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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 1996
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 1996
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 1996
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 1996
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 1996
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 1996
Selecting the target year
Preparation of Cellulose-Based Edible Film and its Physical Characteristics
Song, Tae-Hee ; Kim, Chul-Jai ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 1~7
Three formulations were used to prepare the cellulose-based edible films consisting of hydrocolloid and lipids; film A made by coating method, films B and C by emulsion method, which were formed in a thin layer glass plate and then dried. Films A, B and C were all approximately 0.03 mm thick with 1-3% moisture, 59-68% lipid, and almost whitish color. Film A was better in tensile strength, and lipids affected water vapor permeability on three films, in which films A and B did not differ significantly. Water vapor permeability of film A did not change but those of films B and C decreased significantly after storage for 8 weeks at
. Oxygen transmission rate and oxygen permeability of films A and C did not differ and changed significantly after 8-week storage at
. Under scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation on the structural characteristics of each film, film A indicated relatively uniform and smooth surface coatings of beeswax, while films B and C had individual lipid crystals and could be discerned. As a result, film A was better than films B and C in respect of physical properties, but the selection of useful film depended upon which physical property was more functional. Moreover, it was desirable in some cases for using films B and C because of their easiness of preparation and cold storage durability. It will be further needed to investigate how to formulate films B and C to have more unique surface characteristics, and to reduce water vapor and oxygen transmission rates.
Effects of Pasteurization and Storage Temperatures on the Quality of Orange Juice
Jang, Kyung-Won ; Hur, Jae-Kwan ; Kim, Sang-Kyo ; Baek, Young-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 8~14
The effects of temperature variations during storage, pasteurization on the quality of orange juices were investigated. To evaluate the quality of orange juices pasteurized at 75, 85 and
for 15 sec, microbial and physicochemical measurements and sensory evaluations were conducted during storage at 10, 20 and
for 32days. Color(lightness) and contents of vitamin C and sucrose were not changed at
, but decreased at
as the storage time was increased. The pasteurization temperature had a little effect on the color and the contents of vitamin C and sucrose. Furfural contents were apparently increased as the storage period extended, but the samples stored at
had less amounts than the others. On the other hand, the pasteurization temperature did not affect furfural accumulation. Furfural was produced as a result of the degradation of vitamin C and deterioration of the color. The PH values were not changed during the entire storage period, and microorganisms were not detected in most of the samples. The result of sensory evaluation indicated no taste difference between the control and the sample stored at
, but the taste changes were recognized when the samples were stored over 24 and 20 days at
, respectively. Therefore, the storage temperature affected the quality of orange juices more markedly than the pasteurization temperature, and the storage at lower temperature appears to reduce the deterioration of orange juices.
Studies on the Aroma Components of Roasted and Ground Coffee
Baik, Hee-Jun ; Ko, Young-Su ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 15~18
Twenty different kinds of roasted and ground coffees, 9 domestic and 11 foreign coffee products, were analyzed using a headspace gas chromatographic technique. Among many aroma compounds, acetaldehyde, acetone, carbon disulfide, isobutylaldehyde, 2-methylfuran, 2-methylbutanol and isovaleraldehyde were mainly analyzed for aroma pattern. Roasting color was determined by Photovolt colorimeter. The average roasting color of the foreign coffee was 54 and 47 for domestic coffee. It means that color of the domestic coffee was darker than that of the foreign coffee. The correlation of coefficient between roasting color and 2-methylfuran was 0.712.
Chemical Constituents of Korean Chopi (Zanthoxylum piperitum) and Sancho (Zanthoxylum schinifolium)
Ko, Young-Su ; Han, Hee-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 19~27
Zanthoxylum piperitum and Z. schinifolium have been utilized not only as food stuffs, but also as medicinal plants in Korea. In this study, lipids, sugar, amino acids and other components of Zanthoxylum piperitum and Z. schinifolium peels and seeds were analyzed by HPLC and GLC. Four samples contained common fatty acids such as linoleic, linolenic, palmitic, oleic and stearic acid. The contents of unsaturated fatty acids were 87.1% and 64.8% in Z. schinifolium peels and seeds, 73.6% and 62.9% in Z. piperitum peels and seeds, respectively. Z. schinifolium peels contained only beta-sitosterol, whereas other three samples contained campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. In case of free amino acids, peels of both species showed higher contents of acids than seeds of both species. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, valine, and leucine were found in all four samples. Essential oils consisted of limonene (30.1-66.8%), beta-phellandrene (4.8-13.3%), citronellal (1.5-22%) and cineol (1.6-3.9%). It is worthwhile to note that the content of citronellal in Z. schinifolium seeds was higher than that of the others.
Analysis of Mugwort Oligosaccharides Utilized by Bifidobacteria
Lee, Seon-Hwa ; Shin, Hyun-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 28~33
The water extract of mugwort was analyzed to see its growth-promoting activity for bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. The growth of bifidobacteria appeared to be enhanced by carbon source in the water extract of mugwort. Bifidobacterium longum seemed to utilize preferentially monosaccharides and oligosaccharides with 2-5 DP (degree of polymerization). The mugwort oligosaccharides were separated by charcoal-celite column chromatography and purified by Bio-gel
column chromatography. HPLC chromatograms of the hydrolyzates of oligosaccharides showed that they were mainly composed of galactose and glucose.
Effect of Buckwheat Polysaccharides on Digestive Enzyme Activity In Vitro
Lee, Jung-Sun ; Ra, Kyung-Soo ; Son, Heung-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 34~39
We examined the effects of crude hemicellulose, alcohol-insoluble hemicellulose, high molecular weight soluble polysaccharide (HMS-P : MW>10 kDa) and low molecular weight souble polysaccharide (LMS-P : MW<10 kDa) fraction isolated from buckwheat (raw, roast and steam) on digestive enzyme activity in vitro. The enzyme activities were measured after the polysaccharides-enzyme mixtures were incubated at
for 5 min. Crude hemicellulose, alcohol-insoluble hemicellulose and residue lowered
activity, whereas HMS-P and LMS-P had no inhibitory effect. All polysaccharides except LMS-P lowered lipase activity. Crude hemicellulose, alcohol-insoluble hemicellulose, residue and HMS-P showed a marked decrease of trypsin and chymotrypsin activity but LMS-P showed a slight decrease of them.
Measurement of Mayonnaise Salt Content by Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Cha, Ik-Soo ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Hyeon-Wee ; Kim, Hyung-Chan ; Lee, Yoon-Kyoung ; Park, Ki-Moon ; Yoo, Moo-Yeung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 40~43
Our objective was to evaluate the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to determine the salt content of mayonnaise. The calibration equation for salt developed using partial least square regression was compared with conventional method. 100 samples for calibration set and 40 samples for validation set were used. The multiple correlation coefficient was 0.946 and standard error of prediction was 0.017, when calibration equation was applied to validation set. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method for determining salt content of mayonnaise appears quite satisfactory to evaluate nondestructively.
Classification of Rices on the Basis of Sensory Properties of Cooked Rices and the Physicochemical Properties of Rice Starches
Jang, Kyung-Ah ; Shin, Myung-Gon ; Hong, Sung-Hee ; Min, Bong-Ki ; Kim, Kwang-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 44~52
Sensory properties of cooked rice were affected by the varieties and growing environments of the rice. Moistness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of cooked rice were highly and positively correlated each other, whereas firmness was negatively correlated with these attributes. Sixty rice samples which differed in varieties and/or growing environments were divided into four groups based on their textural properties through principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Quality type I showed the highest values for moistness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness, and the lowest values for firmness of cooked rice. On the other hand, quality type IV showed just the opposite values. There was no significant difference among rice starches in amylose content (P<0.05). A17 (type III) and A09 (type IV) had higher blue values for starch and amylopectin than the other samples (type I and II). On the amylogram, these samples showed lower values for breakdown and higher values for setback than the other samples. Average degree of polymerization, average chain length, and average number of chains for amylose and amylopectin were 597-878 and 2660-3140, 140-230 and 17-19, and 3.1-4.9 and 140-170, respectively.
Composition and Functionality of Chonma
Chung, Hyun-Seo ; Ji, Geun-Eog ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 53~57
As the production of chonma became increased by the farmer's cultivation, developments of the processed food such as tea using chonma have been actively pursued. In the present study, the components of chonma and its beneficial effects on health using SD (Sprague-Dawley) rat model were analyzed. The contents of moisture, protein, ash, fat and fiber in dried-chonma were 11.8, 7.6, 3.2, 0.5, and 3.9%(w/w), respectively. The contents of calcium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium were 121, 83, 6.2, 170, 69 and 1,278 mg%. When chow diets containing 0, 0.15, 1.5 or 5.0% chonma powder were fed to SD rats for 4 weeks, no significant differences were observed in the composition of the large-intestinal flora,
level of the large-intestinal contents and the weight gains of rats. The level of
was higher and the serum cholesterol level was lower in 5.0% chonma group compared with control group. The highest sedative effect was shown in 0.15% chonma group.
Effects of Alkaline Reagent on the Rheological Properties of Wheat Flour and Noodle Property
Kim, Sung-Kon ; Kim, Heung-Rae ; Bang, Jung-Bum ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 58~65
The effects of sodium carbonate (Na), potassuim carbonate (K) and their mixtures (Na/K=0.7-2.0) on pasting properties by amylograph and mixing properties by farinograph of wheat flour (9.45% protein), and of alkali mixtures (0.16%) on noodle property were examined. The concentrations of alkali used were 0.08%, 0.10% and 0.16% based on flour weight (14% mb). The salt (1.7%) and alkali decreased the initial pasting temperature but increased the amylograph peak viscosity. The peak viscosity increased with the increase of alkali concentration, but the mixing ratio at a fixed concentration had no effect on peak viscosity. The farinograph absorption decreased by salt, but the effect of salt diminished in the presence of alkali. The salt and alkali increased the farinograph stability, of which the former was more pronounced. The effect of alkali alone and mixtures in the presence of salt on amylograph and farinograph were essentially the same regardless the concentrations and mixing ratios. The yellowness and breaking force of dry noodle prepared with salt and alkali was higher than that prepared with salt only. The weight and volume gain of the optimum cooked noodle remained essentially constant, but the shear force and compression force were increased by the alkali.
Antimicrobial Activity of Water Extract of Green Tea against Cooked Rice Putrefactive Microorganism
Roh, Hyun-Jeong ; Shin, Yong-Seo ; Lee, Kap-Sang ; Shin, Mee-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 66~71
To extend shelf life of cooked rice, main putrefactive microorganism isolated from cooked rice were identified by using the API 50 CHB kit and fatty acid analysis of the cell and antimicrobial activity of water extract of green tea was tested against isolated strains and some type of strains. The growths of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Bacillus cereus YUFE 2004 and Staphylococcus aureus YUFE 2087 were inhibited in broth containing 500 and 1000 ppm of green tea extract. Main putrefactive microorganisms of cooked rice were identified as Bacillus subtilis RHJ-I and Bacillus subtilis RHJ-II. Green tea extract of 500 and 1000 ppm level inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis RHJ-I only.
Hot Air Drying Characteristics of Oak Mushroom (Lentinus edodes) by Microcomputer Control System
Park, Jae-Deok ; Kang, Hyun-Ah ; Chang, Kyu-Seob ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 72~76
Hot air drying of Lentinus edodes was studied using the microcomputer drying system that can control the drying parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity and a weight-loss of water. The physico-chemical properties of dried products were measured in order to investigate the drying characteristics. The mechanism of water movement during air drying of Lentinus edodes closely followed the Page model. That was
and 20% RH. The free amino acids increased with increased relative humidity. The color and browning degree increased with increased air temperature and relative humidity. The rehydration rate was low when the air temperature and relative humidity were high.
Antioxidative Activity of Some Solvent Extract from Caesalpinia sappan L.
Lim, Dae-Kwan ; Choi, Ung ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 77~82
Antioxidative activity of the extract from Caesalpinia sappan L. by various solvent was compared with several commercial antioxidants, using the Rancimat method. AI (antioxidative index; induction period of oil containing extract/induction period of control oil) of all extracts were higher than commercial antioxidants, such as BHA,
and ascorbic acid. The ethanol extract was fractionated by liquid liquid extraction. Ethyl acetate fraction showed higher AI than the whole crude extract. When comparing POV and TBA value of palm oil and lard containing different level of each fraction, the oxidative stability of ethyl acetate fraction at 200 ppm level on palm oil and lard were similar to that of BHT at 200 ppm level, and better than BHA,
Antioxidative Activity of Ethanol Extract from Korean Medicinal Plants
Lim, Dae-Kwan ; Choi, Ung ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 83~89
To evaluate the antioxidative activity of the ethanol extracts from 116 domestic medicinal plants, each extract was added to palm oil and lard in 1,000 ppm level, and the induction time was measured by Rancimat method. Almost all plant extracts tested showed more or less antioxidative activity. The extracts which had strong antioxidative activity to palm oil and lard were Caesalpinia sappan L., Paeonia japonica Miyabe et Takeda, Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw and Crcumae longa L. These extracts were fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Ethyl acetate layer of Caesalpinia sappan L. and Paeonia japonica Miyabe et Takeda showed marked antioxidative activity, and chloroform layer of Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw and Crcumae longa L. ethanol extract had stronger antioxidative activity than all the other layers.
Mineral Contents of Korean Apples and Apple Juices
Kim, Tae-Rang ; Whang, Hea-Jeang ; Yoon, Kwang-Ro ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 90~98
The mineral contents were analyzed for 12 varieties of Korean apples and 9 commercial apple juices by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the fresh matter basis, the ash contents of tested apples ranged 0.21-0.48%, Mn 0.20-2.52 ppm, Cu 0.10-1.03 ppm, Fe 0.24-9.88 ppm, Zn 0.09-1.06 ppm, Mg 21.08-99.00 ppm, Ca 15.16-99.56 ppm, K 842.10-1788.10 ppm, Na 10.32-40.53 ppm, P 24.43-90.07 ppm, Pb nd-98.05 ppb, Cd nd-36.08 ppb and Cr 2.25-123.76 ppb. Overally mineral contents of Aori and Jonathan were higher than those of Fuji. The mineral contents of apple cultivated at Wonju, Kangwon and Taegu,
were higher than those of the other growing region. The mineral contents of commercial apple juice were ash 0.13-0.36%, Mn 0.24-0.99 ppm, Cu 0.10-0.61 ppm, Fe 0.19-3.70 ppm. Zn 0.20-1.77 ppm, Mg 18.16-49.56 ppm, Ca 14.42-42.30 ppm, K 785.07-1440.30 ppm, Na 14.71-52.58 ppm, P 16.57-63.56 ppm, Pb nd-95.55 ppb, Cd nd-17.65 ppb and Cr 8.60-110.98 ppb, respectively. Comparing mineral contents of apples and commercial apple juices, Cu, Mg, K, Ca and Fe contents of apples were higher and Zn, Na contents were lower than those of apple Juices.
The Production of Functional Peptide from Whey Using Immobilized Trypsin
Park, Yun-Joo ; Yun, Yeo-Pyo ; Lee, Hyung-Joo ; Jang, Hae-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 99~104
Carbohydrate-free caseinomacropeptide (CMP) was isolated from the sweet whey powder by a precipitation method using 12% trichloroacetic acid. The yield of carbohydrate-free CMP was 2.7 g from 100 g sweet whey powder. The electrophoretic pattern and the amino acid analysis of CMP showed that isolated CMP was quite pure, indicating the precipitation with 12% trichloroacetic acid was very effective for isolating carbohydrate-free CMP from the sweet whey powder. Trypsin, covalently immobilized on pore glass beads by carbodiimide (EDC) method, was 20mg per 1g glass beads. CMP was almost completely hydrolyzed by soluble trypsin in 24hr, but not by immobilized trypsin. The tryptic hydrolysates were fractionated on a Bio-Gel P 4 column
and separated peptides were tested for their capacities to inhibit platelet aggregation using a aggregometer. The hydrolysate obtained from CMP after 24hr digestion by immobilized trypsin showed the highest activity.
Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Shelf-life and Sensory Characteristics of Angelica keiskei Juice
Lee, Dong-Un ; Park, Ji-Yong ; Kang, Jung-Il ; Yeo, Ick-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 105~108
Microbial and sensory changes during storage at
of Angelica keiskei juice pressurized at
for 7 min, an optimum process condition suggested from the previous study, were investigated. Pseudomonas, which is responsible for putrefaction of refrigerated food, was totally inactivated by pressurization. E. coli and coliform bacteria were also completely inactivated. According to the sensory evaluation data, high hydrostatic pressure does not change sensory characteristics of freshness, sweetness and bitterness (P<0.05). However, after 8 day storage at
, pressurized Angelica keiskei juice showed higher freshness than untreated control. These results indicated that the high hydrostatic pressure can be used as an effective process method for preserving Angelica keiskei juice.
Physicochemical Properties of Antioxidant Fractions Extracted from Freeze-Dried Coffee by Various Solvents
Rhi, Ju-Won ; Shin, Hyo-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 109~116
The relationship between antioxidant activities and physicochemical properties of several fractions obtained from freeze-dried (FD) coffee were investigated. The nine kinds of fraction were consecutively extracted from FD coffee with solvents in increasing order of polarity, and the higher polarity of the solvent the higher extraction yield of the fraction. The antioxidant activities of the fractions were determined by Rancimat and oven test on edible oils. The antioxidant activities of the fractions increased in the order of acetone>ethanol>methanol>50% methanol/water>water fraction, and the antioxidant activities of them were higher on lard than on soybean oil. The antioxidant activity of each fraction was strongly related to the contents of total phenol, total nitrogen content and acidity, whereas color intensity, reducing power, carboxylic acid content showed little contribution to the activity. All fractions had three peaks maxima at 208, 275 and 324 nm on UV-visible spectra, but the only one at 324 nm was linealy proportional to the antioxidant activities of the fractions.
Studies on the Souring of Hansan Sogokju (Korean Traditional Rice Wine)
Lee, Chan-Yong ; Kim, Tae-Wook ; Sung, Chang-Keun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 117~121
In order to find the reason for souring of Hansan sogokju (Korean traditional rice wine), microbial distribution, pH change and organic acids were analysed. Besides 161 mM of lactic acid as a major organic acid, small amount of acetic acid, malic acid, propionic acid were found in sogokju. Four different microbial strains were identified from the sogokju. These are two strains of Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus sp. and yeast. The pH of sogokju was changed from 4.01 to 3.29 during 18 days storage at
. Amount of total acidity increased from 9 to 34.86 at the same condition. Notable change in the soured sogokju was an increase of the lactic acid (from 161 mM to 192 mM). So, we could assume that it was soured by an additional production of lactic acid by lactic acid bacteria during storage. The shelf life of sogokju was 41 days below
degree because this temperature was hard condition for the growth of Lactobacillus spp., causative bacteria responsible for additional lactic acid production.
Change of Yeast Growth and Its RNA Content in Fed-batch Fermentation
Kim, Sung-Yong ; Nam, Hee-Sop ; Lee, Hyung-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 122~126
Growth patterns of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NS 2031 and its total RNA contents were observed by a fed-batch fermentation with different media-feeding methods. With an exponential feeding pattern, both final cell concentrations and intracellular RNA contents decreased with increasing feeding rates. Intracellular RNA contents also decreased with the growth time. At the same feeding rate of the exponential pattern, final cell concentrations decreased with the increase of total sugar concentration whereas intracellular RNA contents increased. The highest cellular yield was 0.47 at the total sugar concentration of 10%. With increasing feeding rates of the parabolic feeding pattern, final cell concentrations decreased whereas intracellular RNA contents increased, showing a different tendency from the exponential feeding pattern. In comparison of two feeding methods, the exponential feeding pattern was better than the parabolic feeding pattern in terms of cell growth, cellular yields and intracellular RNA contents of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NS 2031. Also, the intracellular RNA contents of the exponential feeding pattern was found to be about 2% higher than that of the parabolic feeding pattern at the same instantaneous growth rate
Changes of Chemical Composition and Microflora in Bottled Vacuum Packed Kimchi during Storage at Different Temperature
Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Kim, Moon-Sook ; Han, Ji-Sook ; Lim, Dae-Kwan ; Park, Jun-Myeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 127~136
Mak-kimchi (shredded kimchi) which was prepared in a commercial factory was packed in bottle (200 g) under vacuum (560 mmHg) or atmosphere, and chemical characteristics and microbiological parameters were monitored during storage at 5, 15 and
, respectively. Optimum ripening time of the kimchi at different temperature were 2 days at
, 5 days at
and more than 60 days at
. By vacuum treatment pH and acidity changes in kimchi were considerably retarded. The vacuum of each bottle released within 1 or 2 days at 25 or
, respectively but the pack at
maintained more than 380 mmHg vacuum for 36 days and then the vacuum slowly released. The colour of kimchi (lightness, redness, yellowness) in bottle increased sharply at
but sustained a stable level with vacuum treatment at
. The range of total viable count of kimchi in bottle was
. The number decreased by storage temperature drop to
and even more vacuum treatment than atmosphere treatment at
. Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, Aerococcus viridans and Streptococcus faecium subsp. casseliflavus were identified in bottled kimchi and L. brevis and L. plantarum contributed to the main function during kimchi fermentation. Those main lactic acid bacteria decreased in numbers at
than 25 or
and even more declined in case of vacuum treatment.
Changes of Chemical Composition and Microflora in Commercial Kimchi
Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Kim, Moon-Sook ; Han, Ji-Sook ; Lim, Dae-Kwan ; Bak, Wan-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 137~145
Chemical changes, lactic acid bacteria and yeast counts in kimchi prepared by a commercial manufacturer in large scale were monitored at different fermentation temperature. The optimum pH of kimchi, around pH 4.2, reached within 2 days at
, 3 days at
and 23 days at
fermentation, respectively. The optimum acidity calculated as lactic acid was not exactly coincident with pH. The total viable count reached at maximum within 2 days at
, 6 days at
and 12 days at
fermentation, respectively. The identified strains of Lactobacilli during kimchi fermentation were L. brevis, L. plantarum and L. acidophilus with 3 unidentified strains. L. brevis, L. plantarum appeared from the first stage of fermentation to the terminal at
with keeping a constant level of viable number. In case of Leuconostoc species, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides was identified. This strain increased in viable number at the beginning of fermentation and dropped sharply at all fermentation temperatures. Pediococcus species including P. pentosaceus and one unidentified strain increased at the first stage of fermentation and decreased after on. Streptococcus faecium subsp. casseliflavus which appeared at the middle stage and Aerococcus viridans which was sole strain were also confirmed during kimchi fermentation. Cryptococcus laurenti was identified at all fermentation temperature and disappeared at the first stage of fermentation. It was reappeared 10 days only after fermentation at
Preparation of Oligosaccharides from Alginic Acid by Enzymic Hydrolysis
Joo, Dong-Sik ; Lee, Jung-Suck ; Park, Jung-Je ; Cho, Soon-Yeong ; Kim, Hee-Kyung ; Lee, Eung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 146~151
For the purpose of production of oligosaccharides from alginates, a bacterium was isolated from seaweed, and then an enzyme which degraded alginates was obtained from the bacterium. A specific activity of the enzyme was shown in G-rich block and Na-alginate (Wako Co.) as a result of reaction between the enzyme and six types of alginates (G-rich block, M-rich block and 4 commercial Na-alginate). Degradation products were prepared from the Na-alginate (Wako Co.) by the enzyme. The oligosaccharides were fractioned by Sephadex G-25 and Bio-gel P-2 and identified on a thin layer chromatography (TLC). Degree of polymerization (DP) of the oligosaccharides was shown from 2.6 to 7.5.
Studies on Taste Components of Traditional Kochujang
Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Kim, Dong-Han ; Choi, Ung ; Lim, Dae-Kwan ; Lim, Mi-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 152~156
Taste components of traditional kochujang from 55 households were investigated. The major free sugars in traditional kochujang (fermented hot pepper-soybean paste) were glucose
and the minors were fructose
acids in traditional kochujang were found in large amounts and acetic, oxalic, and formic acids in smaller amounts. The traditional kochujang contained large amounts of proline
, glutamic acid
, aspartic acid
, and serine
, and the total free amino acid content was 64.35mg%. Among the nucleotides and their related compounds in traditional kochujang, CMP
were the most abundant major compounds and hypoxanthine
were found in smaller amounts, and AMP and UMP were also found in minor.
Studies on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Traditional Kochujang
Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Kim, Dong-Han ; Choi, Ung ; Lim, Dae-Kwan ; Lim, Mi-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 157~161
Physicochemical and microbial characteristics of traditional kochujang (fermented hot pepper-soybean paste) collected from 55 households at different regions were investigated. The traditional kochujang contained
amino nitrogen and
ethanol. The pH and titrable acidity were
, respectively. The average water activity of traditional kochujang were
. The Hunter L, a, and b values of kochujang were
, respectively. The viable cell counts of aerobic, anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the traditional kochujang were
, respectively. The kochujang collected from various regions showed quite strong liquefying and saccharogenic amylase and protease at different level by samples.
Organoleptic Sweetness of Aspartame as Affected by Temperature, pH, Salt and Quinine
Chung, Nam-Yong ; Kim, Woo-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 162~168
Effects of temperature, pH and addition of NaCl and quinine on sweetness and recognition threshold of aspartame were investigated. Changes in flavor of some foods were also studied when aspartame was added. The sweetness of 0.02% aspartame, the equi-sweetness of 4.3% sugar, was organoleptically evaluated by multiple comparison test at variouse range of temperature (
), pH (3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5), NaCl (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%) and quinine (0.001, 0.003 and 0.005%). The highest sweetness was obtained at
and pH 3.0-4.5. Addition of NaCl at 0.5% level showed the highest sweetness which was decreased thereafter. The sweetness was significantly decreased by the addition of quinine. The recognition threshold of aspartame was the lowest at
and pH 3.0-4.5. Lower in bitterness and higher In ginseng flavor were noted in ginseng tea with aspartame than in that without aspartame. Improved roasted flavor and decreased undesirable odor and taste were resulted in soymilk with the addition of aspartame. The flavors of orange, apple and strawberry were enhanced by aspartame in orange juice, apple juice and strawberry juice, respectively.
Effect of Screw Configurations and Process Parameters on Characteristics of Wheat Bran Extrudates
Kim, Chong-Tai ; Hwang, Jae-Kwan ; Cho, Sung-Ja ; Kim, Chul-Jin ; Kim, Hae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 169~178
Target parameters such as water solubility index (WSI), intrinsic viscosity (IV), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and microstructure were investigated on three different screw configurations during twin-screw extrusion of wheat bran. WSI of raw wheat bran (RWB) was 13.7%, while that of extrudates ranged
when extruded using screw configurations with 5 reverse screw elements (RSE). It was found that the moisture content of RWB greatly affected WSI of extrudates. IV of wheat bran extrudates increased from 10.6 ml/g of RWB to
of extrudates extruded using 3, 4 and 5 RSE, whose trend was highly related to the moisture content of RWB and the extrusion pressure. Multiplication of IV and soluble solid (SS) content exhibited good correlation
with specific mechanical energy (SME). The results suggested that SS and molecular size are an important factor governed by the SME in solubilization of wheat bran. WHC increased with increasing feed rate and moisture content, while OHC decreased. SDF increased from 2.68% of RWB to
of extruded wheat bran, indicating the significant breakdown of cell wall components. Microstructure of the extrudates showed the distinct patterns of degradation and solubilization of cell wall structure, depending on the moisture content of RWB.
Oxidative Stability of DHA Added Mayonnaise
Kim, Jae-Wook ; Shim, Joong-Hwan ; Kim, Jong-Soo ; Han, Seung-Su ; Yoo, Moo-Yeong ; Hur, Jong-Wha ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 179~183
The objective of this study was to investigate the difference of oxidative stability between DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) added and not added commercial mayonnaise, and then to find out stable condition for maintaining the quality of DHA added mayonnaise. During the storage at room temperature
, it showed that DHA added commercial mayonnaise was more sensitive to oxidation than DHA not added commercial mayonnaise. And sensory quality of DHA added commercial mayonnaise decreased drastically after 5 months from the production date of mayonnaise. During the storage at low temperature
, DHA added mayonnaise was also more sensitive to oxidation than DHA not added mayonnaise, but it showed no apparent and sensory problem with both samples during 8 months of cold storage test periods. In considering the distribution condition of mayonnaise in the country, it was suggested that shelf-life of the DHA added commercial mayonnaise should be shortened 2 or 3 months than that of the DHA not added commercial mayonnaise.
Purification and Physicochemical Properties of Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenger from Capsella bursa-pastoris
Kwak, Jae-Hyock ; Kweon, Mee-Hyang ; Ra, Kyung-Soo ; Sung, Ha-Chin ; Yang, Han-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 184~189
A scavenger of superoxide anion radical which causes oxygen toxicity was isolated from Capsella bursa-pastoris, and its physicochemical properties were investigated. The scavenger was isolated and purified by solvent fractionation and liquid column chromatographies (Amberlite XAD-2, Sephadex LH-20, Bio gel P-2, ODS (silica gel with 100% octadecyl silanization)). An active compound of 0.25 g was finally isolated by Fast Protein Liquid chromatography (FPLC) from 100 g ethanol extract of Capsella bursa-pastoris. A 50% decrease of superoxide anion radical was obtained with the scavenger compound of 0.58 g. The compound was assumed to be a phenolic glycoside from its physicochemical properties.
Effect of Vacuumizing Conditions on Quality Changes of Flexible Package Kimchi
Hong, Seok-In ; Park, Noh-Hyun ; Koo, Young-Jo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 190~196
Kimchi vacuum packaged in PET/AI/PE pouch was stored at
to evaluate the effect of vacuumizing conditions on quality changes. The quality of kimchi during storage was investigated in terms of pH, titratable acidity, color, viable counts of lactic acid bacteria including Leuconostoc and Lactobacilli and sensory properties. Titratable acidity and pH were not significantly different for the vacuum degrees. Color index (L b/a) values of crushed kimchi juice decreased exponentially and remained constant during storage, but the resulting color change was not affected by the vacuum degrees. Viable counts of lactic acid bacteria and sensory scores exhibited no significant difference among the kimchi of different vacuum degrees. Consequently, the vacuum degree in packaging of kimchi seemed to influence little on quality of kimchi. For enhancing the commercial value of vacuum packaged kimchi products, it would be appropriate to produce a slight vacuum, eliminating the head space, within packages.
Effects of Erythrosine on the Cholesterol Oxidative Stability in an Aqueous Model System
Chung, Man-Gon ; Kim, Jong-Seung ; Shin, Hyo-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 197~202
The effects of erythrosine on the oxidative stability of cholesterol in an aqueous model system were studied by depleted headspace oxygen and cholesterol oxidation products (COP). As the oncentration of erythrosine was increased, headspace oxygen depletion, 7-COP and total COP increased during storage at
for 50 hours under the fluorescent light. As the intensity of fluorescent light was increased, amounts of headspace oxygen depleted and COP formed in an aqueous cholesterol dispersion containing erythrosine also increased. Addition of
, mixed-tocopherol and
resulted in the enhanced oxidative stability of an aqueous cholesterol dispersion containing erythrosine during the fluorescent light storage.
Stability of Oligosaccharides during Fermentation of Kimchi
Yun, Jong-Won ; Ro, Tae-Wook ; Kang, Sun-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 1, 1996, Pages 203~206
Three major oligosaccharides, which are commercially available, including fructo-, soybean- and isomalto-oligosaccharides were added during the preparation of kimchi to find possibilities of improving storage stability and enriching bifidus-stimulating agents. At a refrigerated temperature, all oligosaccharides tested were very stable over three weeks; however, at higher temperatures (e.g.,
), oligosaccharides added were degraded by microorganisms during the fermentation period. Among the three oligosaccharides examined, isomalto-oligosaccharides showed the highest stability; i.e., around 70% of the initial amounts were maintained even at
, suggesting that isomalto-oligosaccharides can he recommended as an effective ingreadient in kimchi preparation because they have various beneficial functionalities.