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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Dec 1989
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Oct 1989
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Aug 1989
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 1989
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Apr 1989
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Feb 1989
Selecting the target year
Studies on the Denaturation of PSE Porcine Muscle Proteins by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Kim, Cheon-Jei ; Honikel, K.O. ; Choe, Byung-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 173~179
The influence of the storage temperature and time after slaughter on the thermal denaturation of PSE porcine muscle protein was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and by measuring the solubility of the sarcoplasmic proteins. In the DSC therodiagram a decrease of the endotherm enthalpy of the myosin plus sarcoplasmic proteins in PSE muscle could be observed with an increase in the storage temperature and time of post mortem. Storage temperature at
during the first four hours of post mortem resulted in relatively slight denaturation of myosin plus sarcoplasmic proteins in PSE muscle. Storage temperature above
caused to increase the denaturation of muscle proteins. The minimal drip loss in PSE muscle could be observed, when the muscle was cooled to
as quickly as possible post mortem. However, when stored for several hours of post morte at a temperature between
, the drip loss reached the level established for PSE muscle. The paleness of PSE muscle could be prevented to some extent by rapid chill to
post mortem. The more the muscle proteins in the PSE muscle become denatured during the early storage period of post mortem, the more the drip loss increases. With the increase in the denaturation of myosin plus sarcoplasmic proteins in PSE muscle with regard to temperature of post mortem, there was a corresponding decrease in the solubility of the sarcoplasmic proteins in PSE muscle.
Clarification of the Juice Extracted from Stored Apples by pH Adjustment
Kim, Dong-Man ; Lee, Sei-En ; Kim, Kil-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 180~184
Clarification of the juice extracted from stored Fuji apples was studied with pectolytic enzyme and pH control, separately and in combinations. In the separated treatment, the clarity of the juice was increased with the treated enzyme amount. The juice adjusted pH to 3.5 with malic acid had the highest clarity in pH range from 3.5 to 5.0, but this juice was not acceptable because of high acidity. In combination of the two treatment, the clarity of the juice treated with the enzyme at pH 4.0 was higher than that of the juice without the enzyme, and the juice with ligh trasmittance of about 92% could be obtained at the pH by addition with one-third amount of enzyme which was used for clarification of the juice extracted from the fresh apples at harvesting season.
The Combined Effect of Heat Treatment and Irradiation on the Inactivation of Major Lactic Acid Bacteria Associated with Kimchi Fermentation
Byun, Myung-Woo ; Cha, Bo-Sook ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ; Cho, Han-Ok ; Kim, Woo-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 185~191
The combined effects of heat treatment and
on the inactivation of major lactic acid bacteria associated with Kimchi fermentation were investigated. The radiosensitivities
of lactic acid bacteria in case of a single treatment of irradiation were 0.61 kGy in Lactobacillus brevis, 0.60 kGy in Lactobacillus plantarum, 0.50 kGy in Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 0.4 kGy in Pediococcus cerevisiae, 0.39 kGy in Streptococcus faecalis. The heat sensitization
by a single treatment of heat ranged 9.2-15.6 at
and 3.7-5.5 at
. Synegistic effects were shown in the radiosensitivities of Streptococcus faecalis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis by the combined treatment(Dose multiplying factors ranged
). It seems, therefore, that the combined treatment can be applied to the radiation preservation of Kimchi, minimizing the side-effects like physical changes induced by the high dose irradiation or heat treatment.
Comparison of Lipid Components and Amino Acid Composition of Sea Eel by Size
Oh, Kwang-Soo ; Moon, Soo-Kyung ; Lee, Eung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 192~196
This experiment was carried out to compare the difference of lipid components, amino acid composition by size of sea eel. Large sea eel(length 57.5-60.0cm, weight 269.5-300.0g) was higher in moisture and crude protein content, and lower in crude lipid content than those of small sea eel(28.8-31.2cm, 39.5-43.6g). Total lipid(TL) of large and small sea eel were consisted of 89.7%, 93.3% neutral lipid, 8.9%, 5.2% phospholipid, and 1.4%, 1.5% glycolipid, respectively. In fatty acid composition of TL, large fishes revealed higher content in polyunsaturated fatty acids such as 20:5, 22:5, 22:6, while lower in saturates and monoenes such as 16:0, 16:1, 18:1 than those of small fishes. The major fatty acids of these fishes were generally 18:1, 16:0, 22:6, 16:1 and 20:5 in order. Total amino acid contents of large and small sea eel were 17022.7mg/100g, 15409.4mg/100g. And the main amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine. Large fishes was higher in cystine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine content, while lower in aspartic acid, glutamic acid than those of small ones.
Characteristics of Sikhye(Korean Traditional Drink) made with Different Amount of Cooked Rice and Malt and with Different Sweeteners
Nam, Sang-Ju ; Kim, Kwang-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 197~202
This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of Sikhye as affected by different amount of cooked rice and malt, and by different kinds of sweeteners. In the various Sikhyes made with the different amount of cooked rice and malt, the degree of such sensory properties as color and malt odor significantly increased with the increased amount of malt. As the amount of cooked rice increased, sensory properties such as turbidity, sweetness and viscosity increased. Reducing sugar content in Sikhye was consistent with those of sensory evaluation on sweetness. Sikhyes containing aspartame, saccharin, sorbitol or sucrose at equisweet levels to Sikhyes containing 10% sucrose showed different sensory characteristics except sweetness. Sikhye sweetened with mixtures of substituted sweeteners showed increase in sweetness and differences in bitterness and astringency compared with Sikhye containing 10% sucrose.
Influencing Factors in Drying and Shrinking Characteristics of Root Vegetables
Cho, Duck-Jae ; Hur, Jong-Wha ; Kim, Hee-Yun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 203~211
During hot air drying of root vegetables such as radish and sweet potatoes, shrinkage and casehardening occurred, and thereby the quality change appeared. Therfore the hot air drying apparatus in which air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity could be controlled was designed, and the drying and shrinking characteristics of radish and sweet potatoes were studied. Also the external factors that affected these characteristics were investigated. The whole drying process of radish and sweet potatoes could be divided into four different drying rate periods, namely constant rate period, first falling rate period, second falling rate period (a) and (b). The shrinking rate curve consisted of four periods nearly corresponding to drying rate periods. The shrinking rate slowly increased in the constant rate period, rapidly increased in the first falling rate period, and reached the highest value in the early period of the second falling rate period. The surface shrinkage was greatly affected by the thickness of sample, relative humidity and initial moisture content. The shrinking ratio was increased with decreasing thickness and increasing relative humidity and initial moisture content.
Drying and Shrinking Rate Equation of Root Vegetables
Cho, Duck-Jae ; Hur, Jong-Wha ; Lee, Min-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 212~217
The shrinking and overall drying rate equations which can accomodate experimental date and the rate of initial drying ratio were investigated. The results obtained from hot air drying experiments of radish and sweet potatoes were as follow. The drying rate constant and the order were affected by the thickness of sample and temperature. The empirical drying rate and shrinking equations at constant drying conditions (d=4mm,
, RH=10%, U=0.8m/s) for radish and sweet potatoes were found to
, A=Ao(-0.480x+1) and rates of initial drying ratio were expressed of sample thickness, relative humidity and air velocity; for radish
and for sweet potatoes
Determination of Natural Contents of Total Sulfites in Fruits and Vegetables by Ion Chromatography
Kim, Myung-Hee ; Park, Sung-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 218~223
This study was performed to investigate the natural contents of sulfite in vegetables and fruits. Experimental subjects included 351 cases of vegetables and 59 fruits collected in 4 areas-Jeonbuk, Kyungnam, Chungcheung and Kangwon-from October to December in 1987. Sulfite of the subjects were determined by ion chromatography rapidly and precisely. Mean value of sulfite contents in leaf-vegetables, green onion was the highest value,
. Garlic was the highest value,
in root-vegetables. Green pepper in fruit-vegetables was the highest value, 1.
. In the fruits, persimmon was the highest,
. There were some differences among the areas. The mean value of sulfite contents in vegetables and fruits collected in the Chungcheung areas were higher than that in other places.
Determination of Residual Pesticides in Bean Sprout
Kim, Jung-Hun ; Kim, Myng-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 224~228
This study was performed to investigate the content of residual pesticides in bean sprouts which are the very important vegetables to supply protein for traditional korean dishes. Experimental subjects included 541 cases of bean sprouts and 168 cases of germinating beans collected in the Seoul area from January in 1987 to February in 1938. In residual pesticides of subjects, topsin-M, vitavax and thiram were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography and captan was determined by gas chromatography. The detection rates of residual pesticides in the subjects were 19.4% in bean sprouts and 26.2% in germinating beans. The most common used pesticides in bean sprouts was topsin-M and detection rate was 16.2%. Captan and vitavax were also detected in about 3.5%, 2.8% of the experimental subjects respectively. But thiram was not detected in any samples. The mean value of topsin-M content was
in bean sprouts. The mean value of captan were
in germinating beans and bean sprouts, respectively.
Changes in Flavor of Chungkookjang During Fermentation
Choi, Sung-Hee ; Ji, Young-Ae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 229~234
Cooked soybeans were fermented with B. subtilis and B. natto for 48 hrs and 74 hrs. The odor concentrates of during these Chungkookjang fermentation were obtained with a simultaneous distillation and extraction system. The seperation and identification were carried out by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the cooked odor concentrate of soybeans were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol etc.. In Chungkookjang (B. subtilis inoculation), 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol remained but alkyl pyrazines such as 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, trimethyl pyrazine and tetramethyl pyrazine increased and those increased during the fermentation. In Chungkookjang(B. natto inoculation), 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol, main components of cooked soybeans decreased and alkyl pyrazines increased, especially, tetramethyl pyrazine remarkably increased during fermentation. From the result, it seems that alkyl pyrazines caused the characteristic odor of Chungkookjang and mask the beany odor.
Testing Methods for Permeability of Plastic Films
Park, Hyung-Woo ; Koh, Ha-Young ; Kang, Tong-Sam ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 235~237
Water vapor permeability of plastic films was measured by Electric tester and Cup tester and the data of the two were compared. Regardless of the testing method, water vapor permeability measured by two methods showed consistent results. By these methods, water vapor permeability of polyethylene film was
. 24h and
. 24h for 0.045mm and 0.08mm thickness, respectively. The water vapor permeability of casted polypropylene film was 14.93 and
. 24h for Electric tester and Cup tester, respectively. In conclusion, the data obtained by Cup tester was consistent with those of the Electric tester. The Cup tester was certified to perform the water vapor pormeability testing method.
Development of Corrugated Paperboard Box for Agricultural and Fishery Products
Park, Hyung-Woo ; Ha, Young-Sun ; Kim, Su-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 238~241
Double wall corrugated paperboard box are almost used for package of agricultural and fishery products in Korea. Flaps of the double wall corrugated paperboard box are consist of the three linerboard and two corrugating medium. But these flaps which are not affected to the compression strength for storage and distribution results in the reasonable cost-up of the packed box. Compared the strengths and economical evaluations between double wall and single wall corrugated paperboard box results as follows. Compression strength of single wall box is higher 49.3% to 98.0% than that of the double wall corrugated paperboard box and its cost are down 5% to 8%. Effect of the cost down on the saving materials of flap and corrugating medium is 13.9%.
Study on the Processing and Compositions of Salted and Dried Mullet Roe
Joe, Sang-June ; Rhee, Chong-Ouk ; Kim, Dong-Youn ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 242~251
The salted-dried mullet(Mugil japonicus) roe is a kind of traditional food particulary in the area of Young-am gun, Chunnam province. This study was conducted to conform the scientific processing conditions and to evaluate the nutritional quality and changes of major components during storage times. The manufacturing method was that the fresh roe was salted for about 20 hours for the preparation of salted-dried roe, washed by clean waters, drained, shaped a flat piece with 1.2cm thickness by pressing, and spreaded sesame oils on the surface of the salted roe periodically during wind drying for 20 days. The dried roe was blanched in heated water
and packaged the dried product for storages. The fractional compositions of free lipid of wind dried roe were 40% of neutral lipids, 12% of glycolipids and 9% of phospholipids and those of bound lipids were 13% of neutral lipids. 10% of glycolipids and 13% of phospholipids respectively. The major fatty acids of the roe were
which was consisted of free and bound lipids in wind drying method during processing and storages. Total amino acids were 99.87g/100g and major amino acids were Glu, Pro, Leu, Lys and CySH and the protein score was average 155% and the chemical score was average 109%. Free amino acids was 1,376mg% that had 50.61% of Pro and the major kinds of those were Tyr and CySH.
Comparison of Shelf-life of Vienna Sausage Packed with Polyvinylidene Chloride and Nylon Laminated Film
Park, Hyung-Woo ; Kim, Byeong-Sam ; Park, Moo-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 252~257
Nylon laminated low density polyethylene(LDPE) film is mostly used for package of Vienna sausage in Korea. The water vapor permeability and gas transmission rate of Nylon laminated LDPE film is higher than that of Oriented polypropylene/polyvinylidene chloride coated LDPE film. Comparision of shelf-life of Vienna sausage packed with both film was as follows. The water vapor permeability and gas transmission rate of PVDC coated film were 2.5 times lower and 20.7 to 30 times lower than those of Nylon laminated film, respectively. Shelf-lives of Vienna sausage packed with Nylon laminated film and PVDC coated films were 25 days and 31 days at
, 32 days and 41 days at
Changes in Compression Strength of Corrugated Paperboard Box in Several Conditions
Park, Hyung-Woo ; Ha, Young-Sun ; Lee, Song-Dong ; Kong, Jae-Hong ; Kim, Su-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 258~261
Corrugated paperboard box is used to package of agricultural, fishery and industrial products in Korea. Test of compression strength results as follows. Compressing strength according to the insertion of inner pad was improved in 9.0% to 48.5%, Slitting length and width in 3.0% to 16.0% Compression strength according to the position of transportation hole was different 1.6% to 10.1%, the jointing method 7% to 10.3%, the printing width was decreased in 18.4% to 19.1%.
Studies on the Polar Lipids Composition in Brown Rice and Milled Rice
Lee, Hee-Ja ; Lee, Hyun-Joo ; Byun, Si-Myung ; Kim, Hyong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 262~268
The composition of glycolipid, phospholipid and fatty acid of brown rice, milled rice and bran were studied for four varieties of rice such as Nampung, Milyang # 23, Whasung and Jinhung. The content of esterified steryl glycosides(ESG) in glycolipids was the highest in the brown rice, milled rice and bran. Monogalactosyl diglycerides(MGDG) and steryl glycosides(SG) were the second highest. Of the phospholipids, phosphatidyl cholines(PC) + phosphatidyl serines(PS) were the next. Fatty acid composition of glycolipids were different from total lipids and neutral lipids in brown rice and milled rice. Palmitic acid content was very high and oleic acid content was low in glycolipids. The major fatty acid components of phospholipids in brown and milled rice were also palmitic, linoleic and oleic acid. In the bran, the major fatty acid classes were different from those of milled rice.
Comparative Studies on the Dietary Fiber, Amino Acids and Lipid Components of Yullmoo and Yeomjoo
Woo, Ja-Won ; Lee, Mi-Suck ; Lee, Hee-Ja ; Kim, Hyong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 269~275
The study was conducted to compare the components such as proximate composition, total dietary fiber(TDF) content, acid detergent fiber(ADF) content, lignin, water binding capacity(WBC), amino acid composition and lipid components from brown Job's tears, dehulled Job's tears, brown Yeomjoo and bran of Job's tears. The results from this study are summerized as follows: Total dietary fiber(TDF) content of Job's tears, brown Job's tears, brown Yeomjoo and bran of Job's tears were 2.70%, 3.86%, 4.33% and 13.3% each. Water-binding capacity(WBC) of TDF and ADF were
ADF each. In amono acids composition of samples, glutamic acid content was the highest and the next was leucine. Chemical score of leucine in dehulled Job's tears was very high(189), in contrast lysine was very low
So lysine was a first limitting amino acid in Job's tears and Yeomjoo. Neutral lipid contents were 90.89%-96.55%, glycolipid contents were 2.35%-7.48% and phospholipid contents were very low. The major fatty acids of lipid fractions were palmitic acid. oleic acid and linoleic acid.
Contamination Level and Dietary Intake of Total Mercury in Common Restaurant Meals of Seoul Area
Lee, Mi-Gyung ; Lee, Su-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 276~282
To investigate the contamination level and total dietary intake of Hg in common restaurant meals of Seoul area, 125 samples of 5 typical meals were collected and determined for their total Hg contents by flameless atomic absorption sepctrophotometry. The average concentrations of Hg were 0.186ppm in drained residues and 0.007ppm in fluids, in which two samples yeukkye-jang and bibim-bab from two sites showed such a high level of 20-30 times of mean values. The average amount of Hg per meal excluding the two samples was
and it was not significantly different among different meals. The daily dietary intake of total Hg from 3 restaurant meals was estimated to be
, which was 5 times higher than the FAO/WHO limit of
The Physico-chemical Changes of Meat Sausage during Storage at Different Temperature
Kim, Soo-Min ; Sung, Sam-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 283~288
The effect of storage temperature on the quality characteristics of meat sausage was investigated. Thus, the quality characteristic changes of meat sausage were discussed through physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. The results were summarized as follows; Volatile basic nitrogen(VBN) was increased more rapidly at
and fluctuating temperature
. In physico-chemical analysis of meat sausage, the values of VBN , viable cell counts were increased with increase of temperature during storage, while thiobarbituric acid(TBA) values were fluctuated during storage as a whole. Water activity(Aw) and moisture contents showed a little change according to storage temperature, but sausage color was darkened as storage time goes by as a whole, the shelf-life was predicted above 40 days at
, below 40 days at
, below 30 days at
and about 20 days fluctuating temperature
, respectively on the basis of slime formation in sensory evaluation.
Changes in Volume of Soybeans during Hydration
Kim, Jong-Goon ; Kim, Woo-Jung ; Kim, Sung-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 289~293
During soaking of soybeans in water at
, the volume gain of soybeans held a linear relation with the square root of soaking time regardless of soaking temperatures and showed a highly positive correlation with weight gain, which indicated that the volume increase of soybeans was basically due to the diffusion of water. The activation energies for the volume increase were changed at
. The log time to reach a fixed moisture content showed a linear relation with the soaking temperature during soaking of soybeans at
. The z-value to reach 50% hydration was
Effects of Processing Methods on the Quality of the Dehydrated Instant Rice
Lee, Young-Chun ; Lee, Dong-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 294~299
The quality of dehydrated instant rice produced by a few selected processing methods with short grain milled rice was evaluated. Instant rice produced by process 2 had high rehydration rate, and those by processes 1 and 2 revealed light brown color with less lightness. Instant rice produced by processes 1 and 2 with ammonium carbonate treatment had more uniform porous microstructure, as shown by SEM micrographes, and microstructural difference was noticed between instant rice prepared with government rice and Akibari. Instant rice produced by processes 1 and 2 had less sensory color score, and those by processes 2 and 4 had higher sensory cohesiveness. Overall quality of instant rice produced by process 2 was better, except color.
Physico-chemical Changes of Radish Cubes for Kakdugi during Salting
Kim, Joong-Man ; Shin, Mi-Kyung ; Hwang, Ho-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 300~306
Physico-chemical changes caused by salting Korean radish cubes (for Kakdugi) with sodium chloride solution were investigated. Two-centimter cubes of Korean radish were soaked in saline solution of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 percent concentration. Optimum salinity, 3% as determined by taste, was reached in six hours at 5% strength, two hours in 10%, one hour at 15% and within one hour at concentration of 15% plus. Radish cubes salted in 5, 10. 15, 20 and 25% sodium chloride solution in a cube/solution weight ratio of 1:1 decreased in volume from 7.6 to 11.2% after one hour, and from 11.2 to 17.9% after six hours. Decrease in moisture content was from 83.0 to 75.9% in one hour and from 74.5 to 68.5% after six hours.
content was significantly decreased by salting, but
content greatly increased. In addition, salting caused firmness of the cubes to decrease, and cell shapes to shrink by plasmolysis.
Mass Transfer during Osmotic Dehydration of Carrots and Its Effect on Browning Reaction
Kim, Myung-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 307~312
Internal mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of carrots in sugar solutions was examined as a function of concentration, temperature and immersion time of those solutions using moisture loss, sugar gain, molality and rate parameter. Influence of osmotic dehydration and blanching on browning reaction of vacuum dried carrots(3% MC: wet basis) was also evaluated. Increasing the concentration and temperature of sugar solutions increased moisture loss, sugar gain, molality and rate parameter. Water loss and sugar gain were rapid in first 4 min and then levelled off. The rate of sugar gain and molality changes on temperature was significant in lower concentration
compared to higher concentration
. The changes of rate parameter were affected by concentration than by temperature of sugar solutions. Moisture loss during osmotic dehydration using a sugar solution
with 20min immersion time was 55.7%. Effect of osmotic dehydration and blanching before vacuum dried to 3% MC(Wet basis) on browning reaction was significant. Minimum browning reaction during vacuum drying was carried out using pretreatments such as osmotic dehydration in sugar solution
with 16 min immersion time(O.D.=0.09) and blanching with 12 min immersion time at
(O.D.=0.31) compared to control(O.D.=1.59).
Kinetic Studies on Hydration of Olchal and Hankangchalbyeo Waxy Rices
Jang, Myung-Sook ; Kim, Sung-Kon ; Kim, Bok-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 1989, Pages 313~319
Hydration Properties of Olchal(Japonica type) and Hankangchalbyeo
waxy rices at soaking temperatures of
were examined. The water uptake rate constant of Olchal was greater than that for Hankangchalbyeo. Volume increase rate during hydration of Olchal was faster. The rate constants of hardness decrease during hydration were similar between the two varieties. The Z-value and
and 1.78, respectively.