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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 1994
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 1994
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 1994
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 1994
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 1994
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 1994
Selecting the target year
Development of Gas Production Measurement System by Bubble Counting during Fermentation
Lee, Young-Jin ; Chun, Jae-Kun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 195~198
A bubble counter was designed and fabricated for the measurement of gas production rate on the basis of number of bubbles produced from yeast fermentor. The sensor was consisted of bubble forming device and electronic signal processing circuitry. The bubble forming device was built with bubble collector and liquid cell to form uniform size of bubble. Bubbles were counted by pulses formed by photo-interrupter circuitry having 8-bit binary latch counter. The gas production rate curves on the basis of bubble counted showed a good agreement to that of growth curves obtained by the optical measurement method. The sensor was succesfully applied to monitoring of the nutrient utilization test with glucose and galactose media.
Development of Control System for Kimchi Fermentation and Storage Using Refrigerator
Ko, Yong-Duck ; Kim, Heung-Jae ; Chun, Sung-Sik ; Sung, Nack-Kie ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 199~203
Software for refrigerator capable of both rapid fermentation and suitable storage of Kimchi was developed and its performance was investigated. Refrigerator system consists of an insulated fermentation room, heater, damper for the control of outer cold air and two sensors for recognizing temperature of heater and fermentation room, which control temperature and time period of affecting Kimchi fermentation. Effects of fermentation at different NaCl concentration and three fermentation function keys were studied; At key I, time which was elapsed to edible ripening state, pH 4.5 and total acid 0.6%, was about
days, respectively. At key II, time was about
days, and at key III, about 2, 3 and
days, respectively. Effect of storage at three fermentation function keys was all maintained to the level of a palatable pH range until 14 days. Sensory evaluation of Kimchi showed also significant difference in a taste.
A Study on Wine-Making with Dried Persimmon Produced in Korea
Woo, Kang-Lyung ; Lee, Su-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 204~212
To estimate the possibility of wine-making with Korean dried persimmon, its homogenized and filtered solution was fermented at
for 12 weeks with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Japan Alcoholic Beverage Association N0.7). Sugars of dried persimmon were mainly composed of 27.02% of glucose, 19.81% of fructose and 5.12% of mannose. In the fermentation at
, glucose was almost completely consumed in 8 days, but fructose and mannose were consumed up to 64% and 74%, respectively, in the same period and were not utilized any more afterwards. In the fermentation at
, 75% of glucose, 20% of fructose and 49% of mannose were consumed in 8 days and these sugars were continuously utilized for 12 weeks. Organic acids in the homogenized and filtered solution were levulinic acid (148.6 mg%), 4-methylvaleric acid (73.5 mg%), oxalic acid (28.7 mg%), acetic acid (8.5 mg%), N-butyric acid (8.4 mg%) and succinic acid (6.7 mg%). Irrespective of fermentation temperature, levulinic acid rapidly reduced according to progression of fermentation. Oxalic acid, N-butyric acid and succinic acid decreased at 2nd day of fermentation, and then increased at 4th and 6th days and subsequently decreased again under the levels of the solution. Acetic acid and 4-methylvaleric acid increased with the proceeding of fermentation and at 12th week of fermentation these contents were more than those of the solution. The contents of total free amino acid significantly reduced at 2th day of fermentation and then increased to the level of the solution at 12th week irrespective of fermentation temperature. Ethanol content rapidly increased to the levels of 5.3(v/v) at
and 9.4%(v/v) at
to 8th day after fermentation, but at 12th week its content was 14.5%(v/v) at
and 9.4%(v/v) at
. The higher alcohots identified were 2-methyl-l-propanol, 3-methyl-ibutanol, 2-methyl-l-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol and the range of those contents was from 0.001% (v/v) to 0.06%(v/v). The color of the wine fermented at
was slightly superior but flavor and taste were slightly superior in the wine fermented at
Effects of Gastrodia Rhizoma Extracts on Global Coronary Circulation in Rats
Kim, Eun-Ji ; Ji, Geun-Eog ; Kang, Young-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 213~220
Gastrodia (G) Rhizoma has been used clinically as an oriental herbal medicine with sedative, anticonvulsive, and depressor effects. The present study tested effects of G. Rhizoma extracts on the coronary circulation and myocardial oxygen consumption in perfused rat hearts. Sprague Dawley rats (SD) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were employed as experimental animals and nonworking Langendorff heart perfusion technique introduced for heart experiments. G. Rhizoma extracts were prepared from grinding G. Rhizoma into powder, extracting in water and 50% ethanol for 4 or 16 hr and diluting with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate perfusion buffer to be 70%. Hearts were perfused with bicarbonate buffer oxygenated with 95%
at constant coronary perfusion pressure of
. The diluted extracts were infused into coronary arteries in a concentration of
min. While in SD water- or ethanol-extracts of G. Rhizoma extracted for 16 hr increased coronary perfusate flow (CPF) and decreased coronary vascular resistance (CVR), ethanol-extracts in SHR produced coronary vasoconstriction associated with enhanced CVR. G. Rhizoma extracts-induced increase in CPF reduced myocardial oxygen extraction, and thus myocardial oxygen consumption (
) remained at that observed prior to infusion of extracts. In SD and SHR 16 hr-water-extracts markedly altered coronary venous effluent pH and
and evoked metabolic acidosis, which could be a coronary vasodilator mechanism decreasing CVR. In this study, the extracts decreasing CVR in SD and SHR did not augment the lactate production. Therefore, although the effects of the extracts on cardiac function and coronary circulation depended on solvents and duration for extraction, the 16hr-water-extracts, at least, exhibited coronary vasodilation in SD and SHR. Conversely, ethanol-extracts constricted coronary arteries in SHR. G. Rhizoma extracts-induced vasodilation might be due to the metabolic acidosis rather than due to the increased lactate production. The results indicate that G. Rhizoma extracts obtained from proper extracting procedures can be used as a safe and clinically applicable herbal medicine in the cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease and hypertension for vasodilatory and antihypertensive actions.
Survey on the Sulfonamide Residues in Beef, Pork and Chicken
Park, J.T. ; Jeong, E.J. ; Kim, Y.G. ; Song, B.J. ; Oh, K.S. ; Lim, H.C. ; Kim, S.C. ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 221~225
This survey was carried out to determine five sulfonamide(sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfaquinoxaline) residues in beef, pork, chicken and swine kidney. For this survey, 30 samples of beef, 15 samples of chicken, 10 samples of pork and 10 samples of swine kidney were collected in Chonnam from June, 1992 to June, 1993, and were analyzed by HPLC. The recoveries of sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfaquinoxaline in spiked samples between
ppm were 71.7%, 80.3%, 71.6%, 70.9%, 68.4%, respectively. None of 65 samples which were examined exceeded 0.1 ppm. Of 15 chicken muscle samples, 2 samples exceeded 0.05 ppm in sulfamerazine (0.077 ppm) and sulfamethazine (0.075 ppm), respectively. Of 10 swine kidney samples, 1 sample exceeded 0.05 ppm in sulfadimethoxine (0.052 ppm). And sulfanilamide concentration of swine kidney were higher than pork.
Comparison of Fall Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage for Kimchi Preparation
Lee, In-Seon ; Park, Wan-Soo ; Koo, Young-Jo ; Kang, Kook-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 226~230
In order to compare fall cultivars of Chinese cabbage for kimchi preparation, their physicochemical and organoleptic properties during kimchi fermentation were investigated. When physical characteristics of ten fall cabbage cultivars were compared, `Olympic' had the heaviest average weight and `Chungsan' was the longest in total length. They were also analyzed chemically and compared on water content, vitamin C and reducing sugars. `Noranmat' had the highest water content and `Chungsan' had the highest contents of vitamin C and reducing sugar. Kimchi samples prepared with each fall cultivar were fermented at
Says, of which pHs and total acid contents were measured and sensory characteristics were compared. Their pHs of `Lipdong' and `Taebok' were lowered most slowly and their pHs of all cultivars were lowered to less than pH 4.0 after the storage of 40 days. Their total acid contents of most cultivars were ranged from 0.55 to 0.59% after the same period. It was shown from the result of sensory eva uation that `Karaksin-1' and `Olympic' were considered to be the best among fall cultivars of Crinese cabbage for kimchi preparation.
Kimchi Preparation with Brined Chinese Cabbage and Seasoning Mixture Stored Separately
Park, Wan-Soo ; Lee, In-Seon ; Han, Young-Sook ; Koo, Young-Jo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 231~238
The brined Chinese cabbages and kimchi seasoning mixture were separately stored and used for preparation of kimchi and the alternative method of conventional kimchi-manufacturing process was investigated. Chinese cabbages brined with 3% and 7% salt contents were stored at
, and kimchi seasoning mixture without salt was stored at
. The changes in pH and total acid of the cabbages were significantly slowly for the brined cabbage of 7% salt and storage at
. Microbial growth including lactic acid bacteria were also increased slowly at
. But, pH and total acid content of the kimchi seasoning mixture were not changed significantly at both temperatures during storage. Sensory evaluation on the kimchi samples showed that the modified method of kimchi preparation with separately stored seasoning mixture and brined cabbages is useful industrially or at home.
Changes in Some Characteristics of Brined Chinese Cabbage of Fall Cultivars During Storage
Lee, In-Seon ; Park, Wan-Soo ; Koo, Young-Jo ; Kang, Kook-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 239~245
Fermentation characteristics and microbial changes during storage of brined Chinese cabbage were investigated. Ten Chinese cabbage cultivars harvested in fall were brined and stored at
. The decrease in pH and increase in total acidity during storage were different in their tendency among the varieties. Microbial growth including lactic acid bacteria was more active at
and most active in `Noranmat'. The reduction of their reducing sugar contents during storage resulted in slow fermentation of kimchi prepared with those cabbage stored. From the results of sensory evaluation on kimchi prepared with each brined Chinese cabbage cultivar in storage, `Keunyureum' among the cultivats stored at
received the highest points on preference. But, at
, `Sinkiwon' received the highest points and 'Noktab' received the lowest points.
Gas Packaging on the Shelf-life of Refrigerated Pork Cuts
Kim, Yong-Su ; Kim, Yun-Ji ; Yoo, Ick-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 246~249
Shelf-life of pork packaged under
was observed and the optimal volume of
gas was determined. High gas barrier film, EVOH(
) was used as packaging material and the volume ratios of sample to
of 1 : 1, 1 : 3 and 1 : 5 were tried using the control of vacuum packaged pork. To ev.3luate quality of pork cuts, total plate counts, TBA, color and sensory score were monitored during the storage at
for 31 days. TPC of vacuum packaged pork increased up to
in 24 days while that of
gas packaged pork
at the same storage period, and it took 7 days more for gas packaged pork to reach the same TPC count. There was no significant difference in TBA value between vacuum packaged and gas packaged pork. In the color L and a values were not affected by treatment but vacuum packaged pork cuts showed higher b value than gas packaged pork. According to sensory evaluation, gas packaged pork showed less off flavor, better flavor and freshness than vacuum packaged one (P<0.05).
Changes in the Quality Characteristics of Freeze-Dried Chungkook-jang Soup
Yi, Ock-Sook ; Hong, Dae-Kwang ; Koo, Min-Seon ; Shin, Dong-Bin ; Chung, Kun-Sub ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 250~254
The quality characteristics of freeze-dried Chungkook-jang soup, stored at
was investigated. Peroxide value(POV) was increased as the storage time was extended. Browning reaction occured earlier in the sample stored at
than those stored at
. Red color developed more intensely in the sample stored at
. However, moisture content was not changed during storage. Regression analyses between sensory scores and quality characteristics showed that the peroxide formation of oil contained in Chungkook-jang soup was the major quality index for the deterioration of Chungkoak-jang soup.
Volatile Flavor Components of Soybean Paste(Doenjang) Prepared from Different Types of Strains
Park, Jung-Suk ; Lee, Myung-Yul ; Kim, Kyong-Su ; Lee, Taik-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 255~260
Four types of soybean paste(Doenjang), using traditional meju, koji, natto meju and mixture of koji and natto meju, were manufactured and fermented for 90 days. Analyzed volatile flavor components by GC-MS were confirmed to be thirty-six components including 5 alcohols, 5 aldehydes. 8 ketones, 3 acids, 9 esters and 6 miscellaneous ones. Traditional soybean paste tested had 29 components, koji and koji-natto soybean paste
and natto soybean paste had 20 ones. Alcohol was found to be the most abundant volatile flavor components in all samples group. Traditional soybean paste had higher ratio of carbonyl to ester than any other types of soybean paste while koji-natto soybean paste had the lowest ratio of their components. The newly identified five volatile flavor components were 3-ethoxy-l-propene, dihydro-2-methyl-3-furanone. 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, 1-(2-furanyl)ethanone and 2-acethyl ethylhexanoate.
Screening for Antimicrobial Compounds in Unused Marine Resources by the Paper Disk Method
Cho, Soon-Yeong ; You, Byeong-Jin ; Chang, Mi-Hwa ; Lee, Soo-Jung ; Sung, Nak-Ju ; Lee, Eung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 261~265
To detect naturally occurring bioactive compounds in unused marine resources such as marine by-products and algae, the screening test for the antimicrobial compounds containing in Asterina pectinifera, Halocynthia rotetzi skin, Nototodarus sloani ink. Anthocidaris crassispina skin, and four algae(Sargassum horneri, Agarum cribrosum, Odonthalia corymbifera and Desmarestia ligulata) was carried out. The minimum inhibitory concentrations(MIC,
) of ether and methanol fractions extracted from Sargassum horneri against Bacillus subtilis were 80 and 70
, respectively. The MICs of the ether, acetone and methanol fractions extracted from Sargassum horneri against Staphylococcus aureus were 160, 180 and 70
, respectively. In addition, the MICs of ether and acetone fractions extracted from Odonthalia corymbifera against Staphylococcus aureus were 50 and 170
, respectively. These nonpolar fractions showed the strongest antimicrobial effect among several fractions extracted from tested marine resources.
Preparation of Yogurt Added with Potato and its Characteristics
Shin, Yong-Seo ; Sung, Hyun-Ju ; Kim, Dong-Han ; Lee, Kap-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 266~271
The curd yogurt (total solid content: 14%) was prepared from milk added with skim milk powder and potato puree. Potato puree comprised 9.5. 13,8 and 17.9% (dry basis) of the milk-potato mixture, and the effect of potato on the quality of yogurt was investigated. Addition of potato remarkably stimulated acid production and propagation of lactic acid bacteria, and viable cells reached above
CFU/ml after 12 hours. As potato content increased, the ratio of lactic acid content to total acidity decreased, while citric acid increased. The major organic acids of yogurt were lactic acid, citric acid, and acetic acid. Viscosity of yogurt was increased in proportion to the increment of the potato content. After 24 hours of incubation, the sensory score of yogurt containing 13.8% (dry basis) potato showed better sensory acceptability. When curd yogurt added with potato was kept at
for 15 day, its keeping quality was relatively good. Viable cells of lactic acid bacteria and
activity decreased rapidly at pH 1.5, and 2.5, but the group added with potato was more stable than control.
Comparative Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Ethylene Oxide Fumigation on Sorption Properties and Microbiological Quality of White Ginseng Powder
Kwon, Joong-Ho ; Byun, Myung-Woo ; Lee, Soo-Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 272~277
The microbial populations of exportable and domestic white ginseng powders, which have been problems in quality control, were higher than the legally-permissive level of microorganisms as
/g in total bacteria and as negative coliforms. Various microorganisms contaminated in the sample were effectively decontaminated by gamma irradiation at below 10 kGy as well as ethylene oxide (EO) fumigation. The radiosens.tivity of microorganisms was the highest in coliforms, followed by molds and aerobic bacteria (
: 1.25 kGy). The good microbiological quality could be retained in white ginseng powders for more than 7 months of storage at
irrespective of relative humidities if products are prepared with a lower moisture content below 10% and treated by gamma irradiation at 5 to 10 kGy in an airtight packaging.
Comparative Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Ethylene Oxide Fumigation on Some Chemical Quality of White Ginseng Powder
Kwon, Joong-Ho ; Byun, Myung-Woo ; Cho, Han-Ok ; Han, Byung-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 278~282
Ginseng saponins and proximate components were considerably resistant to both gamma irradiation at less than 10 kGy and commercial ethylene oxide cycle, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar, pH, and acidity of white ginseng powder were significantly changed by EO fumigation. The contents of saponins, reducing sugar, pH and acidity were relatively liable to change under the higher relative humidity (90%), especially in the non-treated control sample. However, irradiated samples at optimum-dose range (5 to 10 kGy) depending on the microbial load following airtight packaging showed a good chemical quality for 7 months of storage at
irrespective of relative humidity.
Quality Changes of Salted Chinese Cabbage by Packaging Methods during Storage
Han, Eung-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 283~287
The effects of packaging methods on the storage properities of salted Chinese cabbage were examinined during 3-week storage. The weights of salted Chinese cabbage decreased to 69-77% by water loss and salinities decreased from 2.6% to 2.0%, respectively. The pH decreased from 6.4 to 6.2 for 1- week storage in all cases, but the pH increased to 6.6 in non packaging(Non-P), maintained at 6.2 in PVC container packaging(PVC), and decreased continuously to 5.5 and 5.7 in LDPE packaging (LDPE) and HDPE packaging(HDPE), repectively for 3-week storage. Reducing sugars increased slightly for 1-week storage for the relative concentration effect by water loss, but decreased to 1.8% for 3-week storage because of the microbial fermentation. Cutting force increased in LDPE for the continuous osmosis phenomena but decreased in Non-P for the putrefaction. As the results, LDPE was found to be the most effective packaging method.
Composition, Water-Holding Capacity and Effect on Starch Retrogradation of Rice Bran Dietary Fiber
Lee, Young-Heon ; Moon, Tae-Wha ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 288~294
Dietary fiber contents in brans of the two representative Korean rice varieties, Chucheong and Sucheon were measured by the AOAC method, and the composition of total dietary fiber (TDF) was analyzed with the acid detergent fiber (ADF) procedure. Rice bran contained more than 25% of TDF, most of which was insoluble dietary fiber. Hemicellulose was shown to be the major constituent and rice bran dietary fiber contained distinctive amounts of cellulose and uronic acid. Consecutive acidalkaline treatment of rice bran considerably increased soluble dietary fiber (SDF) content and water-holding capacity (WHC). WHC of wheat flour-rice bran dietary fiber mixture increased with the proportion of rice bran dietary fiber. Analysis of the differential scanning calorimetry thermograms revealed that rice bran dietary fiber effectively retarded retrogradation of wheat starch.
Investigation of Selective Medium for Isolation and Enumeration of Bacteroides sp. from the Feces of the Korean People
Ji, Geun-Eog ; Kim, In-Hee ; Lee, Se-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 295~299
Vancomycin inhibited the growth of the most large intestinal bacteria other than Bacteroides sp. and E. coli. Since Bacteroides are predominant compared with E. coli in the large intestinal tract of the adult, vancomycin-added medium(VA) was shown to be an effective selective medium for Bacteroides. VA showed comparable or better selectivity for Bacteroides sp. to NBGT which is being used currently as a most frequently used selective medium for Bacteroides in Japan.
Effect of Storage Temperature on the Physicochemical Characteristics in Kochujang(Red Pepper Soybean Paste)
Shin, Dong-Bin ; Park, Woo-Mun ; Yi, Ock-Sook ; Koo, Min-Seon ; Chung, Kun-Sub ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 300~304
To predict quality change of Kochujang distributed in the market, physicochemical properties were observed during storage at
for 240 days. Moisture, crude protein and capsaicin contents were nearly constant for storage at the selected temperatures. Amino nitrogen, value of surface color and pH were decreased during storage while ammonia nitrogen and titratable acidity were increased. Storage temperature affected quality change significantly as higher temperature showed clear increase or decrease phenomena of above factors. Number of total cell count was not changed significantly, and fungi was not detected. From the correlation coefficient among physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation scores, the highest correlation was obtained in amino nitrogen content and sensory score. Degradation of amino nitrogen was a first order reaction, and the
value calculated from reaction constant was 2.98. Also, activation energy for the destruction of amino nitrogen calculated from Arrhenius equation was 15.34 Kcal/mole.
Preparation Condition and Product Quality of Precooked Redbean Porridge
Kim, Chong-Tai ; Kim, Bok-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 305~309
Precooked powder of redbean porridge (RP) was prepared by the series of process extrusion, drying, milling and blending with a mixture of whole redbean flour and corn starch and others. The optimum process and quality of products for RP were investigated. After extrusion under the moisture content 24 to 26%, twin screw speed 350 rpm, extrusion temperature 150 to
and feed rate 60 kg/hr, the product had a higher quality with its natural redbean flavor/color. During the extrusion process, extrusion temperature and specific mechanical energy increased from 150 to
and from 134 to 144 kwh/ton respectively, as the amount of addition water decreased from 6 to 2 kg/hr. By the hot air drying of redbean extrudate (RE). it could be dried below to 4% moisture content, of which level considered as an optimal moisture content for anti-caking of the powdered product, at
for 4hrs and at
for 1.5 hrs respectively. In the sieve analysis of extrudate powder, when the product milled through a mesh size of 0.5 mm or 1.0 mm, about 80% or 65% of the feed was passed a 65 mesh screen respectively. Moisture absorption of final blended products was formed a cake under 100% of relative humidity after 13 hrs of storage. As the amount of RE powder reduced, the flavor score of products decreased by sensory evaluation of products prepared by the different ratio of RE powder, corn starch and sugar.
Analysis of Phenolic Substances Content in Korean Plant Foods
Lee, Jung-Hi ; Lee, Su-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 310~316
The phenolic substances contents of 45 plant foods in Korean diet were determined by different methods. Total phenolics contents by Folin-Denis method were
(dry matter basis), in which persimmon leaf, chestnut's inner skin, Chinese quince, walnut, sunflower seed and arrowroot exhibited the higher levels above 2%. Condensed tannin contents by vanillin method were
, in which Chinese quince and chestnut's inner layer gave very high levels. Protein-precipitable phenolic substances ranged from 0.4% to 2.2%, in which chestnut's inner layer, walnut and Chinese quince had the highest content. The ability of phenolics to form precipitate was higher with pepsin and albumin than with trypsin. Among different phenolics content, total phenlolics correlated significantly with protein-precipitable phenolics (r=0.65) and condensed tannin (r=0.56). Chinese quince, chestnut's inner skin and sorghum showed a relatively lower degree of polymerization, as expressed by vanillin/FolinDenis ratio. Processed foods from buckwheat, acorn, mugwort and arrowroot showed a lower content of phenolic substances, suggesting a negligible adverse effect on the bioavailability of food proteins, if any.
Some Physiological Activity of Phenolic Substances in Plant Foods
Lee, Jung-Hi ; Lee, Su-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 317~323
Nine plant foods (persimmon leaf, perilla seed, Chinese quince, ginger root, walnut, mugwort leaf, arrowroot, buckwheat and sorghum) rich in phenolic substances were examined for their effects on the digestive enzymes, food-poisoning bacteria and mutagenicity/antimutagenicity by Ames test. Among tested samples, Chinese quince significantly inhibited the
activity (97%), exhibiting an uncompetitive inhibition type. Protease activity was inhibited by Chinese quince (86%), persimmon leaf (51%) and mugwort leaf (20%), in which mugwort extract exhibited a noncompetitive type. Lipase was activated >50% by all samples. The inhibition of
was highly correlated with the content of condensed tannin (r=0.89) and the inhibition of protease, with total phenolic content (r=0.84). Total phenolies fraction of tested samples showed the growth inhibition toward E. coli. Streptococcus faecalis and Salmonella enteritidis, in which the effect of perilla, sorghum and arrowroot was the highest for E. coli. Standard phenolics and food samples did not show any mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Tannic acid inhibited the mutation of the two strains by benzo[a]pyrene whereas total phenolics fractions of Chinese quince and walnut exhibited antimutagenicity to a lesser extent.
Changes in Properties of Kimchi Prepared with Different Kinds and Levels of Salted and Fermented Seafoods during Fermentation
Kim, Kwang-Ok ; Kim, Won-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 324~330
This study was conducted to examine the effects of the kinds and the levels of salted and fermented seafoods, shrimp and juice of anchovy, on the properties of kimchi during fermentation. There were no significant differences in pH and contents of total acid, reducing sugar, and organic acid examined except lactic acid contents among the kimchi samples at the same fermentation period. Until four days of fermentation, kimchi containing higher level of salted and fermented anchovy juice tended to have greater number of total microorganisms and of Leuconostoc genus microorganisms than the other kimchi samples. Sensory characteristics were not significantly different among the samples at the same fermentation period. significant decrease in pH and in reducing sugar content, and increase in total acid content were noticed in all the kimchi samples during fermentation. This was more marked in kimchi samples containg salted and fermented seafoods. Contents of malic and succinic acids decreased while those of actic and acetic acids increased with longer fermentation. There were significant changes in the numbers of microorganisms during fermentation. Carbonic mouthfeel, salty taste, sour taste and staled flay or of all the kimchi samples increased while firmness and crispness decreased with extended fermentation.
Prediction of Shelf-life of Instant Noodle by Hexanal Content
Kim, Bok-Soon ; Kim, Sung-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 331~335
The shelf-life of instant noodle stored at
under dark condition was estimated from the change of hexanal content, which was linearly increased as the storage time increased. The rate constants of hexanal production at various storage temperatures followed Arrhenius relationship. The activation energy and
calculated were 12.7 kcal/mole and 1.92, respectively. The rancid flavor was organoleptically detected after 6 days at
and 13 days
, at which the content of hexanal was 3.5 ppm. The shelf-life of instant noddle at
value of hexanal production was about 110 days. The changes of acid value and peroxide value of instant noodle during storage followed similar pattern to those of hexanal. The activation energy and
for both acid value and peroxide value were 16.0 kcal/mole and 2.55, respectively. The hexanal content showed a high positive correlation with acid value as well as peroxide value at all storage temperatures.
Changes in Physicochemical Characteristics of Immature Barley Kernels during Roasting
Lee, Young-Tack ; Seog, Ho-Moon ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Kim, Kyung-Tack ; Hong, Hee-Do ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1994, Pages 336~342
Changes in physicochemical characteristics were investigated for immature barley kernels roasted at
min. Only small differences in chemical constituents including starch, protein, fat, ash, total dietary fiber, and
were observed between immature and mature barley kernels. The amounts of 75% ethanol-soluble sugars and amino acids present in immature barley kernels were considerably higher than those in mature kernels, and gradually decreased in the process of roasting. Of free sugars, sucrose, raffinose, glucodifructose(
) and maltose were reduced by roasting. Glucose and fructose, simple reducing sugars, decreased at the early stage of roasting, followed by a slight increase at the later stage. Starch and nitrogen contents decreased slowly, while TDF(total dietary fiber) had a tendency to increase slightly. Stacking volume of immature barley kernels increased markedly, especially at the higher temperatures. L value of immature barley decreased throughout roasting, and a, b values increased at the early stage of roasting but b value decreased with continued roasting. The degree of roasting was strongly affected by the roasting temperature. Darkness of immature barley kernel, depending on the degree of roasting, was highly associated with concentrations of brown pigments extracted from roasted immature barley kernels.