organization is mainly consisted of 3LDK+2BATH and Public space and Private space is placed separately. Also, placed the Kitchen independently and it is quiet interesting that the entrance entry into the house directly from the external space.
Necessary Factors for Space for Community Behavior of Elderly People Living Alone in Public Rental Housing - Using by Laddering Survey Method and KJ Rule -
Kim, Dong-Sook ; Kwon, Oh-Jung ; Lee, Ok-Kyung ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 112~122
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.112
The study aims to furnish the data for the study of invigorating communities of various ages including old people living alone. Furthermore, it seems that the laddering method and kj method can be useful for the study of various attitude survey. This study attempted to extract necessary factors for space for community behavior of elderly people living alone using laddering survey method and KJ rule on a sample of elderly people who live alone in three different rental housings. The keywords that were drawn from the perception survey through laddering were divided into small, middle and large classification using KJ rule. Mostly identical keywords were extracted in the three complexes, implying that there is no difference of perception among the three complexes in this survey. According to the large classification where KJ rule was applied, there were six necessary factors for space for community activity of elderly people living alone in rental housing including spatial consideration, communication, resting space, nature-friendliness, health promotion and Secure identity, which were the same for all of the three complexes.
A Study on the Space Analysis of Apartment Floor Plans in New·Old Town Using the Space Syntax
Hwang, Yong-Woon ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 123~130
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.123
Industrialization and Urbanization caused a great influx of rural population into the cities, which caused housing types to change from detached homes to more apartments homes. The official 2014`s Statistics (http://kossir.kr) show that half (49.6%) of the Korean population live in apartment buildings and 37.5% live in detached houses. For this reason, the apartments have become the typical housing in Korea. So, the aim of this study is to compare and analyze the internal apartment space of Budang (New-Town) and Wirye (New-Town), since these Budang apartments are the first new-town housing and Wirye apartments are the last new-town housing in Korea. I have used the Convex Analysis of Space Syntax Program in analyzing the inside space of both of these locations` apartments. The results are as follows : First, the inside space of Wirye apartments have more convex space than that of the Budang apartments. Second, the common inside space of the Budang apartments were planned by integration space, on the other hand the inside space of Wirye apartments were planned by segregation space. Third, the master bedroom in both of the locations` apartments were analyzed for their strong integration space which they may have in common. The K (Kitchen) + D (Dining) space in Budang apartments are classified as integration space, on the other hand L (Living) + K + D space is also classified as integration space. The L+K+D space of the Wirye apartments is classified as integration space. Finally, the inside space of the Wirye apartments were planned more for various spaces than that of Budang apartments. The concept of master bedroom in both new-town was not planed for a couple privacy space but the heart of the family.
A Study on Expressional Characteristics of Objets Appeared in Hotel Interior Space of Marcel Wanders
Jeon, Min-Ji ; Kim, Jeong-Ah ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 131~142
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.131
Rapid economic development has played a big role in the formation of the values of pluralism. On that account, the importance of leisure life has grown substantially, Such phenomenon has allowed people to travel more frequently. Hence, there has been a growing demand for accommodation. In particular, the number of design hotels with a stylish design has grown exponentially as compared with the conventional standardized chain hotels. As a result, a variety of objets have been utilized in hotel spaces for establishing a differentiated formativeness and offering a visual stimulus to users. An objet refers to an object of symbolic function. That is to say, it serves to increase cultural values by approaching arts in an ordinary environment. Distinctive objets are mainly expressed as new ideas by the emerging designers in Europe. In particular, Marcel Wanders designs hotel spaces on the basis of the emotional meaning and story of objets, thereby showing interesting elements. He brings human stories into a design by leveraging the expressional characteristics of an objet, such as the place, fantasy and story-telling, in hotel interior spaces. This allows users, who reject the stereotypes of modern functionalism, to have exotic memories by stimulating their instinctive senses. Furthermore, this can complete users as a part of an artwork by creating a huge artwork on the basis of hotel interior spaces. In this regard, I hope that the expressional characteristics appeared in the hotel interior spaces of Marcel Wanders can be utilized as preliminary data for planning design hotels in the future.
Study on Exterior Color of Apartments in Seoul for the Color Environment
Yi, Young-Ran ; Chu, Beom ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 143~150
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.143
Color plan that contains corporate color of Seoul apartment has a great influence on city environment, considering high-rise vertical dispersion and extent. Therefore, it is necessary to view color plan from an integrative viewpoint. Here, this research aimed at deriving guideline factors of esthetic color plan based on city identity, by recognizing the importance of apartment color and color plan characteristic of recently built brand apartments. Exterior color plan characteristic of Seoul brand apartments seen in this research, first, most of dominance colors were in same color similar tone with warm color in bright and warm image, as the psychological function, accessory colors appeared in similar tone of similar color harmonious with the dominance color. Also, accent color was highlighted with its identity through cooperative color. Second, emotional effect diminished size and weight of high-rise apartment. The upper levels showed clear and clean image, middle to lower level showed stability and comfortable image, on the whole, refined and urbane image that aim for natural and modern image. Therefore, apartment color plan requires, first, in respect of dominance color, unity is required proper for urban image by preparing color permission limitation standard. Second, dominance color and accessory color require historicity and differentiation in sociality that urban identity gets. Third, high-rise upper level cooperative color accent color requires compatibility with urban landscape. Lastly, guideline along with rate is required for color, tone, and pattern, etc. by extent contrast. Here, apartment color plan requires consistent research as urban environment color, also, base study should be accelerated as a part of competitive city branding.
A Study on the Phenomenal Expression Methods and the Characteristics of Spatial Experience In the Steven Holl`s Museum Architecture
Jang, Hyun-Ju ; Park, Chan-Il ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 151~162
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.151
The purpose of this study is to approach to the phenomenological point of view to explore a design method for providing a variety of spatial experience of the viewer according to the functional changes of the modern museum architecture. For that, this study intends to analysis and consider the Steven Holl`s Museum applied to the phenomenological perception for architectural design. The method of this study is summarized as follows: 1) Consider the spatial role and function of the Museum Architecture in the phenomenological approach 2) Study on the phenomenological architectural concepts and expressional method of Steven Holl 3) Finally, propose the utilization for the experiential space that is required to implement the contemporary museum architecture. The results of this study are as follows: 1) Steven Holl`s phenomenological architectural concept is the basis of the perception and awareness and has connotations of temporality and it is figured out by the approach to the environment, sense and motion. 2) Steven Holl implement the architecture as a place of experience by connecting between the place and the environment through the development of a variety of scenes and situations and planning the phenomenon of multisensory space. 3) The spatial experience appeared in Steven Holl`s museum architecture is implemented through the diversity of the scene, the persistence of the situation, the autonomy of light and color, transparency of the haptic and the potential of the material and geometry.
A Study on Spatial Characteristics of Wingspread House of Frank Lloyd Wright - Focused on the space composition of fireplace and common features of both Prairie and Usonian periods -
Kim, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2016, Pages 163~174
DOI : 10.14774/JKIID.2016.25.2.163
The purpose of this study is to reveal the space composition of fireplace and common features of both Prairie and Usonian House found within Wingspread House. This house is the last and largest Prairie house and zoned house built in a Usonian period. However, this house is not an independent work, but rather Wright`s evolutionary experiments of fireplace from his early works and his pursuit of Usonian ideal. This paper can be summarized as follows: 1) Living room has been transformed to allow spatial continuity towards exterior view and access and between neighboring rooms by removing doors and inglenook. At the Wingspread house Wright has introduced a freestanding fireplace in a living room with higher and prominent roof structure, therefore the space became a focal point as well as the central space of the entire house. 2) Wingspread and Coonley house have gallery space in common, but they have different settings in the living room composition. Also the living room and gallery space of Wingspread and Usonian houses have prospect and refuge principle by expansion and compression. 3) Wingspread house is a successful combination of Prairie and Usonian style to meet client`s requirements in space composition and Wright`s technology and economical experiments. This study is intended to reevaluate the significance of this house bridging his two great residential periods.