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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 1997
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 1997
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 1997
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 1997
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 1997
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 1997
Selecting the target year
Effects of Light and Water Soluble Proteins on the Lipid Oxidation of Meat Emulsion Model System during Refrigerated Storage
Park, Hyung-Il ; Chung, Myung-Sub ; Lee, M. ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 395~399
Meat model emulsions ware prepared with salt-soluble protein and soybean oil. Effects of water-soluble protein (WSP) on the meat model emulsion treated with/without BHT during 8 day storage
under both dark and light illumination were studied by measuring POV and TBA. An emulsion without BHA and WSP was used as a control. Under light storage, there was no significant difference in peroxide values between the control and the sample treated with BHA except the 2nd day of storage. However, TBA values of the sample treated with BHA were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of control except the 4th day of storage. TBA and POV of the samples treated with WSP and WSP + BHA were higher than control after 4th day of storage under light. That is, water soluble protein, which was composed mainly of myoglobin, increased lipid oxidation under light storage. The similar trends were also shown in the samples stored under dark. These results suggested that acceleration of lipid oxidation of the meat model emulsions by water soluble protein (WSP) under both light and dark might not be due to the singlet oxygen formation, but due to superoxide anion formed.
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Houttuynia cordata Thunb.
Kim, Keun-Young ; Chung, Dong-Ok ; Chung, Hee-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 400~406
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. were investigated to develop a natural food preservative from it. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine and arginine were major amino acids of Houttuynia cordata Thunb., but were present in a trace amount. Free sugars were composed of glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose and major fatty acids were linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. Mineral elements were potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper. Antimicrobial activities were shown in acidic, neutral and phenolic fraction of Houttuynia cordata Thunb., but not in basic fraction. Among the four fractions, neutral fraction showed the strongest antimicrobial activities against microorganisms tested, such as Pseudomnas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of the neutral fraction varied according to microoganisms tested. The lowest values of MIC (0.0075 g eq./mL) and MLC (0.10 g eq./mL) were obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Effects of Heating Time and Storage Temperature on the Oxidative Stability of Heated Palm Oil
Choe, Eun-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 407~411
Effects of heating time and storage temperature on the oxidative stability of heated palm oil were studied. Palm oil was heated at
for 0, 1, 10 or 20 min and stored at 4, 20 or
. The oxidative stability of the sample was evaluated by determining peroxide value of the oil and measuring the volatiles in the headspace of the sample. Significant difference in the peroxide or volatile formation was observed (p<0.05) in heated palm oils between samples stored at 4 or
and those stored at
. Pentane, hexanal, heptane and total volatiles increased with heating time, while storage temperature did not significantly affect their formation, indicating that heating time played more important role in volatile formation in the heated palm oil than storage temperature. However, adverse results were observed for the formation of peroxide. The interaction effect of heating time and storage temperature on the oxidative stability of heated palm oil was also observed.
Determination of Patulin in Commercial Apple Juice in Korea by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Cho, Wan-Il ; Choi, Young-Boong ; Moon, Tae-Wha ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 412~416
Seven brands of commercial apple juice in Korea obtained from local stores were analyzed for patulin. Sep-Pak silica cartridge purification of the extract by ethyl acetate offered a good separation of patulin from other components. Patulin was determined by reverse phase liquid chromatography using a J'sphere
ODS-H80 column with an ultraviolet detector set at 274 nm. Patulin concentrations in four samples ranged from 4 to
and the other three samples from 30 to
. The limit of detection was
, and the recovery was
at the contamination level of
Isolation and Partial Physicochemical Characterization of Bile Acid-Binding Fraction from Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates
Cho, Wan-Il ; Moon, Tae-Wha ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 417~426
Rice bran protein hydrolysates were prepared and some of their physicochemical properties were investigated to utilize rice bran as starting material for functional food ingredient. Rice bran proteins (RBP) were prepared from defatted rice bran by alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation. The enzyme for hydrolysis of RBP was selected through measuring relative activity by pH-drop method and comparing the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of hydrolysates. The enzymatic hydrolysates prepared by
treatment were partitioned into two fractions by ultrafiltration(UF) with a 10 kDa molecular weight cut-off membrane. Each fraction was applied to a cholic acid-conjugated
Sepharose 4B column and the bile acid-binding components were obtained by eluting with deoxycholate. Gel permeation chromatography on a Sephadex G-50 column revealed that molecular weight of the bile acid-binding fraction of UF permeate was distributed in ranges of
. Three peaks (R-1, R-2 and R-3) were obtained by prep-HPLC of bile acid-binding fraction of UF retentate and analyzed for total and free amino acid composition. The results showed that proline content of the bile-acid binding polypeptides and peptides was four times as much as that of rice bran protein and that the peak corresponding to higher average hydrophobicity had a higher free amino acid content. Average hydrophobicity slightly increased with enzymatic hydrolysis.
Simultaneous Determination of Various Pesticides (I): Analysis by GC with ECD and NPD Dual Detectors
Rho, Kyoung-Ah ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Hyeon-Wee ; Lee, Yoon-Kyoung ; Park, Ki-Moon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 427~431
A simultaneous and rapid gas chromatographic determination of organophosphorus, organo-chlorine, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides in polished rice was developed. The pesticides were extracted from samples with acetone by automated soxhlet apparatus and this extract was evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in hexane, the solvent was applied to a Sep-Pak florisil catridge, was eluted with 50% ethyl acetate in n-hexane, and was injected to dual GC-ECD/NPD system. This simple method affords a high recovery of hydrophilic pesticides, allows rapid analysis, and is cheap to perform. Except for dichlorvos and captan, recoveries of 46 pesticides were over 60%.
Antioxidative and Nitrite-scavenging Activities of Edible Mushrooms
Lee, Gee-Dong ; Chang, Hak-Gil ; Kim, Hyun-Ku ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 432~436
This study was conducted to investigate the functional characteristics of diethylether and butanol extracts from Ganoderma lucidum, Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus edodes. Electron donating abilities of diethylether and butanol extracts from Ganoderma luculum were 95.07% and 97.75%, respectively. Electron donating abilities of butanol extracts from Agaricus bisporus was 94.33%, and that of Lentinus edodes was 96.09%. Antioxidative activities of diethylether and butanol extracts from Canoderma lucidum were higher than those of BHA. All extracts of Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus edodes showed lower antioxidative activity than that of BHA. Nitrite-scavenging abilities of diethylether and butanol extracts from Ganoderma lucidum were 68.34% and 44.44%, respectively. Nitrite-scavenging abilities of butanol extracts from Agaricus bisporus were 43.39%, and those of Lentinus edodes were 68.23%.
Changes of Lipids in Chestnut during Storage
Nha, Young-Ah ; Yang, Cha-Bum ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 437~445
Studies were carried out to investigate the changes of lipids in chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc) during storage at
for 9 weeks and
for 15 weeks. Lipid composition of fresh chestnuts were 43.4% of nonpolar lipid (NPL), 26.5% of glycolipid (GL) and 30.1% of phospholipid (PL) in total lipid (TL). Nonpolar lipid was composed of triglyceride (TG), 1,2-diglyceride (1,2-DG), 1,3-diglyceride (1,3-DG), sterolester (SE), sterol (S) and free fatty acid (FFA). Main constituents of glycolipid were digalactosyldiglyceride (DGDG), monogalactosyldiglyceride (MGDG), sterylglycoside (SG), and acylsteryglycoside (ASG). Main constituents of phospholipid were phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). The content of nonpolar lipid was decreased after 5 weeks of storage, and glycolipid content was increased during 7 weeks and then decreased. Phospholipid was the most increased lipid during storage at
. The contents of TG, SE, S, DGDG and MGDG were increased during storage at
. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and linolenic acid in TL, NPL, GL, PL, TG, DG, ASG, PC and PE. The content of palmitic acid was relatively higher in the PL. Linoleic acid among them was increased during storage at
, while oleic acid was decreased.
Oxidation of Primary Alcohol Groups of Polysaccharides with 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-1-Piperidine Oxoammonium Ion
Chang, Pahn-Shick ; Cho, Gye-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 446~451
The primary alcohol groups of four kinds of polysaccharides (com starch, rice starch, sweet potato starch, and cellulose), with different structures and water solubilities, were oxidized to carboxyl groups using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidine oxoammonium ion (TEMPO) at
. The optimum pH, TEMPO content, and NaBr content for the TEMPO/hypobromite-catalyzed oxidation of the polysaccharides were
, 10 mmol/mol primary alcohol, and 0.49 mmol/mol primary alcohol, respectively. The oxidation degree for the primary alcohol group was more than 90% for all four kinds of the polysaccharides. The oxidation process greatly increased the water solubility of the polysaccharides. Water-insoluble polysaccharide such as cellulose became water-soluble to the extent of 8.42% (w/v). And also, the polysaccharides with very low water solubility (less than 0.10% (w/v)) such as com starch, rice starch, and sweet potato starch had high water solubility of approximately 45%(w/v). The gel-forming abilities with calcium ion were determined. The oxidized polysaccharides are new anionic polymers with unique structures that could have application as gums, gels, and films.
Preparation of Edible Films from Soybean Meal
Yang, Sung-Bum ; Cho, Seung-Yong ; Rhee, Chul ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 452~459
Effect of extraction pH on mechanical properties such as tensile strength (TS) and elongation (E) and on water vapor permeability (WVP) of soybean protein isolate (SPI) edible films extracted from soybean meal was investigated. Five pHs, acidic range (pH 2.0 and pH 3.0), neutral range (pH 7.0) and alkalic range (pH 10.0 and 12.0), were used to extract SPI. TS of the film extracted at pH 7.0 was the lowest, and WVP of
(SPI extracted at pH 3) film was the lowest value among the films. The WVP of
and increased to
as film thickness increased from
thickness. Three different plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol) were used for
(SPI extracted at pH 2) film. TS of
films was 12.297 MPa and decreased to 1.356 MPa for glycerol and showed the same trend in other two plasticizers. The SPI films extracted at acidic range were shown higher mechanical properties and lower water vapor permeabilities than those of extracted at neutral and alkalic ranges. The difference of SPI film properties seemed to be attributed by 11S/7S ratio as well as protein content.
Development of Soybean Sprouter Using Principle of Siphoning
Kim, Joong-Man ; Choi, Yong-Bae ; Yang, Dong-Kun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 460~463
One of the major problems in automation of soybean sprouter is watering method. This study was conducted solve this problem. The soybean sprouter consisted of three parts: water-receiving chamber with siphon, water spraying bowl and sprout cultivating bowl. It functions as automatic-watering without manpower and electric power, and is not noisy and has duration. Watering interval, watering time and amount could be controlled by regulation of dropping times/min from a tap. Chlorine contained in tap water is naturally decreased during its (water) storage in the water receiving chamber. Among three types of sprouter (siphon type, wet paper type and water pump type) the siphon type can be used at
that is the optimum temperature for soybean sprout.
Effects of Rice Bran Dietary Fiber Extract on Gelatinization and Retrogradation of Wheat Flour
Kim, Young-Soo ; Ha, Tae-Youl ; Lee, Sang-Hyo ; Lee, Hyun-Yu ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 464~469
Rapid visco-analyzer (RVA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the effect of rice bran dietary fiber extract on gelatinization and retrogradation of wheat flour. The addition of rice bran dietary fiber extracts from various heat treated bran into wheat flour caused to increase the pasting temperature, peak viscosity and final viscosity of RVA measurements. For gelatinization measured with DSC, mixtures of wheat flour and rice bran dietary fiber extract had slightly higher To (onset temperature) and Tp (peak temperature) values than those of control (wheat flour), and wheat flour/defatted rice bran dietary fiber extract mixture had the lowest enthalpy value. In comparison with gelatinization, the retrogradation endotherm of mixtures stored at
up to 4 weeks occurred at about
lower temperatures than gelatinization endotherm with broader shape and well-defined thermograms with storage time. The retrogradation of wheat flour was retarded greatly by addition of rice bran dietary fiber extract, and there was no big difference between 5% and 10% additions.
Effects of Rice Varities on Saccharification in Producing Sikhe
Lee, Si-Kyung ; Joo, Hyun-Kyu ; Ahn, Joung-Kuk ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 470~475
This study was to determine the effects of rice varities on saccharification in producing sikhe using 45 different rice varities. Using Gancheok, Sinkeumo, Seoan and Gyehwa, sikhe showed the highest sweetness determined by refractometer, however sikhe using Sangiu, Namweon and Yeongdeog showed the lowest sweetness with difference of about 19%. Sugar composition of sikhe using Gancheok, rice variety, is fructose 3.6%, glucose 9.8%, maltose 78.3% and maltotriose 8.3%, analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Six-row malt showed better saccharification power than two-row malt. And 100 mesh sieved powder of malt was better in saccharification than 20 mesh sieved powder. Optimum saccharification temperature of six-row malt was
The Extension of Tofu Shelf-Life with Water-Soluble Degraded Chitosan as Immersion Solution
Chun, Kie-Hwan ; Kim, Byung-Yong ; Son, Tae-Il ; Hahm, Young-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 476~481
For the effect of water-soluble degraded chitosan on the shelf-life of tofu, sterilized distilled water, 0.5% degraded chitosan, 0.5% fumaric acid and 0.5% lactic acid used as an tofu-immersion solutions were investigated by microbial counts, pH, and turbidity during the periods of storage at
. After 2 weeks storage, total aerobic microbial counts in tap water and sterilized distilled water used as an immersion solution were
, respectively. In 0.5% fumaric acid and 0.5% lactic acid immersion solutions, the microbial counts were around
after 2 weeks while the microbial population in 0.5% water-soluble degraded chitosan were, however,
after 2 weeks and
after 3 weeks. The lag phase of initial contaminated microbes in 0.5% degraded chitosan solution was longer than those of other treatments. The addition of 0.5% fumaric acid and 0.5% lactic acid decreased the initial pH to pH 5.0, while those of tap water, sterilized distilled water and 0.5% degraded chitosan stabilized the immersion solution at around pH 7.2. All initial pH values were decreased during storage and then slowly increased as storage time was increased. The turbidities in all treatments were increased during storage, but the addition of 0.5% degraded chitosan showed the lowest change, compared to other treatments, showing that the water-soluble degraded chitosan has a good antimicrobial effect and has a potential use to extend the shelf-life of tofu product.
Effect of Addition of Fractionated Milk Fats on Fat Composition and Melting Behavior of Cocoa Butter
Kim, Sang-Yong ; Roh, Hoe-Jin ; Oh, Deok-Kun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 482~491
The effect of addition of fractionated milk fats on the composition and melting behavior of cocoa butter was investigated. High melting fraction (HMF) of milk fat fractions had the highest contents of long chain fatty acid
and saturated fatty acid followed by medium melting fraction 1 (MMF1), medium melting fraction 2 (MMF2), anhydrous milk fat (AMF), and low melting fraction (LMF) in a decreasing order. MMF2 had the highest contents of the short chain fatty acid
and medium chain fatty acid
followed by AMF, HMF, MMF1, and LMF in a decreasing order. When the fractionated milk fats were added to cocoa butter, the long chain fatty acid contents increased with increasing the ratio of fractionated milk fats. The saturated fatty acid contents decreased only when the LMF was added. The higher content of long chain triglyceride and the lower contents of short chain triglyceride and medium chain triglyceride were obtained from the fractionated milk fat of higher melting point. When the fractionated milk fats were added to cocoa butter, long chain triglyceride contents decreased with increasing the ratio of the fractionated milk fats. The melting points of cocoa butter, AMF, HMF, MMF1, MMF2, LMF were
, respectively. Cocoa butter had the highest content of solid fat followed by HMF, MMF1, MMF2, AMF, and LMF in a decreasing order. When the fractionated milk fat was added to cocoa butter at various temperatures, the solid fat content in the mixture of fractionated milk fat and cocoa butter decreased with increasing the ratio of fractionated milk fat. This results suggested that anhydrous milk fat and fractionated milk fats had a good compatibility with cocoa butter.
Concentration of Pigment Extracted from Purple Sweet Potato by Nanofiltration
Kim, Seon-Jae ; Rhim, Jong-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 492~496
Purple sweet potato pigment extract was concentrated using both membrane separation method and vacuum concentration method. The pigment extract (anthocyanin content 1.6 g/L) was concentrated
after 5 hr of continuous operation of a nanofiltration to get anthocyanin content of 10.6 g/L. Total solid content also increased continuously while the flux decreased continuously during the concentration process. Degradation index (DI) changes of concentrated pigment solution were insignificant during the whole concentration process which is indicating that the nanofiltration method does not affect color degradation of anthocyanin pigment. For the comparison test, the same pigment extract was concentrated using a rotary vacuum evaporator at temperatures of 40 and
. At both temperatures, pigment content increased in a similar manner during concentration
. However, DI value at
increased while that at
did not change appreciably. Total color difference value changed only slightly by nanofiltration and
while changed significantly by
. These indicate that a membrane filtration method is more effective in concentrating purple sweet potato pigment extract than a vacuum concentration method by high temperature.
Thermal Kinetics of Color Changes of Purple Sweet Potato Anthocyanin Pigment
Lee, Lan-Sook ; Rhim, Jong-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 497~501
Kinetic parameters on heat-induced color changes of anthocyanin pigment from purple sweet potato were determined in the temperature range of
. Color change determined by a browning index
followed second order reaction kinetics. Activation energy values of purple sweet potato pigment solutions of pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 were 69.57, 76.68, 81.07 and 92.98 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating that temperature dependency of the reaction increased with pH. Apparent kinetic compensation effect between preex-ponential factor and activation energy value was observed.
Properties of Dietary Fiber Extract from Rice Bran and Application in Bread-making
Kim, Young-Soo ; Ha, Tae-Youl ; Lee, Sang-Hyo ; Lee, Hyun-Yu ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 502~508
Rice bran dietary fiber extract, which was obtained after termamyl treatment of defatted rice bran contained
insoluble dietary fiber, and
soluble dietary fiber. Extrusion decreased the insoluble dietary fiber content but increased the soluble dietary fiber content, while roasting did not. Influence those content. Each mineral element content was depended upon heat processing method. Extrusion increased the water binding capacity and L value, while roasting reduced the water binding capacity and L value. Scanning electron microscopy showed damaged cell walls for extruded sample compared to roasted one which had fully collapsed cell walls. The increase of water absorption, developing time, and stability and the of MTI of wheat flour-dietary fiber extract composites with addition of dietary fiber extract were observed by Farinograph. Rice bran dietary fiber extract had an effect on the bread making resulting in increase of bread weight and color of crumb and crust, and decrease of bread volume and texture. As a result of sensory evaluation, appearance, texture, overall acceptability were significantly different from control but flavor and taste were not different significantly up to 6% level. Heat treated samples had differences in mean values, but not significant differences statistically.
Optimization of Crude Papain Extraction from Papaya Latex Using Response Surface Methodology
Oh, Hoon-Il ; Oh, Sang-Joon ; Kim, Jeong-Mee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 509~515
Crude papain was extracted from papaya latex under various conditions. Extraction conditions of crude papain were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM). Extraction yield of papain was affected by concentration of
, extraction time and pH. Three independent factors were chosen to determine their effects on the various responses and the function was expressed in terms of a quadratic polynomial equation, which measures the linear, quadratic and interaction effects. According to the results of RSM, the stationary point for quantitatively dependent variable was found to be the maximum point for extraction yield. Optimum conditions of papain extraction were 4% of
, 120 min of extraction time and pH 7.6. Under these conditions, 793.16 mg of papain per g latex was extracted from papaya latex.
Effect of Amylose Content on the Physical Properties of Resistant Starches
Mun, Sae-Hun ; Baik, Moo-Yeol ; Shin, Mal-Shick ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 516~521
Effect of amylose content on the physical properties of resistant starches (RS) from autoclaved maize starches (with starch:water=1:3.5, at
) which were repeated up to 4 times heating-cooling cycles, were investigated by water uptake, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Amylose content of waxy maize starch (Amioca), common maize starch (PFP), high amylose starch(Amaizo, Amylomaize VII) were 0%, 29%, 50%, and 72%, respectively. Yield of RS increased as amylose content increased. Water uptake of all kinds of native starch was higher than that of RS, but lower than that of autoclaved starch. By SEM, RS showed some small particles on surface but the size of particles was different with amylose content. Single endothermic transition peak exhibited at
in autoclaved Amioca and PFP (crystalline melting of amylopectin) and at
in autoclaved Amaizo and Amylomaize VII(crystalline melting of amylose) by DSC. RS from all kinds of autoclaved starches except Amioca showed single endothermic peak over
but the enthalpy was not related to amylose content
Recovery of Isoflavones from Soybean Cooking Water Produced during Soymilk Manufacturing Process
Choi, Yeon-Bae ; Sohn, Heon-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 522~526
Soy isoflavones could be recovered with adsorption resin column chromatography from soybean cooking water produced during soymilk or tofu manufacturing process. The main isoflavones in the soybean cooking water were genistin and daidzin, and their concentration was
, respectively. Their aglycones were not detected. pH of soybean cooking water was critical in this chromatographic process and the recovery of isoflavones, both genistin and daidzin, was maximum at pH 4.0. Adsorption of genistin on the resin was stronger than that of daidzin. Elution rate and height/diameter ratio also affected the recovery yield. Under the optimal conditions, about 85% of genistin and 70% of daidzin could be isolated from soybean cooking water. Soy saponins were also recovered with isoflavones.
Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Ozone Treatment on Microbial Decontamination and Fatty Acid Compositions of Aloe and Pollen Powders
Yook, Hong-Sun ; Chung, Young-Jin ; Kim, Jung-Ok ; Kwon, Oh-Jin ; Byun, Myung-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 527~532
The comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial inactivation and fatty acid composition were investigated for improving hygienic quality of aloe and pollen powders. Gamma irradiation at 10 kGy resulted in sterilizing total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of aloe and pollen powders. The compositions of fatty acid were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy. However, ozone treatment markedly decreased unsaturated fatty acids by approximately
in contents, whereas it significantly increased saturated fatty acids (p<0.05).
Effects of Lactose and Yeast on the Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Sensory Characteristics during the Fermentation of Soy Yogurts
Park, Mi-Jung ; Lee, Sook-Young ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 533~538
Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Kluyveromyces lactic were inoculated to Jangyeob and Jinpum soymilks single or together after the addition of different amounts of lactose to increase the formation of lactic acid and sensory evaluation. The decrease of pH and the increase of acid production during the fermentation of soy yogurts were more effective when lactose was added. And the single culture method was more effective in decreasing pH and in increasing acid production than the mixed culture method. Without lactose, the growth of lactic acid bacteria in samples increased by mixed culture method than by single culture method. However, the growth of lactic acid bacteria increased more in the by single cultured samples than in the mixed cultured samples by the addition of lactose. Beany flavor decreased more in soy yogurts compared with Jangyeob and Jinpum soy milks, and Jinpum soy yogurts had less beany flavor than Jangyeob soy yogurts. In sour taste, Jangyeob soy yogurt prepared by mixed culture for 36 hr incubation with 4% lactose showed the poorest score, while soy yogurts containing 2% lactose showed significantly better scores and no significant difference compared with milk yogurt. Soy yogurts containing 2% lactose showed no significant difference in overall acceptability compared with milk yogurt.
Effects of Lactose and Yeast on the Changes of Oligosaccharides during the Fermentation of Soy Yogurts
Park, Mi-Jung ; Lee, Sook-Young ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 539~545
Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Kluyveromyces lactis were inoculated to Jangyeob and Jinpum soy milks together after the addition of different amounts of lactose to increase the contents of oligosaccharides, which were compared with single cultured samples. The contents of stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, and glucose of samples without lactose decreased by single culture method, but the oligosaccharides decreased less than in single cultured samples containing of lactose. The oligosaccharides of single cultured samples were equal or decreased compared with soy milks. While those of mixed cultured Jangyeob and Jinpum samples containing 2% lactose for 24 hr incubation increased 125.0% and 118.1%, respectively and those of samples for 36 hr incubation increased 127.0% and 141.0%, respectively, those of mixed cultured samples containing 4% lactose for 24 hr incubation increased 112.5% and 123.0%, respectively and those of samples for 36 hr incubation increased 120% and 135.9%, respectively. Therefore, the oligosaccharides in samples containing 2% lactose were slightly more than in samples containing 4% lactose. Among the cultured methods, oligosaccharides were produced in the largest amounts by the mixed culture for 36 hr. The addition of lactose in soy milks for soy yogurts was effective in the formation of oligosaccharides since the galactose, produced by the hydrolysis of lactose, was thought to be combined with sucrose by the action of
The Preparation of Yogurt from Egg White Powder and Milk Products
Ko, Young-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 546~554
Gel-type yogurt was prepared from egg white powder (3%, w/v), glucose (2%, w/v) and four kinds of milk products (4%, w/v). The effects of milk product on acid production and growth of Lactobacillus were studied. The effects of milk product on sensory property and volatile aroma compounds were also studied. Acid production by L. acidophilus at 24 hr in samples containing milk product was significantly lower than that by L. acidophilus in milk (p<0.05). The sample containing casein produced less acid than the other samples. Number of viable cells of L. acidophilus at 24 hr in milk and samples containing milk product was
, respectively. Sensory property of the samples containing milk product was lower than that of milk yogurt (reference). However, sensory property of the sample containing casein was not significantly different from that of milk yogurt (p<0.05). The sample containing whey powder showed lower sensory score than other samples. Though the composition of volatile aroma compounds was slightly different from sample to sample, gas chromatographic analysis detected acetone, ethanol, diacetyl and acetoin in samples fermented by L. acidophilus.
Quality Characteristics in Mash of Takju Prepared by Using Different Nuruk during Fermentation
Han, Eun-Hey ; Lee, Taik-Soo ; Noh, Bong-Soo ; Lee, Dong-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 555~562
The characteristics of mash qualities of takju prepared by using different nuruk (Korean-style bran koji) such as Mucor racemosus nuruk, Rhizopus japonicus nuruk, Aspergillus oryzae nuruk, Aspergillus kawachii nuruk and traditional nuruk were investigated during fermentation. At the begining of fermentation, ethanol content was in the range of
. However, it increased to
after 16 days of fermentation. Takju made from Rhizopus japonicus nuruk showed higher ethanol content than treated otherwise. pH of takju made from Rhizopus japonicus nuruk showed higher value the others. Total acids were
at the begining of fermentation, and it increased to
after 16 days of fermentation. Total sugar were
at the begining of fermentation, but decreased to below 7.00% after 16 days of fermentation. Rhizopus japonicus nuruk showed the lowest level of total sugar content. Except ethanol, iso-amyl alcohol and iso-butyl alcohol were major part of minor alcohol in the mash of takju. Higher concentration of iso-amyl alcohol, iso-butyl alcohol and n-propyl alcohol were found in the mash of Rhizopus japonicus nuruk whereas the level of phenylethyl alcohol was high in the mash of traditional nuruk. Fusel oil was
Volatile Flavor Components in Mash of Takju Prepared by Using Different Nuruks
Han, Eun-Hey ; Lee, Taik-Soo ; Noh, Bong-Soo ; Lee, Dong-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 563~570
Volatile flavor components in the mash of takjus prepared by using different nuruks such as Mucor racemosus nuruk, Rhizopus japonicus nuruk, Aspergillus oryzae nuruk, Aspergillus kawachii nuruk and nuruk (Korean-style bran koji), were identified by using GC and GC-MS. Twenty alcohols, 26 esters, 10 acids, 10 aldehydes and 6 others were found in the mash of takju after 16 days of fermentation. Takju by Aspergillus oryzae nuruk had the most various components of volatile flavor. Fifty-four flavor components including ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 2,3-butadienol (D,L), benzeneethanol, acetic acid ethyl ester, succinic acid diethyl ester, butanoic acid monoethyl ester, acetic acid and benzene acetic acid 4-acetyloxy-3-methyl ethyl ester were usually detected in all the treatments. The relative peak area of volatile components was as follows: alcohol
. Specially, 1-pentanol and hexanoic acid ethyl ester were high in takju made of nuruk (Korean-style bran koji). 1-Hexanol, 1-dodecanol, acetic acid and 1,2-benzene-dicarboxylic acid diprophenyl ester were high in takju made of Mucor racemosus nuruk. 4-Acetyloxy, 3-methyl benzeneacetic acid phenyl ester, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, succinic acid diethylester, butanoic acid monoethyl ester and butanoic acid were higher content in takju by Rhizopus japonicus nuruk. Acetic acid ethyl ester, pentanoic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid were high in takju that was made of Aspergillus oryzae nuruk. 1-Butanol was high in takju by Aspergillus kawachii nuruk.
Fermentation of Carrot Juice by Bifidobacterium
Park, So-Young ; Ko, Young-Tae ; Lee, Joo-Yeon ; Mok, Chul-Kyoon ; Park, Jong-Hyun ; Ji, Geun-Eog ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 571~575
In the present study, characterization of fermented carrot juice by Bifidobacterium was performed. When inoculated at the level of
with various Bifidobacterium strains, cell growth of B. longum, B. adolescentis and B. infantis reached more than
. On the other hand, B. bifidum strains reached less than
. Compared with carrot, grape juice did not allow the growth of Bifidobacterium, while peach juice and orange juice were as good as carrot for the growth of Bifidobacterium. On mixed culture with Lactobacillus, growth of Bifidobacterium decreased and cell death rate increased considerably. On panel test, Bifidobacterium cultured-carrot juice showed high score on sensory test than non-fermented carrot. Therefore, fermentation may lead to the quality improvement of carrot juice by combining health-promoting effect of Bifidobacterium and high nutrition value of carrot.
Change of Lipoxygenase Activity in Chinese Cabbages Submerged in Brines
Kim, Dong-Kyoung ; Han, Kee-Young ; Noh, Bong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 576~580
Lipoxygenase activity in Chinese cabbage was measured at various concentrations of brines. Lipoxygenase activity on linoleic acid substrate was determined by changing the rate of dissolved oxygen consumption. The inactivation of lipoxygenase by salting was increased when concentration of sodium chloride and soaking time were increased. About 60% of enzyme activity was reduced after submerging in 13% brine solution for 5 hr. The addition of calcium chloride (0.7%) reduced about
of lipoxygenase activity rather than without. Residual activity of lipoxygenase in Chinese cabbage submerged in 13% brine was 20% and about 60% of lipoxygenase was also inhibited by addition of garlic extract.
Rice Fermentation by Korean Amylolytic Bifidobacterium spp.
Park, Jong-Hyun ; Song, Hey-Kyung ; Ahn, Jun-Bae ; Ji, Geun-Eok ; Mok, Chul-Kyoon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 581~587
For bifidus fermentation food, gelatinized rice solution was fermented without liquefaction/saccharification by amylolytic Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from Korean. Eighteen amylolytic Bifidobcterium on the starch agar were isolated from 38 Korean and four strains were finally selected as good amylase producers. The most enzyme-producing strain of Bif. sp. FBD-12 secreted extracellular amylase of 0.17 U/mg and intracelluar amylase of 1.8 U/mg. Three strains of Bif. sp. FBD-12, Bif. sp. FBD-16 and Bif. sp. FBD-17 also showed good growth on pH controlled media by HCI/acetic acid to pH 5.0 while Bif. sp. FBD-6 was not so tolerant that viable cell counts reduced to
times on the media. Initial cell number of
for those strains reached to
on the rice medium supplemented with yeast extract (0.2%) and cysteine (0.05%). Ascorbic acid instead of cysteine was added to the medium for improving off-flavour and the best growth was shown at 0.1% addition. Isolated soybean proteins (ISP) of 3% accelerated the growth of the strains. Maximum count of
reached within 12 hour fermentation on the rice medium with ascorbic acid and isolated soybean protein instead of 32 hours on the cysteine medium, and total acidity increased from 0.5% to 1% on each media. Reducing sugar in the ascorbic acid/ISP cultures generally increased especially 2 mg/mL to 15.5 mg/mL for Bif. sp. FBD-6. From sensory evaluation, the products showed good acceptability so that it suggested possibility of development of bifidus-fermented rice food.
Screening and Identification of the Yeasts for Orange Wine and Their Citric Acid Decomposition
Ko, Young-Hwan ; Kim, Jae-Ha ; Koh, Jeong-Sam ; Kim, Chang-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 588~594
Yeast strains useful for the production of wine using mandarine orange, Citrus unshiu, as a main substrate were screened, and their primary ability to decompose citric acid that affects directly wine quality was investigated. Total eleven strains were selected for brewing orange wine. Five wild strains were from soil-based collections and identified: four of them were Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of them was S. ellipsoideus. The rest of six strains were from among eighteen laboratory strains: three of them were S. cerevisiae, and the other three were S. coreanus, S. uvarum, and S. sake. Two strains of S. cerevisiae out of these selections were chosen and their decomposition of citric acid was investigated. Citric acid was not utilized as sole carbon source for cellular growth. However, when both citric acid and glucose were added together as carbon sources, decrease of citric acid concentration was observed after incubation. Shaking incubation was more effective for the reduction of citric acid than standing incubation. Utilization of citric acid did not contribute to the increase of ethanol concentration during fermentation. On the other hand, it appeared that citric acid caused partial inhibition of cellular growth of the yeasts.
Antioxidant Activity of Solvent Extract from Onion Skin
Ra, Kyung-Soo ; Suh, Hyung-Joo ; Chung, Soo-Hyun ; Son, Jong-Youn ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 595~600
The antioxidant activity of the solvent fractions extracted from onion skin was examined. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract at the cencentration of 0.02% and 0.03% was stronger than that of mixed tocopherol. The antioxidant activity of the fractions of methanol extract increased in the order of butanol> ethyl acetate> ethyl ether> water fraction. The antioxidant activity of each fractions was strongly related with total phenol content and HDA. Further separation of butanol fraction by TLC yielded 6 fluorescent bands with Rf values of 0.20, 0.33, 0.49, 0.60 and 0.94. The total phenol content and HDA of fluorescent band, Rf 0.96, were remarkable higher than those of the other band and exhibited a strong UV absorption at 255 nm and 317 nm, which would be specifically produced by flavonol. Spectral analyses indicated that the major antioxidant component was quercetin aglycone (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone).
In vitro Inhibitory Activity on Rat Intestinal Mucosa
by Rice Hull Extract
Kim, Hye-Young ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 1997, Pages 601~608
In order to search for the way to utilize rice hull as a renewable resource, the inhibition on
and the fractionation of rice hull extract was investigated. An ethanol extract of rice hull from Japonica-type rice seeds exhibited 30% inhibitory activity on rat intestinal brush border
(1.4 mU/mL) in vitro at the concentration of 0.8 mg/mL using 6 mM p-nitrophenyl
as a substrate
. Among the fractions obtained by partitioning the ethanol extract successively with solvents, the ethyl acetate fraction at the concentration of 0.8 mg/mL was found to exhibit the most potent inhibitory activity i.e. 65% inhibition of
. Silica gel column chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited slightly higher (90%) inhibitory activity, and its subsequent fractionation by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography did not improve inhibitory activity. Considering the inhibitory activity and yield, the ethyl acetate fraction obtained by the solvent-partitioning process would be a candidate for the hypoglycemic food if it has in vivo effectiveness.