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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Nov 2010
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Aug 2010
Volume 37, Issue 2 - May 2010
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
TOOTH SURFACE CARIES PATTERNS IN THE PRIMARY DENTITION ACCORDING TO BREAST OR BOTTLE FEEDING
Im, Kyeong-Wook ; Lee, Kwang-Hee ; Ra, Ji-Young ; An, So-Youn ; Kim, Yun-Hee ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 151~158
The purpose of this study was to investigate the tooth surface caries patterns in the primary dentition according to breast or bottle feeding. The subjects of study were 815 children, 36 to 71 months old, in Iksan, Cheongju and Ulsan cities. The caregivers of the children were asked which they fed between the breast milk and the infant formula during the 1st year after birth and the duration of feeding. There was no significant difference in dmfs between the breast milk group and the infant formula group(significance level 0.05, same below). Tooth groups, tooth surface groups, teeth, and tooth surfaces which had significantly higher dmfs in the breast milk group than in the infant formula group were upper anterior teeth(tooth groups), upper incisors' buccal and proximal surfaces(tooth surface groups), upper incisors and upper second molars(teeth), upper central incisors' buccal and distal surfaces, upper lateral incisors' buccolingual and proximal surfaces, upper 2nd molars'lingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces, and lower 2nd molars' buccal and distal surfaces. In the breast milk group, tooth groups, tooth surface groups, teeth, and tooth surfaces which dmfs significantly increased as the duration of the feeding increased were upper anterior teeth and upper molars(tooth groups), upper anterior teeth's proximal surfaces, upper molars' buccolingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces, lower molars' proximal surfaces(tooth surface groups), upper anterior teeth, upper molars, lower 2nd molars(teeth), upper anterior teeth's proximal surfaces, upper 1st molars'buccolingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces, upper 2nd molars' buccal surfaces, and lower 2nd molars'mesial surfaces(tooth surfaces). In the infant formula group, dmfs increased after 3 years of feeding, but the difference was not significant. Caries prevention is necessary in case of breastfeeding more than two years.
DENTAL CARIES PATTERNS IN THE PRIMARY DENTITION: A CLUSTER ANALYSIS AND A MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING ANALYSIS
Jeong, Seung-Yeol ; Lee, Kwang-Hee ; Ra, Ji-Young ; An, So-Youn ; Kim, Yun-Hee ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 159~167
The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of caries in the dentition of preschool children using cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. 815 preschool children aged 36-71 months old were examined for caries experience. The first four clusters in the cluster analysis were (1) molars, (2) upper incisors, (3) lower 1st molars, and (4) upper 1st molars in teeth, (1) occlusal surfaces of lower molars and upper 2nd molars, (2) mesial surfaces of upper central incisors, (3) occlusal surfaces of lower 1st molars, and (4) separation between occlusal surfaces of upper and lower 2nd molars in tooth surfaces, and (1) proximal surfaces of upper anterior teeth, (2) occlusal surfaces of lower molars, (3) buccolingual surfaces of upper anterior teeth and (4) buccolingual, proximal, and occlusal surfaces of upper molars and buccolingual and proximal surfaces of lower molars in tooth surfaces groups. In the multidimensional scaling analysis, teeth could be divided into lower 1st molars, upper 1st molars, upper central incisors, upper lateral incisors, lower 2nd molars, upper 2nd molars, and the rest(canines, lower incisors), tooth surfaces could be divided into occlusal surfaces of lower molars, mesial surfaces of upper central incisors, occlusal surfaces of upper molars, and the rest, and tooth surface groups could be divided into proximal surfaces of upper anterior teeth, buccolingual surfaces of upper anteiror teeth, occlusal surfaces of lower molars, and the rest in the order of the distance from others. In the cluster analysis and the multidimensional scaling analysis, caries patterns were different according to the age.
THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF HORSERADISH(ARMORACIA RUSTICANA) ROOT EXTRACTS AGAINST ANAEROBES ISOLATED FROM ORAL CAVITY
Jang, Yong-Gul ; Park, Ho-Won ; Shin, Il-Sik ; Lee, Ju-Hyun ; Seo, Hyun-Woo ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 168~178
Objective : The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobical effect of horseradish root extracts against Enterococcus faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from oral cavity compared with reference strain, and compared with that of chlorhexidine. Method : Horseradish root extracts and chlorhexidine were sequentially diluted and tested against anaerobes(E. faecalis, F. nucleatum) isolated from children's oral cavity. The microbes were anaerobically incubated and the minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC) were detected. Results :1. Horseradish root extracts showed antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis isolated strain at same or slightly higher concentration compared with MIC of reference strain. 2.
horseradish root extracts showed similar antimicrobial effect with chlorhexidine(
). 3. Horseradish root extracts showed antimicrobial effect against F. nucleatum isolated strain at same or slightly higher concentration compared with MIC of reference strain. 4.
horseradish root extracts showed similar antimicrobial effect with chlorhexidine(
). Conclusions : The results of this study confirm that horseradish root extracts has antimicrobial effect against anaerobes isolated from oral cavity as well as reference strain. And we found the potential of horseradish root extracts as a canal irrigant or disinfectant.
THE PREVALENCE OF MOLAR INCISOR HYPOMINERALIZATION AND STATUS OF FIRST MOLARS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
Shin, Jong-Hyun ; An, Ul-Jin ; Kim, Shin ; Jeong, Tae-Sung ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 179~185
Molar Incisor Hypomineralization(MIH) have recently gained intensive research interests and various clinical trials. Most prevalence, etiology, treatment studies in MIH were carried out in the European countries, and data from the Korean were seldom. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MIH and the status of dental caries and treatment on the first permanent molars in primary school children. For this study, 1,344 primary school students in Busan and Ulsan cities were examined directly the permanent incisors and first molars. The results of the survey were as follows: 81 MIH cases were identified among 1,344 cases. The prevalence of MIH in this group of children was 6.0%. Children with MIH showed a significantly higher DMFT value for permanent teeth than children without MIH. The mean number of decayed, missed, and filled in 1st permanent molars(DMFT index) was 1.17. The rate of children with restoration on 1st permanent molar was 13.6% and the sequence of restoration materials was as follows : composite resin, amalgam, gold inlay.
DETECTION OF SALIVARY STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS LEVELS USING MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
Kim, Chu-Sung ; Kim, Jae-Gon ; Yang, Yeon-Mi ; Baik, Byeong-Ju ; Lee, Kyung-Yeol ; Kim, Mi-Ah ; Lim, Su-Min ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 186~192
Streptococcus mutans, one of the major causal agents of dental caries, is component of the dental plaque. It produces various organic acids such as lactic acid which is the end-product of glycolysis, and this leads to dental caries. A new system using species-specific monoclonal antibodies was developed to detect Streptococcus mutans in saliva. The system quickly detects salivary Streptococcus mutans in 30min and classifies the result into two levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate correlation between monoclonal antibody-based detecting system and selective medium-based detecting methods. Children's deft indices were also compared with Streptococcus mutans counts in MSB agar plate. Subjects consisted of 15 children in the age of 3 to 6 years. They were assigned to three groups : Group I(deft index = 3), Group II(deft index
3), Group III(deft index
4). The results are as follows : 1. The rate of children with positive response was 13.3% and with negative response was 86.7% in the result of Saliva-checkTM Mutans test kit. 2. There was a positive correlation between monoclonal antibody-based detecting system and selective medium-based detecting methods(p<0.05). 3. Streptococcus mutans counts in MSB agar plate were irrelevant to deft of children(p=0.34).
THE EFFECT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES ON HEIGHT AND BODY WEIGHT OF CHILDREN
Kim, Seung-Hye ; Choi, Hyung-Jun ; Choi, Byung-Jai ; Kim, Seong-Oh ; Lee, Jae-Ho ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 193~201
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a comprehensive terminology that includes nursing bottle caries and rampant dental caries occurred in infants and children. In previous studies, ECC was thought to affect body growth of children negatively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ECC on body growth of children in respect of their chronologic age and degree of dental caries. Height and body weight were used as means for physical growth measurements. Children, who visited the pediatric department of Yonsei University Dental Hospital, received oral and physical examinations, and they were divided into the control and ECC groups. Then, each group was subdivided according to their age and gender. Two-sample T test was used to compare the mean height and body weight of the control and ECC groups, and Likelihood Ratio Chi-square test was used to compare their growth percentile distribution. When the mean height and weight were compared, there was a common tendency observed even though statistical significance was not found in all cases. Before the age of 3-4, the mean height and weight tended to be greater in the ECC groups compared to the control groups, whereas after the age of 3-4, the mean height and weight of the ECC group tended to be less compared to the control group. In addition, in groups with age equal or greater than 3-4, which presented significant difference in height and body weight, the percentage of children showing less than 3 percentile growth was greater in the ECC group than the control group. These results imply the negative effects of the ECC on physical growth of the infants and children, and its effects on physical growth may present different characteristics according to chronologic age of the patients.
THE EFFECT OF HYPERTHYROIDISM ON THE RATE OF ORTHODONTIC TOOTH MOVEMENT
Kim, Seung-Hye ; Kim, Seong-Oh ; Kim, Chul-Hee ; Lee, Jae-Ho ; Son, Heung-Kyu ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 202~206
There are various local and systemic factors which alter the rate of tooth eruption movement. Thyroid hormone has been reported to have proportional relationship with the rate of tooth eruption. The main function of thyroid hormone is the regulation of basal metabolism, but it also affects the rate of tooth eruption. In this report, we will present a case of an 11-year-old girl, who showed sudden increase in orthodontic tooth movement of the impacted canine at certain points, which coincided with the hyperthyroid period. It shows possible relationship between the serum level of thyroid hormone and the rate of orthodontic tooth movement.
DENTAL TREATMENT OF A PEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH HOMOZYGOUS PROTEIN C DEFICIENCY: A CASE REPORT
Yoon, Mi ; Kim, Seung-Oh ; Kim, Jong-Soo ; Yoo, Seung-Hoon ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 207~212
Protein C deficiency increases the risk of thrombosis due to the lack of anticoagulant factor protein C. Among the numerous congenital protein C deficiencies, homozygous protein C deficiency has an especially low protein C activity level, that it is almost undetectable. It is a rare disease with a probability of 1:250000~500000. The signs and symptoms of homozygous protein C deficiency include purpuric, necrotic dermatosis, ecchymosis, blindness, and thrombosis in central nervous system. A 4-year-old girl was brought to the clinic with a chief complaint of extensive caries. The child was under warfarin medication in order to prevent possible complications during dental treatment. We consulted the pediatric department. Without warfarin intake, serious complications may occur due to thrombosis during dental treatment. Therefore, certain warfarin dosage (INR 3~5) and fresh frozen plasma as a backup for excessive hemorrhage were recommended. This child was a severely disabled child with the loss of vision, and it was difficult to manage her behavior effectively. Thus, dental treatment was carried out under general anesthesia, where bleeding control would be also easier to achieve.This report presents the case of a 4-year-old girl with protein C deficiency, who has received dental treatment for extensive caries under general anesthesia.
CONVERTING FROM ORAL SEDATION TO INTRAVENOUS SEDATION USING TOPICAL ANESTHETICS ON SKIN AFTER ORAL SEDATION FAILURE
Lee, Eun-Hui ; Kim, Seung-Oh ; Kim, Jong-Soo ; Yoo, Seung-Hoon ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 213~217
The use of chloral hydrate and hydroxyzine for oral sedation is most effective in children aged less than 36 months and weighing less than 15 kg. Children who do not belong to this category may show frequent movements due to shallow sedation level, and it can lead to sedation failures. One of the solutions to such sedation failure is conversion to deeper sedation. But, it is not so much of an option, since inhalation anesthetics and devices are required. In this case, conversion from oral sedation to intravenous sedation was successfully achieved without causing injection pain while searching for an intravenous route, by using EMLA cream (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthesia). A patient aged 46 months and weighing 15 kg visited the Pediatric Department of Dankook University Dental Hospital. Treatment under TSD(Tell Show Do) was offered, but due to the parent's request, oral sedative measures were taken. Considering prompt converting from oral sedation to iv sedation in case the oral sedation fails, EMLA cream was apllied preemptively. Adequate sedation level could not be achieved after 90 minutes of oral administration, therefore, under the parent's consent, intravenous route was prepared after conscious sedation by
. During treatment,
and heart rate was monitored every 5 minutes. The patient showed stable vital signs and did not show any movements. The whole procedure took two and a half hours in total, and the treatment was completed without any adverse effects.
RESIN INFILTRATION FOR THE ESTHETIC IMPROVEMENT OF ANTERIOR TEETH WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DEFECTS AND POST-ORTHODONTIC DECALCIFICATION
Kim, Eun-Young ; An, Ul-Jin ; Kim, Shin ; Jeong, Tae-Sung ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 218~224
The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel and lesios by post-orthodontic decalcification has been reported with increasing frequency. Even though there have been increasing interests and clinical challenges in esthetic improvement of these lesions, few of studies were reported for using non-invasive approach which is a very significant matter for child and young adults. This study was conducted to assess clinical effect on the improvement in color of these lesions via resin infiltration method developed as minimum invasive technique for white spot. For the 38 maxillary anterior teeth with calcification problem, the changes in color between before- and after- infiltration treatment, were evaluated and summarized as following. 1. A week after infiltration, 25% of developmental defects and 61% of decalcification lesions were improved in color as the value of
below 3.7. 2. 40% of the developmental defects and 6% of decalcification lesions showed no significant change. 3. The developmental defects showed more remarkable changes in color 1 week after infiltration rather than immediately after the treatment. From our study results, it is considered that the amount of color improvement depended on the depth of lesion. In other words, for the lesion having more depth than the depth infiltrant resin can penetrate into, infiltration treatment showed no significant effect. Therefore, for clinical indication of resin infiltration treatment, further research on precise measurement technique of lesion depth is strongly required.
ERUPTION GUIDANCE OF IMPACTED MANDIBULAR FIRST MOLAR
Lee, Doo-Young ; Song, Je-Seon ; Lee, Jae-Ho ; Choi, Byung-Jai ; Kim, Seong-Oh ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 226~232
Incidence of tooth impaction varies from 5.6 to 18.8% of the population. Failure of eruption of the first and second permanent molars is rare; the prevalence in the normal population is 0.01% in case of the first permanent molar, and 0.06% in case of the second permanent molar. Permanent molars are particularly important for providing sufficient occlusal support and co-ordinating facial growth. Failure of eruption of permanent molars may result in various complications such as decrease in vertical dimension, posterior open bite, extrusion of antagonistic teeth, resorption and inclination of adjacent teeth, formation of cyst and so on. Treatment options of impacted teeth are periodic observation, surgical exposure, surgical exposure with subluxation, orthodontic relocation, and surgical extraction before prosthetic treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are important, because delayed treatment induces various problems such as decreased spontaneous eruptive force, decreased successful percentage, increased treatment period, increased various complications. Prevalence of the failure of mandibular first molars is rare but eruptive guidance before extraction of impacted teeth is necessary due to importance of permanent molars. We reported two cases of surgical exposure of impacted mandibular first molar. In these cases, we could observe different result of the impacted mandibular first molar after surgical exposure.
THE SPACE OF CONGENITALLY MISSING OF PRIMARY CANINE WITH ODONTOMA
Lee, Jung-Eun ; Lee, Jae-Ho ; Choi, Hyung-Jun ; Kim, Seong-Oh ; Song, Je-Seon ; Son, Heung-Kyu ; Choi, Byung-Jai ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 233~239
Space loss of dental arch can appear when the proper position of teeth within the dental arch changes by a certain cause, because the balance of force makes changes about tooth position as well as alignment. The causes of space loss include proximal caries, early extraction, congenital missing of a tooth and hypodontia, etc. Among those causes of space loss, congenital missing of a tooth is more rarely observed in the primary dentition than in the permanent dentition. Congenital missing in the primary dentition is associated with that in the permanent dentition. Furthermore, it can cause space problem, such as mesial tilting or drift of adjacent teeth, space loss for permanent successors and dental arch constriction, etc. Primary lateral incisors is the most commonly involved, in the maxilla rather than in the mandible, but primary canine is rarely reported. In this patient, who visited the department of pediatric dentistry at Yonsei university dental hospital, it was observed that the maxillary right primary canine was congenitally missing and an odontoma was found insteadly. However, neither the space loss for the congenitally missing primary canine nor midline deviation is remarkable during the 2-year-10-month observation period. In addition, any clinical or radiographical symptom did not occur in spite of odontoma. Therefore, surgical enucleation of odontoma is planned according to the eruption of permanent lateral incisor or canine, unless eruption failure of permanent lateral incisor or canine nor cystic change around the odontoma is occurred. Through further evaluation, space maintainer or orthodontic treatment may be necessary.
GINGIVAL NEUROFIBROMAS OF NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE 1: CASE REPORT
Park, Seung-Hyo ; Lee, Nan-Young ; Lee, Sang-Ho ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 240~245
Neurofibromatosis type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder with prevalence of 1 per 3000 people, has clinical features of cafe au lait spots in skin, multiple neurofibroma and dysplasia in skeletal, endocrinal, and blood vessel systems. Actual intraoral neurofibromas are known to occur in 25% of patients. A 9 year-old girl diagnosed with type 1 neurofibromatosis visited our hospital with chief complaint of gingival swelling. Gingival enlargement in lower anterior region existed and cafe au lait spots were confirmed in patient' skin. Enlarged gingival tissue were excised under local anesthesia. Neurofibroma was confirmed with biopsy. Clinical examination after months showed fine recovery without any evidence of recurrence. Due to its possibility of recurrence, periodic follow-up will be needed.
ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT OF AN IMPACTED MANDIBULAR FIRST MOLAR USING MINIPLATE AS A SKELETAL ANCHORAGE: A CASE REPORT
Jang, Yoon-Hyoung ; Kim, Eun-Young ; Kim, Kwang-Chul ; Park, Jae-Hong ; Lee, Baek-Soo ; Choi, Sung-Chul ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 246~251
Impactions can occur because of malpositioning of the tooth bud or obstruction in the path of eruption. However, the exact mechanism is still unknown. The impaction of mandibular first molar is rare with prevalence rates of 0.01~0.25%, but it is important to deimpact the tooth as soon as possible to avoid complications such as dental caries, root resorption, and periodontal problems on the adjacent teeth. Several biomechanical strategies have been proposed for uprighting mesially tipped mandibular first molars. However, most of these have had problems with movement of the anchorage unit because of the reciprocal force. The recent development of skeletal anchorage system(SAS) allows direct application of precise force systems to the target tooth or segment, producing efficient tooth movement in a short time. In this case, an impacted mandibular left first molar with dilacerated roots was treated with a miniplate, which provided skeletal anchorage to upright the tooth. The miniplate was installed in the mandibular ramus, and 10 months after the application of orthodontic force, the impacted tooth was exposed in the oral cavity and uprighted. At this point, the mandibular left first molar was included in the orthodontic appliance with fixed mechanotherapy, the tooth could achieve a normal occlusion. Therefore, the use of SAS simplified the orthodontic procedures and reduced the orthodontic treatment period, and had few side effects.
DECORONATION ON ANKYLOSED PERMANENT INCISOR AFTER DENTAL TRAUMA
Kang, Yu-Jin ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Nam, Soon-Hyeun ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 252~259
Trauma commonly leads to ankylosis for the tooth whose periodontal ligaments have been injured. In growing patients, an ankylosed tooth can disrupt alveolar development, resulting in infraocclusion of the affected tooth. Consequently, this causes aesthetic problems during adolescence, interferes with prosthetic treatment due to the inclination of adjacent teeth, and complicates orthodontic dental movement. When the infraoccluded ankylosed tooth is extracted, a considerable amount of alveolar bone is lost, especially in the maxillary anterior region. Moreover, depression of the thin buccal alveolar bone compromises aesthetic restoration. In order to prevent alveolar bone loss, the ankylosed tooth should be treated by decoronation. In the present study, the traumatically injured maxillary incisors of 9-year-old and 10-year-old patients that present infraocclusion accompanied by ankylosis were treated with decoronation procedures. Decoronation procedures were performed when the affected teeth were 2-3 mm below relatively to the adjacent teeth. Moreover, the patients were treated before they get to 16 years old considering the maximum growth peak of the korean adolescents. As the results, there are favorable clinical results associated not only with preservation of horizontal alveolar volume but also with increase in vertical alveolar height after decoronation in growing individuals.
DEVELOPMENTAL DISTURBANCES OF SUCCESSIVE PERMANENT TEETH BY TRAUMA TO THE PRIMARY TEETH
Kim, Ji-Young ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Nam, Soon-Hyeun ;
THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY, volume 37, issue 2, 2010, Pages 260~266
Trauma to the primary teeth may have an effect on the successive permanent teeth. Thus, the treatment plans should be focused on safety of their permanent teeth. The degree of developmental disturbances in those permanent teeth depends upon many factors including the age of the children, developmental conditions of the affected teeth, types and severities of trauma and time interval from the moment of trauma to the initial treatment the patients received. The complications of the effected permanent teeth vary from the mild enamel hypoplasia to the premature finishing of teeth development. In this study, children whose ages were 33 months, 5 years, and 26 months presented the developmental disturbances to their permanent teeth, which resulted from the trauma to the primary teeth: the intrusion, the avulsion, and the subluxation. There showed a mild complication in the case of subluxation resulting in enamel hypoplasia, but, the more severe complication of the root dilacerations occurred in the case of intrusion. Furthermore, the 5-year-old patient whose primary dentition was near in transition period to the permanent one, the more complicated problem such as stop of root development of the permanent teeth was resulted from the avulsion. Thus, one should assume that the types of trauma and the age of the children at the moment of trauma have different effects on those successive permanent teeth. In conclusion, when the trauma that causes changes in the position of primary teeth happened, it is important to arrange an appropriate treatment procedure considering the types of trauma and the developmental conditions of the permanent teeth.