Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Nov 2006
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Aug 2006
Volume 33, Issue 2 - May 2006
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
STUDY OF INCIPIENT ENAMEL CARIES USING A DIGITAL ILLUMINATION FIBER-OPTIC TRANSILLUMINATION AND CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPE
Kim, Jae-Tae ; Kim, Seung-Oh ; Kim, Jong-Soo ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 1~12
The purpose of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of the newly developed Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Trans-illumination (DIFOTI) system in detecting carious lesions in vivo as gold standard with confocal laser scanning microscopy and compared the efficacy of traditional radiography and DIFOTI system in vito as gold standard with confocal laser scanning microscopy, too. For the in vivo study, the subject pool consisted of 23 grammar school age patients just prior to entering the mixed dentition phase Each patient was given a DIFOTI examination of the anterior and posterior teeth. During
months, the naturally expire primary teeth were collected and the efficacy of DIFOTI system was compared with confocal laser scanning microscopy. For in vitro study, 40 primary teeth were collected and decalcified by Carbopol decalcification solution for 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. Every experiment period, all teeth were DIFOTI examined and sectioned to take an image of confocal laser scanning microscopy Sensitivity and specificity were calculated from the result of DIFOTI examine and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis. The results are as follows : 1. From the in vivo study, the sensitivity of DIFOTI examine was 0. 61 and specificity was 0.63. 2. From the in vivo study, the sensitivity of DIFOTI examine was 0.71 and specificity was 0.75.
Effects of epigallocatechin gallate on
apoptosis in PC12 cells
Mo, Hyun-Chul ; Choi, Nam-Ki ; Kim, Seon-Mi ; Kim, Won-Jae ; Yang, Kyu-Ho ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 13~24
Neuronal apoptotic events, consequently resulting in neuronal cell death, are occurred in hypoxic/ischemic condition. This cell death has been shown to be accompanied with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can attack cellular components such as nucleic acids, proteins and phospholipid. However, the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis induced in hypoxic/ischemic condition and its treatment methods are unsettled. Cobalt chloride
has been known to mimic hypoxic condition including the production of ROS. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, has diverse pharmacologial activities in cell growth and death. This study was aimed to investigate the apoptotic mechanism by
and effects of EGCG on
apoptosis in PC12 cells. Administration of
decreased cell survival in dose- and time-dependent manners and induced genomic DNA fragmentation. Treatment with
EGCG for 30 min before PC12 cells were exposed to
, being resulted in the cell viability and DNA fragmentation being rescued.
caused morphologic changes such as cell swelling and condensed nuclei whereas EGCG attenuated morphologic changes by
. EGCG suppressed the apoptotic peak and a loss of
decreased Bcl-2 expression but Bax expression was not changed in
- treated cells. EGCG attenuated the Bcl-2 underexpression by
augumented the cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytoplasm and increased caspase-8, -9 and caspase-3 activity a marker of the apoptotic executing stage. EGCG ameliorated the incruement in caspase-8, -9 and -3 activity, and cytochrome c release by
NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), a scavenger of ROS, attenuated
apoptosis in consistent with those of EGCG. These results suggest that
induces apoptotic cell death through both mitochondria- and death receptor-dependent pathway and EGCG has neuroprotective effects against
apoptosis in PC12 cells.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON FLUORIDE RELEASE AND RE-UPTAKE CAPACITY OF SEVERAL FLUORIDE-RELEASING RESTORATIVE MATERIALS
Lee, Yeon-Ho ; Yoo, Seung-Hoon ; Kim, Jong-Soo ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 25~34
Fluoride released from dental restorative materials effectively declines the incidence and activity of dental caries and inhibits tooth demineralization. This study investigated the fluoride release and uptake characteristics of one composite resin
three glass ionomer-based restorative material (
AP, Fuji II
, Fuji IX GP
) Forty discs(6mm diameter and 1mm height) were prepared for each material. Each disc was immersed in 5ml of distilled water within polyethylene vial and stored at
. The distilled water was changed every 24 hours and the release of fluoride was measured for 31 days. At the end of this period, each specimen was subjected to one of four treatments : (A) no fluoride treatment (control), (B) application of a fluoride dentifrice (500ppm) for three minutes three times; (C) application of the 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride(APF) foam for one minute once, (D) the same regimen as (B), plus application of the APF foam for one minute once. Then, all samples were reassessed for an additional 7 days. For all samples, the greatest fluoride release was observed after the first day of the study but diminished with time. On the 7th day of the study, fluoride release level was stabilized. Fuji II
and Fuji IX GP
released higher amount of fluoride than other materials ; however, no statistically significant difference was found from Fuji II
and Fuji IX GP
. The amount of fluoride of
AP, Fuji II
and Fuji IX GP
was increased after fluoride treatment, and diminished with time.
THE GROWTH OF HOMOGENEOUS EMBRYO TOOTH BUD TRANSPLANTED INTO THE ALVEOLAR SOCKET OF A RAT
Chang, Suk-Chul ; Chung, Han-Sung ; Lee, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Seong-Oh ; Choi, Byung-Jai ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 35~42
The developmental process of a tooth is being presented as an important study subject to analyze formation of normal dental arch and tooth. The purpose of this study was to see the formation of tooth from a tooth bud transplanted in a white rat regarding that the jawbone could be used as a new donor site of a trasplant. The first molar of a matured white rat was extracted and the tooth bud of a 13.5 day rat embryo was transplanted. The histological and radiographical results after 4 and 8 weeks respectively are as the following. 1. Calcification in dentin, cementum, pulp and periodontal ligament was formed from the tooth bud transplanted in the alveolar socket. 2. The development of hard and soft tissue was delayed compared to the normal tooth formation and abnormal histologic features such as ankylosis and osteodentin were found. 3. The formed hard tissue did not erupt into the jaw within 8 weeks.
EFFECT OF APF GEL ON THE SURFACE OF COMPOSITE RESIN
Yuk, Gun-Yeung ; Yang, Kyu-Ho ; Kim, Seon-Mi ; Choi, Nam-Ki ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 43~52
Topical fluoride application for children is a widely peformed procedure in the field of pediatric dentistry to prevent dental caries. However, it is recently recognized as having some unwanted effects on several esthetic restorative materials as it roughens the surface of the restorative materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface changes in composite resins to topical fluoride. Composite resins(Z
) in topical fluoride agents were immersed and their surface roughness, weight loss and SEM were evaluated. The results were as follows : 1. The 4 minutes-immersion groups showed more roughened surface than 1 minute-immersion groups and the control groups showed the smoothest surface among all the materials, and there was statistically significant difference except the revolution between the groups. 2. There was no significant difference between the 1 minute-immersion groups and 4 minutes-immersion groups in weight loss. 3. The experimental group treated with topical fluoride gel showed the generally mere roughened surface than control group in the SEM findings.
THE COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE SEDATIVE EFFECT OF ORAL MIDAZOLAM AND INTRAMUSCULAR MIDAZOLAM IN SEDATING YOUNG PEDIATRIC DENIAL PATIENTS
Min, Yu-Jin ; Yu, Seung-Hoon ; Kim, Jong-Soo ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 53~61
When routine behavior control is impossible, midazolam is often used for sedation, because it has wide margin of safety, relatively few side-effects and multiple route of administration. Although intramuscular administration of all administration route is frequently used, it is a major source of anxiety, discomfort, and trauma in children. To the contrary, oral administration of midazolam is easily administered and accepted by children. But, it's therapeutic drug concentration has not been established. The purpose of this study was to compare sedation effect and physiologic parameter of oral midazolam which palliate demerits of intramuscular administration in sedating young pediatric patients with intramuscular midazolam Twelve negative children, mean age 62.5 months, who needed at least two separate restorative visits, requiring local anesthesia participated in this study On every visit, one of the following 2 different sedative regimen was given : (1) 0.30mg/kg midazolam by intramuscular administration (2) 0.75mg/kg by oral administration. Physiologic parameter(oxygen saturation, heart rate) was recorded by ten procedure and behavior was videotaped and rated using Ohio State University Behavior Rating Scale and Automated Counting System by one investigator, blind to administration route The analyzed sedative effect of oral midazolam resulted in good sedative effect, comparing to intramuscular route, And there is no statistically difference between oral and intramuscular administration of midazolam (p>0.05).
The influence of obesity on pediatric conscious sedation
Kim, Ji-Yeon ; Park, Sung-Dong ; Park, Ki-Tae ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 62~69
Objective : This study was conducted to investigate as to whether obesity have any effects on conscious sedation outcomes. Methods : Forty children (mean age 30.5 months, mean height and weight were 91.3cm, 14.3kg respectively) were sedated with chloral hydrate (60 mg/kg) and hydroxyzine (25mg). The relative obesity rate of the patients was obtained by the proportion of height to weight and the tonsil size of the patients was classified by Brodsky's scale. The overall sedation outcomes were evaluated by Houpt's scale. The pulse and respiratory rates during sedation were also evaluated. Results: The obesity of the patients had no statistically significant effects on movement, crying during sedation. However, an increase in obesity had negative effects on the overall conscious sedation outcomes. Conclusion: This investigation demonstrated that increased obesity may cause detrimental effects on pediatric conscious sedation outcomes.
COMPARISON OF MONOMER RELEASE FROM PIT AND FISSURE SEALANT FOLLOWING VARIOUS SURFACE TREATMENT
Lee, Sang-Woo ; Lee, Ju-Hyun ; Seo, Hyun-Woo ; Park, Ho-Won ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 70~76
The aim of this study was comparison of effectiveness of surface treatment methods in reducing the oxygen-inhibited layer of a commercially available freshly polymerized, light cured dental sealant(
, 3M, St Paul, USA). Surface treatment groups were consisted of no treatment(negative control group) and 3 experimental groups according to surface treatment of light-cured sealant. Experimental group I was 10 seconds' exposure to distilled water syringe, group II was 10 seconds' manual application using a cotton pellet wetted with 75% alcohol and group III was 10 seconds' prophylaxis with pumice/water slurry using rubber cup on a slow-speed handpiece. All specimens were immersed in 5ml distilled water and stored at 37c water bath for 10 minutes. All eluates were analyzed by HLPC for identification and quantitive analysis of monomers. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. 1. None of the chromatograms of the tested sealant displayed peaks with the same retention time as that of the standard solution, except for TEGDMA. 2. All surface treatment group had a statistically significant decrease of monomer release in comparison with no treatment group. 3. Removal effects of unreacted monomer in group III was statistically significant in comparison with group I and group II. These results revealed that mechanical method using pumice and rubber cup is the most effective in removing residual monomer and may be valuable to be used effectively in clinic.
Quantitative comparison of mRNA expression of glucosyltransferase (GTF) between
Lee, MI-Na ; Kim, Young-Jae ; Lee, Sung-Hoon ; Kim, Chong-Chul ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 77~84
Since the long-term exposure of mutans streptococci to xylitol is known to select for xylitol-resistant
natural mutants, the occurrence and survival of such
strains were performed in batch culture methods. The aim of the study was to compare the differentiation and quantification of mRNA expression of the gtf genes of
mutans streptococci. Using a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, the expression of each gtf was determined. In
strains, the relative levels of transcription of gtfB and gtfC were decreased while that of gtfD was increased, suggesting the presence of independent promoters. It also suggested that mutation related to production of glucosyltransferase occurred under the exposure of xylitol could explain the caries-preventive mechanisms of xylitol.
NECROTIZING GINGIVOSTOMATITIS : CASE REPORT
Jung, Hee-Kyung ; Yang, Kyu-Ho ; Kim, Seon-Mi ; Choi, Nam-Ki ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 85~90
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis(NUG), necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis(NUP), necrotizing stomatitis (NS), and Noma (cnacrum oris) are rapidly destructive debilitating and potentially serious oral infection which considered to be different clinical stages of the same process. These have been collectively referred to as: Vincent's infection, infectious oral necrosis, or necrotizing gingivostomatitis(NG). Prevalence of necrotizing gingivostomatitis is
and peak incidence is 2-6 years of age. The etiology and pathogenesis of necrotizing gingivostomatitis have been associated with virulent bacteria and impaired host defense and the primary diagnostic signs are pain, interdental ulceration or necrosis, and gingival bleeding. Secondary diagnostic sign is pseudomembrane. This case report was about oral conditions and treatment of the patient who referred from the Dept. of PED and diagnosed a necorotizing gingivostomatitis.
DIAGNOSIS AND EXTRACTION OF IMPACTED SUPERNUMERARY TEETH IN THE MAXILLA WITH 3D DENIAL-CT
Kim, Su-Kyoung ; Yang, Yeon-Mi ; Baik, Byeong-Ju ; Kim, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Jae-Gon ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 91~98
Supernumerary teeth are teeth which result from the continued budding of the enamel organ of the preceding tooth or from excessive proliferation of cells. They are most often found in the maxillary anterior region. And they can be responsible for a variey of irregularities in the primary and transitional dentition. There are two morphological types of supernumerary teeth, supplemental and rudimentary. Supplemental teeth have normal shape and size. In contrast, rudimental teeth have abnormal shape and smaller size. Supplemental supernumerary teeth are most common in permanent lateral incisor area. Its extraction must be decided more carefully with differential diagnosis between normal teeth, because it has normal shape and size. We reports 3 cases of the normal incisor shaped teeth in the maxillary anterior region. In all cases, we used the 3D Dental-CT as well as the conventional plain film such as periapical, occlusal, and panoramic radiograph. Consequently, 3B Dental-CT was valualble to figure out the exact position and morphology of supernumerary teeth, to do more conservative surgery and to reduce surgery stress and time.
SUPERNUMERARY PRIMARY TOOTH IN THE PRIMARY LATERAL INCISOR REGION
Han, Hyo-Jeong ; Lee, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Seong-Oh ; Son, Heung-Kyu ; Choi, Byung-Jai ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 99~102
Most supernumerary primary teeth erupt in the primary lateral incisor region and are reported to occur in 0.03 to 1.9% in the primary dentition. Most parents fail to recognize them because of their normal shape, eruption and exfoliation. Several theories have been proposed for the etiology of hyperdontia and the dental lamina hyperactivity theory is most widely accepted. When a supernumerary primary tooth develops, it is reported that there also exists a supplemental or rudimentary form of a succedaneous supernumerary tooth. Supernumerary primary teeth do not need specific treatment as 75% of them erupt and exfoliate normally Only periodic radiographic exams are necessary to find out whether there is any problem with the eruption of the succedaneous tooth. In the following two cases, a supplemental supernumerary primary tooth with a loss of the anterior developmental space was observed at the maxillary lateral incisor region. Radiographic examination revealed an impacted succedaneous supernumerary tooth at the palatal side of the supernumerary primary tooth.
REMOVABLE DENTURE FOR CHILD WITH LOSS OF VERTICAL DIMENSION USING T-SCAN : A CASE REPORT
Chung, Yang-Seok ; Lee, Chang-Seop ; Lee, Sang-Ho ; Lee, Nam-Young ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 103~108
Loss of permanent molar by multiple dental caries traumatic influence or hereditable disease can cause loss of the vertical dimension in children. However traditionally reconstructive treatment to restore vertical dimension in children has been provided by using simple methods such as celluloid crown form and stainless steel crown. The presented case report describes an alternative treatment modality of vertical dimension by using removalbe appliance This appliance is made with average of facial height and maximal clenching force by using T-scan.
CALCIFYING ODONTOGENIC CYST ASSOCIATED WITH ODONTOMA : CASE REPORT
Lee, Seon-Suk ; Lee, Chang-Seop ; Lee, Sang-Ho ; Lee, Nan-Young ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 109~115
The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) predominantly affected Maxillary anterior segment and it is developmental cyst. But COC showed diverse terminology or classification, clinicopathologic features as well as its biologic behavior COC usually presents as slowly enlarging but otherwise symptomless swelling. Association with impacted teeth and odontoma is described in
. The epithelial lining of COC(ghost cell) appears to have ability to induce the formation of dental tissues in the asjcents connective tissue wall. This case is a COC associated with a odontoma involving an impacted left maxillary canine in 14-year-old female child. Radiographic examination revealed a well-demarcated radiolucent lesion partially occupied by a radiopaque mass, involving the left canine. The histologic sections showed cystic cavity lined with ameloblastic epithelium containing ghost cell masses with regular and irregular shape odontoma. The final pathologic diagnosis was calcifying odontogenic cyst with odontoma(Type IB by Preatorius). Enucleation and elimination of the included tooth were performed. Now endodontic treatment was preformed on the 1st premolar of the upper left jaw, which had a lesion. And the patient and their parents want to have the orthodontic treatment performed and would like to keep the space maintainer.
FAMILIAL HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA: A CASE REPORT
Cho, Yun-Jung ; Kim, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Nam, Soon-Hyeun ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 116~121
Familial hypophosphatemia is the most common hereditary rickets which occur hypophosphatemia as the calcium concentration in the blood serum is normal but the phosphate concentration in the blood serum decreases by dysfunction of renaltubular phosphorus reabsorption. In spite of the low concentration of phosphate in the blood serum discharge of phosphate by urine and alkaline phosphatase increases remarkably. It is a sex-linked and normally male show severe clinical symptoms than female. This kind of familial hypophosphatemia patients show frontal bossing, square head, short of status for general finding, and for dental finding, thinning of limina dura and dental follicle, thin and hypoplastic enamel, enlarged pulp chamber and canal, high occurance rate of periapical and periodontal abscess and unknown cause of rarefying osteitis. This case is to report about the clinical finging and dental treatment of a child patient, who came to the hospital for treatment of deciduous teeth caries but was refered to pediatrics because the child showed clinically short of status, bow-leg and radiographically enlarged pulp chamber and canal, there as diagnosed as familial hypophosphatemia.
MULTIPLE CONGENITAL MISSING TEETH : CASE REPORT
Shin, Jeong-Geun ; Kim, Jae-Gon ; Yang, Yeon-Mi ; Kim, Sung-Hee ; Baik, Byeong-Ju ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 122~130
Congenital Missing Teeth(hypodontia, oligodontia) is the developmental absence of one or more teeth. It has been reported as being the most common anomaly of dental development in human, relatively common in the permanent dentition. In a recent review, Vastardis has quoted incidence ranges of
in the permanent dentition. Brook has quoted a prevalence of
in most populations, with severe hypodontia, defined as the absence of six or more teeth, having a prevalence of
. The most commonly affected teeth are third molars, followed by maxillary lateral incisor, and second premolars. The etiology is unknown, several hypotheses include trauma, nutritional deficiency, infection, metabolic abnormalities, systemic disease and genetic influence. The multiple congenital missing is commonly associated with specific syndrome or severe systemic abnormalities such as cleft lip & palate and Down's syndrome. These cases present that children have multiple congenital missing teeth in the permanent dentition, without any systemic disease. Management of this condition must be considered orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment comprehensively. In these cases, children were treated by space maintainer or orthodontic appliance and follow-up checked.
TREATMENT OF MINOCYCLINE STAINED NON-VITAL TOOTH
Kim, Dae-Eop ; Lee, Kwang-Hee ; Cho, Jin-Hyung ; Cho, Hyun ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 131~138
A mixture of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline(3Mix) in distilled water or in a root canal sealer were used to disinfect the infected endodontic and periapical lesions. It has been well acknowledged in recent literature that minocycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline derivative, causes discolorations in adult teeth and various other collagenous tissues. In these cases, pulp treatments were finished successfully using a combination of antibiotics but severe discolorations of the teeth were observed. Discolored non-vital posterior tooth was treated using the prosthodontic procedure. And anterior tooth was successfully treated using the walking bleach technique. Bleaching was performed by temporarily placing a mixture of sodium perborate and distilled water into the pulp chamber. There were significant esthetic improvement.
MARSUPIALIZATION FOR TREATMENT OF ORAL RANULA
Kang, Dong-Gyun ; Hwang, Kyung-Mun ; Kim, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Nam, Soon-Hyeun ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 139~145
Ranula is a mucocele which occurs at the mouth floor and is mostly related to sublingual gland. In other words ranula is definded as a pseudocyst which occurs as the secretion duct of sublingual gland is destructed there as the saliva from the secretion duct flows out and retention in the soft tissue. The cause of ranula is destruction or obstruction of the duct. The clinical findings of ranula is a painless, unilateral bluish transparent swelling around the frenum and shows fluctuation when palpated. Histological finding represent a formation of cavity inside the connective tissue, but a pseudo-cyst can be seen which the wall of the cyst is composed of granulation tissue rather than epithelial cells. The first treatment of ranula can be considered as marsupialization. which induces the inner wall of the Ranula to be a part of oral mucosa. This case report shows a treatment of marsupialization with gauze packing in a young patient representing a clinical finding of characteristic ranula.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR RELATIONSHIP ENHANCEMENT
Hahn, Se-Hyun ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 146~148
DENTAL CARE FOR PEOPLE WITH A MENTAL HANDICAPS
Lee, Keung-Ho ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 33, issue 1, 2006, Pages 149~159