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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 1997
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 1997
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 1997
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 1997
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 1997
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 1997
Selecting the target year
A Glutamate Oxidase-based Biosensor for the Determination of Glutamate
Lee, Young-Chun ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1075~1081
The objective of this research was to develop a glutamate enzyme sensor for rapid determinations of glutamate in samples. Glutamate oxidase was immobilized onto activated nylon, chitosan and other membranes. The enzymic and nonactin membranes were attached to an ammonia electrode to detect ammonia generated by the reaction between glutamate oxidase and glutamate. The enzyme immobilized on activated nylon membrane was stable for 2 months, and was able to perform about 250 glutamate determinations without losing activities. The enzyme immobilized on chitosan membrane had higher enzyme activity, but was not as much stable as that immobilized on nylon. The glutamate biosensor was able to accurately determine
of glutamate in samples.
Characteristics of Native-Bee Honey Harvested in Kangwon-area
Lee, Deug-Chan ; Lee, Sang-Young ; Cha, Sang-Hoon ; Choi, Yong-Soon ; Rhee, Hae-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1082~1088
To compare the characteristics between native bee honey (NBH) and foreign bee honey (FBH), NBH harvested from eight different areas of Kangwon, Korea and FBH harvested from Chuncheon, Kangwon, Korea and from other nations were investigated by measuring the contents of moisture, sugar, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and pollen. Our results showed that contents of moisture in NBH and FBH were
, respectively. Sugar contained in bee honey such as fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose were also analyzed. No difference were found between NBH and FBH in pH. The contents of HMF in NBH and FBH were
, and was found that NBH is much lower than that in FBH. And production of HMF were accelerated by conditions of storage. Distributions of pollen in NBH were
, which were significantly different from
obtained from FBH. According to those results, the methods used in this study are not suitable for identification of difference between NBH and FBH.
Studies on Physicochemical Properties of Erythritol, Substitude Sugar
Byun, Sang-Hee ; Lee, Cherl-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1089~1093
The physicochemical properties of erythritol were examined by measuring water absorption, solubility, water activity, heat stability, and viscosity compared to those of sucrose, xylitol, sorbitol and fructo-oligosaccharide. Erythritol showed the lowest water absorption and the highest water activity reducing capacity. In the solubility test of sweeteners, the saturation concentration of erythritol at
was 35.8%, which was the lowest solubility. Caramelization test and Maillard reaction test showed that erythritol was stabler than sucrose in heat treatment, while fructo-oligosaccharide showed the strongest reaction. The viscosity of erythritol was similar to that of other sweeteners at the same concentration (10%, 30% w/w). The viscosity of sweeteners increased exponentially with increasing concentration but decreased with increasing temperature following Arrhenius equation. The activation energy for flow of 30% erythritol solution was estimated to be 10.8 kcal/g mol.
Characteristics in Oxidation of Korean Corn Starch with Sodium Hypochlorite
Han, Jin-Suk ; Ahn, Seung-Yo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1094~1100
Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) concentration, temperature and pH on oxidation mechanism of corn starch were investigated. The rate of oxidation was dependent on the concentration of hypochlorite, pH and temperature of oxidation. The reaction was either first or second order depending on the concentration of NaOCl. At oxidant concentration of
active Cl/g starch, the reaction was first-order and it was second-order at
active Cl/g starch. The first-order rate constants were increased with increasing oxidant concentration. The rate of oxidation of starch was highest at pH 7 and decreased with increasing acidity or alkalinity of the medium. As the reaction temperature increased, the rate of oxidation was increased.
Characteristics of the Volatile Flavor Compounds in the Oil from Roasted Sesame Seed
Ha, Jae-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1101~1104
The volatile compounds in sesame oil were collected by a dynamic headspace technique and analyzed using a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and an olfactory detector. Twenty compounds such as methylpyrazine, acetic acid, 2-furan carboxaldehyde and 2-furanmethanol were separated and identified with a mass spectrometric detector. The result of sniffing test showed that pyrazine compounds and 2-furan-carboxaldehyde had a sweet and roasted flavor whereas acetic acid and 2-furanmethanol stinked.
Structural Analysis of the Unusual Sugar-Containing Oligosaccharides Formed by the Selective Cleavage of Weakly Acidic Polysaccharide
Shin, Kwang-Soon ; Lee, Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1105~1112
By sequential degradation using partial acid hydrolysis of a weakly acidic polysaccharide (GL-4IIb2'), two acidic oligosaccharide fragments, PA-2' and PA-1-III were isolated and their structures were characterized. PA-2' consisted of almost equal proportion of a rhamnose (Rha) and an unusual sugar, 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octurosonic acid (Kdo). When permethylated oligosaccharide-alditol derived from PA-2' was analyzed by GC-MS, the peak gave the fragment ions at m/z 189
and at m/z 308
. The peak also gave the characteristic ion at m/z 162 but it did not give the fragment ion at m/z 177, suggesting that Kdo is substituted at C5 but not at C4. Methylation analysis also indicated that PA-2' was composed mainly of terminal Rhap and 5-substituted Kdo. When the reduced product from PA-2' was analyzed by
, it gave a signal at 5.09 ppm due to an anomeric proton of
. These results indicated that PA-2' mainly contained
. On the other hand, PA-1-III mainly comprised Rha and Kdo in addition to small proportions of arabinose (Ara) and 3-deoxy-D-lyxo-2-heptulosaric acid (Dha). MS analysis of permethylated oligosaccharide-alditols from PA-1-III suggested that the major peak 1P was
whereas the minor peaks 2P and 3P possessed
unit and these peaks were produced as epimers during reduction of carbonyl groups in Dha.
Comparision of Chemical Components of Angelica gigas Nakai and Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa
Hwang, Jin-Bong ; Yang, Mi-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1113~1118
Chemical components of domestic Angelica gigas Nakai and Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa were analyzed. Proximate analysis of each species showed crude protein 18.1% and 13.4%, crude lipid 8.9% and 4.3%, crude fiber 8.6% and 9.4%, crude ash 7.4% and 8.2%, and carbohydrate 57.0% and 64.7%, respectively. Contents of potassium which was found to be the most abundant mineral in both species were 2,740.0 mg% and 2,582.8 mg%, and those of sucrose were 0.4 % and 0.3% respectively while neither fructose nor glucose were detected in each species. Major fatty acids in Angelica gigas Nakai and Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa were linoleic acid (60.8% and 59.5%), palmitic acid (17.4% and 15.3%), oleic acid (8.8% and 7.7%) (respectively) but there was no significant difference between two species. Arginine was revealed as the most abundant amino acid in both species with 2,599.8 mg% in Angelica gigas Nakai and 1,543.4 mg% in Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa. Angelica gigas Nakai and Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa also were shown to contained 10.5 mg% and 12.2 mg%
, 0.1 mg% and 0.04 mg%,
, 4.3% and 0.8% decursin, and 988.0 mg% and 900.0 mg% tannin, respectively.
A Respiration Rate Measurement of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables with a Corrected Pressure Variation Method
Lee, Hyun-Dong ; Chung, Hun-Sik ; Kang, Jun-Soo ; Chung, Shin-Kyo ; Choi, Jong-Uck ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1119~1124
This study was carried out for improvement and correction of the traditional pressure variation method (PVM) in the respiration rate measurements of fresh fruits and vegetables using a microcomputer system and a differential pressure sensor. Water vapor pressure in the container was calculated by equations for psychrometric calculations. At the beginning of experimental period water vapor pressure in the container was increased and maintained constantly in the most experimental period, but was decreased dramatically after
scrubbing. The percentages of water vapor pressure on total differential pressure were
. The differences between the respiration rates determined by gas chromatography and corrected pressure variation method (CPVM) were
, while those between gas chromatography and normal pressure variation method (PVM) were
, respectively. The differences of the respiration rates with CPVM were smaller than those with PVM. CPVM, therefore, were more exact and convenient method than PVM in the measurement of respiration rate of fresh produce.
Optimization of Enzymatic Treatment for the Production of Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein
Chae, Hee-Jeong ; In, Man-Jin ; Kim, Min-Hong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1125~1130
The effects of enzyme combination, pH, acid washing and enzyme treatment sequence were investigated in the hydrolysis of soy protein. Comparing Alcalase vs. Neutrase/Alcalase, it appeared that Neutrase/Alcalase was more efficient than Alcalase alone, as the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was seen in Neutrase/Alcalase. A surprisingly high DH (more than 60%) was observed with Flavourzyme in the second hydrolysis. The separation of insolubles from the first hydrolysis had little effect on the second hydrolysis. When the washing water from the first hydrolysis was reused in the next hydrolysis, the DH and protein recovery were increased. The addition of calcium ion showed not so much positive effects by the stabilization of Neutrase on the Protein hydrolysis. The use of carbohydrase and repeated acid washing gave positive effects on DH. The simultaneous treatment using endoprotease and exoprotease with pH adjustment improved DH significantly.
Gas Production of Chemical Leavening Agents and Effects on Textures of Cookies
Yang, Seong-Yeon ; Kim, Sang-Yong ; Jang, Kyu-Seob ; Oh, Deok-Kun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1131~1137
The production rates of leavening gases and textures of cookies were investigated with various chemical leavening agents(baking powders). The chemical leavening agents could be divided into three group of a fast-acting group such as potassium bicarbonate, tartaric acid, aluminium ammonium sulfate, and fumaric acid, a slow-acting group such as ammonium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate,
, and ammonium chloride. and a double-acting group such as anhydro monocalcium phosphate, disodium dihydrogenpyrophosphate, and aluminium potassium sulfate according to the different production rate of gases. The leavening rate of ammonium bicarbonate, which was the highest of all leavening agents used in this experiment, was 131.25%. But its after-taste in a cookie was not good due to the residual ammonia.
only had no after-taste. The higher leavening rate, the more peaks in texture profile graph. Ammonium bicarbonate showed the most peaks in this experiment. It was found that the number of peak had correlation with brittleness of cookies
and brittleness of cookies was different as to various chemical leavening agents.
Color and Water Holding Capacity of PSE, RSE, RFN and DFD Pork
Kim, Cheon-Jei ; Park, Hong-Yang ; Jung, Young-Chul ; Kang, Jong-Ok ; Lee, Chang-Hyun ; Lee, Eui-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1138~1143
This study was carried out to investigate the meat color and water holding capacity (WHC) characteristics of PSE, RSE (reddish-pink, soft, exudative), RFN (reddish-pink, firm, non-exudative) and DFD pork quality, also the relationship of lightness
and WHC to drip loss were examined. When WHC in M. longissimus dorsi muscle by filter paper press method was measured at 45 min postmortem (45 min p.m.), DFD meat indicated the highest WHC, RSE and RFN pork were significantly different (p<0.05). WHC measured at 24 hr postmortem were not significantly different between RSE and RFN pork (p.0.05). Drip loss (%) were significantly different among the four quality group, but cooking loss (%) of PSE, RSE and RFN pork were not significantly different, except DFD. PSE pork indicated the lowest salt soluble protein solubility. The correlation between drip loss and
was r=0.61, drip loss increased with increasing
. Also drip loss were moderately correlated with
(r=-0.52). When drip loss was predictable from
was superior to evaluation by WHC.
Chracteristics of volatile flavor compounds in improved kochujang prepared with soybean koji during fermentation
Choi, Jin-Young ; Lee, Taik-Soo ; Park, Sung-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1144~1150
Volatile flavor components of soybean koji kochujang made from a glutinuous rice by improved method were analyzed by using a purge and trap method during fermentation, and identified with GC-MSD. Fifty-six volatile flavor components including 16 alcohols, 15 esters, 7 acids, 4 aldehydes, 5 alkanes, 3 ketones, 1 benzene, 1 alkene, 2 phenol and 2 others were found in improved kochujang. The number of volatile flavor components detected immediately after making kochujang were 32 and increased to 46 components after 30 day of fermentation. The most number 55 of volatile flavor components were found after 90 day of fermentation. Thirty-one kinds of volatile flavor components were commonly found through the fermentation period 9 alcohols such as 2-methyl-1-propanol, ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 8 esters such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, 3 aldehydes such as butanal, acetaldehyde, furfural and 11 othesrs. Although the various types of peak areas (%) of volatile flavor components were shown in kochujang during the fermentation days, ethanol. ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol were mainly detected during fermentation. Those might be the major volatile flavor components in kochujang made by improved method. Peak area of ethanol was the highest one among the volatile flavor components at immediately after mashing and 90 day while ethyl acetate showed the highest Peak area after
day of fermentation and 3-methyl-1-butanol showed the highest peak area after
day of fermentation.
Viscosity Change of Polysaccharide, Methylan by Acids Content
Kim, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Jung-Hoe ; Oh, Deok-Kun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1151~1157
The chemical identities of purified polysaccharide, methylan, were analyzed by various chemical methods. The polysaccharide contained 79%(w/w) sugar, 6% protein, and 16% organic acids such as uronic acid, pyruvic acid, and acetic acid. With proceeding fermentation, the acids content in methylan increased from 10% at 34 hr to 17% at 72 hr, and the viscosity of methylan in the same concentration also increased. The correlation between viscosity and acid content in methylan was studied using chemically or biologically modified methylan. Methylan with a high content of pyruvic acid exhibited a high apparent and an intrinsic ·viscosity. When the pyruvic acid content of methylan with the same content of uronic acid was increased 1%, apparent viscosity and intrinsic viscosity increased 290 cp and 6 dL/g, respectively. Methylan with a high content of uronic acid exhibited a high apparent and an intrinsic viscosity. When the uronic acid content of methylan with the same content of pyruvic acid was increased 1%, apparent viscosity and intrinsic viscosity increased 85 cp and 1.5 dL/g, respectively. It was found that the increased viscosity of methylan resulted from the increased content of organic acids in methylan, and pyruvic acid was more an important factor contributed to the increase of methylan viscosity than uronic acid.
Changes in Microflora and Enzyme Activities of Traditional Kochujang Prepared with a Meju of Different Fermentation Period during Aging
Oh, Hoon-Il ; Park, Jong-Myon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1158~1165
This study was designed to investigate the changes in microflora and enzyme activities of traditional kochujang during aging, which was prepared with a meju fermented for various periods of time. The number of bacteria was highest in all samples after 30 days of fermentation at
, while that of mold in kochujang prepared with a 40-day- or 60-day-fermented meju was highest at 15th day of aging when yeast appeared. The activities of carbohydrases and proteases were highest in kochujang prepared with a 40-day-fermented meju followed by a 60-day-fermented meju. These results suggest that kochujang prepared with a meju aged for 40 days had the highest quality in terms of physicochemical, microbiological and enzyme activities of kochujang during fermentation.
Changes in Quality Characteristics of Traditional Kochujang Prepared with a Meju of Different Fermentation Period during Aging
Oh, Hoon-Il ; Park, Jong-Myon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1166~1174
This study was designed to investigate the changes in physicochemical and sensory characteristics of traditional kochujang during aging, which was prepared with a different meju fermented for various periods of time. The non-volatile organic acid contents in all samples gradually increased up to 90 days of fermentation. Kochujang prepared with a 40-day-fermented meju had
times highter organic acid content after 90 days of aging as compared to other kochujang preparations. The most abundant free sugars were found to be glucose and fructose representing
of total free sugar contents in kochujang. 17 kinds of free amino acid including Glu, Asp and Met were found in traditional kochujang aged for 90 days. Glu was noted as the most contributing amino acid to the brothy taste of kochujang in the light of increasing ratio and content of Glu among free amino acids during aging. The total free amino acid contents of kochujang increased with an Increase in fermentation time of meju. Results of sensory evaluation revealed that kochujang prepared with a 40-day-fermented meju was best in terms of flavor and taste. These results suggest that kochujang prepared with a 40-day-fermented meju had the highest quality in terms of physicochemical and sensory characteristics of kochujang.
Inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum by High Voltage Pulsed Electric Fields Treatment
Shin, Hae-Hun ; Pyun, Yu-Ryang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1175~1183
Lethal effects of high voltage pulsed electric fields (PEF) on suspensions of Lactobacillus plantarum cells in phosphate buffer solution were examined by using continuous recycle treatment system. Critical electric field strength and treatment time needed for inactivation of L. plantarum were 13.6 kV/cm and
at room temperature, respectively. As decrease in frequency (decreasing pulse number), the degree of inactivation of L. plantarum was increased. A 2.5 log reduction in microbial population could be achieved with an electric field strength of 80 kV/cm, 300 Hz frequency and
treatment time. Survivability was decreased with increase in total treatment time (cycle number) and frequency at the same cycle number. As sterilization model of continuous recycle PEF treatment,
were established. This model was very well fitted to tile empirical data. The rate of inactivation increased with increase in the processing temperature. The maximum reduction in survivability (5.6 log reduction) was obtained with 80 kV/cm electric field strength at
Formation and Properties of Corn Zein Coated
Rhim, Jong-Whan ; Park, Jeong-Wook ; Jung, Soon-Teck ; Park, Hyun-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1184~1190
Corn zein coated carrageenan films were manufactured by immersing preformed
films into solution of different concentrations of corn zein (CZ) solids (10, 20, and 30% in 95% ethyl alcohol) with polyethylene glycol (20% w/w of CZ), glycerol (24% w/w of CZ). For all types of films, water vapor permeability (WVP), water solubility (WS), swelling ratio (SR), tensile strength (TS), percent elongation at break (E), heat sealing strength (HS), and Hunter color values (L, a, and b) were determined. WVP of corn zein coated
films decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the concentration of com zein increase. Coating with corn zein also decreased film WS and SR linearly with the concentration of corn zein. TS of corn zein coated carrageenan films decreased linearly with corn zein concentration. All the com rein coated carrageenan films showed heat sealing properties even though their sealing strength was less than half of corn zein film. Obviously corn zein coating affected color of
films, which was mainly caused by increase in yellowness (Hunter b-value).
Proteolytic Properties of Saewoojeot (Salted and Fermented Shrimp) on Meat Proteins
Oh, Se-Wook ; Kim, Young-Myoung ; Nam, Eun-Jung ; Jo, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1191~1195
This study was conducted to investigate the proteolytic properties of saewoojeot (salted and fermented shrimp) on various meat proteins. NaCl content was decreased less than 2% by electrodialysis. As electrodialysis time was passed, the protease activity was increased. The proteolytic activity of crude protease on muscle proteins of beef, pork, chicken was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Crude enzyme easily degradated both heat-denatured and native meat proteins. Protein degradation was rapidly occurred within 5 min and most all myofibrilar protein was disappeared. Heat-denatured chicken meat (100%) was most easily degraded than heat-denatured pork meat (47%) and beef meat (31%).
Salt Penetration Properties of Anchovy (Engraulis japonica) Muscle Immersed in Brine
Oh, Se-Wook ; Lee, Nam-Hyouck ; Kim, Young-Myoung ; Nam, Eun-Jung ; Jo, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1196~1201
As a basic study to develop low-salted fermented anchovy, rates of salt penetration into anchovy muscle, patterns of protein degradation and changes in water activity and transfer was analyzed after brining at various salt (NaCl) concentration. The salt penetration curves followed first order. kinetics. The rate constant (k) increased from 0.018 (10% NaCl solution) to 0.051 (saturated). Water activity was reduced from 0.93 (10% NaCl solution) to 0.77 (saturated). Protein degradation during brining was Somewhat occurred in 10% NaCl solution but not in satutrated solution. Water content of anchovy muscle were 74% (w/w), 65% and 58% when 10%, 20% and saturated NaCl solution were used, respectively. This result indicated that as NaCl content of brining solution was increased, the amount of water transfer also occurred. Weight of anchovy increased at 10% NaCl solution and decreased at 20% and saturated NaCl solution. The loss of anchovy solid mash during brining was calculated as 30% after 36 hr brining.
Effect of High Pressure Carbon Dioxide on Inactivation of Leuconostoc sp.
Hong, Seok-In ; Park, Wan-Soo ; Pyun, Yu-Ryang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1202~1207
Inactivation of Leuconostoc sp. isolated from kimchi using carbon dioxide under pressure was investigated in terms of operating parameters in order to evaluate its feasibility as a novel nonthermal process. Inactivation rates increased with increasing pressure, temperature and exposure time, but with decreasing working volume. Microbial reduction of 3 log cycles was achieved within 150 min under a
. It was confirmed that microbial inactivation by the high pressure
was governed essentially by the characteristic of
mass transfer and thus penetration of
, into cells was a rate limiting step to determine efficiency of the inactivation process. The experimental results suggested that the high pressure
treatment could be used as one of the effective nonthermal methods for preserving foods.
Changes in Lactic Acid Bacteria of Squid with Low Salt during Fermentation
Jo, Jin-Ho ; Oh, Se-Wook ; Kim, Young-Myoung ; Chung, Dong-Hyo ; Kim, Joung-Im ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1208~1212
Isolation and identification of predominant microorganisms in fermented squid with low salt were carried out during fermentation at
. Dominant strains were lactic acid bacteria(80%) including Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc sp., Pediococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus were shown in the early stage of fermentation and gradually increased until optimum stage of squid fermentation, and then decreased rapidly. Lactobacillus grew lastingly during fermentation. Yeasts were detected in the middle stage of fermentation and shown rapid increase after the last stage of fermentation, suggesting that yeasts participate in putrefaction of fermented squid with low salt.
Effect of Oligosaccharide Syrup Addition on the Retrogradation of a Korean Rice Cake (Karedduk)
Son, Hye-Sook ; Park, Soon-Ok ; Hwang, Hae-Jin ; Lim, Seung-Taik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1213~1221
Effects of the addition of three commercial oligosaccharide syrups into a Korean rice cake (Karedduk) on the textural characteristics and retrogradation of the rice cake were examined during the storage for 5 days at
. Each syrups contained maltose (M75), isomaltose and panose (HL), or maltotetraose (G4) as major sugars. The increment (rates) in gumminess, hardness and chewiness during the storage were significantly reduced by replacing rice flour (up to 10%) with the oligosaccharides. The retardation in the textural changes by the oilgosaccharides was more significant when the rice cake was stored at
. Among the three types, HL exhibited most effective in retarding the textural changes. Thermograms by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) showed that the oligosaccharide increased the onset temperatures and enthalpy for the starch melting, but the recrystallinity measured from the enthalpy ratio before and after the storage was significantly reduced by the presence of the oligosaccharide. Especially with 5% HL, the recrystallinity was significantly low (72.7%) compared to rice cake without HL (88.1%). Therefore, HL had great efficiency in retarding starch retrogradation as well as textural changes of the rice cake during the storage.
Effects of pH and Potassium Chloride in Solvent System of High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography
Lee, Chang-Ho ; Lee, Boo-Yong ; Lee, Hyun-Yu ; Lee, Cherl-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1222~1227
Effects of the physical properties of solvent system such as pH and polarity change by salt addition in solvent system were investigated by using high speed countercurrent chromatography apparatus (Model CCC-1000, Pharm-Tech Research Corp. USA). The changes of pH and interfacial tension in solvent system of high speed countercurrent chromatography did not significantly affect on retention of stationary phase, but induced remarkable changes in the partition coefficient of ginkgo flavonoids, kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin. The partition coefficients of ginkgo flavonoid standard increase with an increased pH of solvent system and quercetin sharply increased at pH 10.0. Retention of stationary phase decreases with an increased concentration of KCl in butanol of solvent system. Interfacial tension between two phase in solvent system of hexane increases with an increased concentration of KCl. The polarity of solvent system significantly changes the partition coefficients of ginkgo flavonoid.
Standardization of Ingredient Ratios of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi
Cho, Eun-Ju ; Park, Kun-Young ; Rhee, Sook-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1228~1235
This study was conducted to standardize the proper ingredient ratios of chinese cabbage kimchi by the sensory evaluation, chemical properties, and functional properties of antimutagenic effect and inhibitory effect on the growth of cancer cells from the ratios obtained from literatures. The standardized ratios of ingredient from the literatures was 13.0 of radish, 2.0 of green onion, 3.5 of red pepper powder, 1.4 of garlic, 0.6 of ginger, 2.2 of anchovy juice, 1.0 of sugar and the final salt concentration 2.7 in the proportion of 100 salted chinese cabbage. The standardized ratio of the ingredients exhibited better overall acceptability and less moldy smell and moldy flavor than any other ratio of ingredient in the sensory evaluation. The standardized kimchi with the above ratios of the ingredients, at final salt concentration of 2.5%, showed high reducing sugar contents and Leuconostoc sp. counts. All juices of the chinese cabbage kimchi showed not only high antimutagenicity against aflatoxin
in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 but also strong inhibitory effect on the growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in SRB assay, especially these functional properties were the most effective at each standardized ratio of the ingredients. From the taste, chemical and functional properties, the standardized ratios of ingredients was 13.0 radish, 2.0 green onion, 3.5 red pepper powder, 1.4 garlic, 0.6 ginger. 2.2 anchovy juice, 1.0 sugar and the final salt concentration 2.5 in the proportion of 100 salted chinese cabbage.
Growth Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Pure Compound Isolated from Extract of Morus alba Linne Bark
An, Eun-Young ; Han, Ji-Sook ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1236~1240
The crude extract of Morus alba Linne bark which showed strong antimicrobial activity on Listeria monocytogenes was fractionated by some solvents and applied column chromatography for purification of active component. By silica gel column chromatography, active fraction (F-5') was purely isolated and confirmed their strong bactericidal effect on Listeria monocytogenes tested at level of 100 and 300 ppm in tryptic soy broth. The cell wall observed by SEM was abnormal after treatment of F-5'.
The Preparation of Fermented Milk from Milk and Fruit Juices
Ko, Young-Tae ; Kang, Jung-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1241~1247
Gel-type fermented milk was prepared from milk or mixture of milk and apple juice/grape juice. Acid production (pH change) and growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (KCTC 2182) were studied. The effects of juice addition on sensory property of fermented milk were also studied. The pH value of samples containing mixture of milk and apple juice/grape juice (25 mL : 25 mL to 5 mL : 45 mL) was lower than that of milk sample. However, number of viable cells of L. acidophilus at 21 hr in milk and samples containing juices was similar. During lactic fermentation for 24 hr, pH of all samples dropped significantly between 6 hr and 21 hr. pH values of mixture of milk and juices were lower than that of milk sample. Growth curve showed that lag phase continued to approximately 3 hr and log phase continued to approximately 15 hr in all samples. Number of viable cells in all samples was similar Sensory evaluation showed that overall acceptability of fermented milk prepared from apple juice/grape juice and milk (15 mL : 35 mL or 5 mL : 45 mL) was better than that of reference sample. The optimum ratio of mixture of juice and milk was 15 mL : 35 mL. The score values of sensory test of fermented milk prepared from mixture of grape juice and milk were slightly higher than those of mixture of apple juice and milk.
Antioxidative Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Rhus Verniciflua Stokes (RVS) on Mouse Whole Brain Cells
Lim, Kye-Taek ; Shim, Jae-Han ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1248~1254
To measure antioxidative activities, the various extracts from RVS (Rhus Verniciflua Stokes) were tried out with either DPPH or thiocyanate method. Also we used the GO (Glucose Oxidase) 20 mU/mL hydroxyl radical system in mouse whole brain cell culture. Chloroform, n-hexane or ethanol were used as extract solutions which had different polarity respectively. In DPPH and thiocyanate method, the antioxidative activities of the crude ethanol extracts were stronger than other extracts. The crude ethanol extracts were fractionated 5 peaks by glass column. Among of them, antioxidative activity of peak II
was shown stronger than other fractions, a little for peak III
and peak IV
, and none for peak I
and Peak V
. In the antioxidative effects of crude ethanol extracts (30 mg/mL), cell viabilities were evaluated
of crude ethanol extracts 59%, 68% respectively.
addition of crude ethanol extracts had 95% cell viabilities, 0.01% significant, comparing control. In addition, the compounds related to antioxidative effect of crude ethanol extract might be glycoproteins by means of SDS-PAGE. Comparison to antioxidative effects between several antioxidants (ascorbic acid,
addition of crude ethanol extracts corresponds to
catalase in antioxidative effects.
The Effects of Green Tea on the Serum Lipid and Liver Tissue of Cholesterol Fed Rats
Sin, Mee-Kung ; Han, Sung-Hee ; Han, Gun-Jo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1255~1263
This study was performed to investigate the effects of green tea on fat metabolism of rats and prevention to cardiovascular disease in drinking green tea. Male Spague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups consisting of the control, lard and cholestrol, aqueous green tea at the level of 1% and 3%. After 4 weeks of feeding serum lipid levels were measured for experimental rats, and analyzed the total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), phospholipid (PL). And total lipid (TL) to Folch method, lipid deposition to oil red O staining on liver tissue. The results are as follows: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased by administration of 1% aqueous green tea group and increased addition to lard and cholesterol (LC) group as compared to each groups (p<0.05). HDL-cholestrol in serum increased by administration of la aqueous green tea group (1G) and decreased to the control group, 1% aqueous green tea (L-1G) added lard group (p<0.05). Triglyceride (TG) decreased by administration of 3% aqueous green tea groups (L-3G, LC-3G) and increased by lard and cholesterol group (LC) (p<0.01). Phospholipid(PL) decreased by administration of 3% aqueous green tea added lard and cholesterol group (LC-3G) and increased by control group, lard and cholestrol group (LC) (p<0.05). Total lipid of liver decreased by administration of aqueous green tea at the level of 1% group and increased by LC group (p<0.01). The fat deposition of liver was increased in fat diet groups and decrease in the drink green tea of some but did not showed significant differences from concentration of the green tea.
Effects of Aluminum Compound on Kidney Tissues of Rats
Han, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Joong-Man ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ; Han, Du-Seok ; Sin, Mee-Kung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1264~1268
This study was performed to investigate the effects of aluminium treatment on renal damage in rats. Seventy five male Sprague-Dawley strains were divided into five groups; the control, 250 ppm
, group, 500 ppm AlCl3 group, 250 ppm
, group, 500 ppm
group and kept on the diet for 2 weeks. The body weight gain was more increased in
, treated of rats but decreased in
, treated rats than the control, on based in histophysiological examination, in
, treated group, thyrodization of kidney tubular lumen and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, abscess formation were demonstrated and in
, treated animals destruction of glomeruli and necrosis in kidney cortex by inflammatory cells were shownd. On the other hand, blue-pigmented cast was noted in tubules of
administration group whereas focal aluminium accumulation was noted at interstitial tissue in kidney of
, administration group.
Inhibition Effect of ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) and Kinetics of Aloe Acethylmannan
Ryu, Il-Whan ; Shin, Yong-Seo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1269~1274
This study was researched to purify and characterize variety bioactive material acethylmannan from Aloe vera. Purified acethylmannan was mannose (67%), acetyl group (23%) and the rest glucose, galactose that consisting of long chain polydispered
linked mannan polymers. The sugar and acetyl group in molecular were linked molar ration one third.
value (i.e that concentration which exhibits 50% more enzyme inhibition than control) on angiotensin converting enzyme were 0.58 mM. This compound were found to be a competitive inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme with apparent Ki values of 0.068 mM.
Retardation of Kimchi Fermentation and Growth Inhibition of Related Microorganisms by Tea Catechins
Wee, Ji-Hyang ; Park, Keun-Hyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1275~1280
The possible use of tea catechins as natural preservatives for kimchi was investigated in this study. Tea catechins separated from tea leaves had antimicrobial activity against microorganisms related to kimchi fermentation, such as Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, Streptococcus faecalis. The degree of antimicrobial activity of catechins were different among microorganisms; that is 2 mg/mL to Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus cerevisiae, 4 mg/mL to Streptococcus faecalis, and 5 mg/mL to Lactobacillus brevis; however, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can not be inhibited. The effect of tea catechins on retardation of kimchi fermentation was tested by measuring changes in pH and acidity. The changes of pH and acidity of baechu-kimchi and mul-kimchi were remarkably inhibited by adding the tea catechins at the level of 2 mg/g fresh baechu. These results suggest that the tea catechins can be successfully used for the extension of shelf-life of kimchi.
Antimutagenic Effects of Methyl Alcohol Extracts from Auricularia auricula and Gyrophora esculenta
Ham, Seung-Shi ; Kim, Deug-Ha ; Lee, Deuk-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1281~1287
This study was conducted to investigate the antimutagenic effects of methyl alcohol extracts from Auricularia auricula and Gyrophora esculenta on the SOS response induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), mitomycin C (MMC) and 3-amino-1,4- dimethyl-5H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indol (Trp-P-1) in E. coli PQ37/plasmid pKM101. In the mutagenic test on test strain, both methyl alcohol extracts did not show mutagenic activity. In the antimutagenic test, each sample strongly inhibited the mutagenecity induced by 4NQO, MNNG, MMC and Trp-P-1. Methyl alcohol extracts from Auricularia auricula and Gyrophora esculenta showed inhibitory effects of 52% and 59% against 4NQO, 49% and 58% against MNNG, 53% and 64% against MMC, and 61% and 64% against Trp-P-1, respectively. Gyrophora esculenta extracts on the antimutagenicity showed relatively higher inhibitory effects than that of Auricularia auricula.
Effect of Hot Water Extracts from Medicinal Plants on the Mutagenicity of Indirect Mutagens
Song, Geun-Seoub ; Ahn, Byung-Yong ; Lee, Kap-Sang ; Maeng, Il-Kyung ; Choi, Dong-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1288~1294
For screening antimutagenic effects, the effects of 95 medicinal plants on the mutagenicity of aflatoxin
and benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] were investigated using the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The mutagenicity induced by
or B(a)P was reduced over 26% by 2 kinds and 8 kinds of medicinal plant, respectively. Eight plants (Bupleurum falcatum, Corydalis ternata, Gasfrodia elata, Ostericum koreanum, Pinellia ternatia, Poncirus trifoliata, Prunus armeniaca and Rehmannia glutinosa) were also shown to have inhibitory effects on both
and B(a)P. The mutagenicity induced by
or B(a)P was increased over 20% by 46 kinds and 2 kinds, respectively, and 8 medicinal plants (Chrysanthemum indicum, Cinnamomum cassia, Cyperus rotundus, Morus bombycis, Patrinia scabiosaefolia, Petasites japonicus, Polygonum multiflorium, Thyja orientalis) increased significantly the mutagenicity of both mutagens. However the 8 plants themself did not show the mutagenicity in SOS Chromotest with S-9 mix alone. This result suggests that the above 8 plants may have the co-mutagenic activities. In two bacterial mutation system, SOS Chromotest and Ames test, the mutagenic or antimutagenic activities of some medicinal plants wire similar except Ostricum koreanum, Eugenia caryophyllata and Scutellaria baicalensis.
Effects of Addition of Chicory Extract on Starch Hydrolysis in vitro and Glucose Response in Healthy Subjects
Lee, Jung-Sun ; Shin, Hyun-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1295~1303
This study determined the effects of addtition of chicory extract on the rate of starch hydrolysis in vitro and blood glucose response in healthy subjects. The rate of corn starch hydrolysis in the presence or absence of chicory extract was determined in an in vitro enzyme/dialysis system for 2hr. Additions of dried or roasted chicory extract (5%, w/w) to corn starch solution reduced the starch hydrolysis and significantly (p<0.05) decreased the area under hydrolysis curve by 16% and 18%, respectively. Groups of five to nine volunteers underwent 60 g glucose tolerance tests (GTT) with 2.5, 5, 10, 20% (w/w) dried or roasted chicory extracts. The addition of chicory extracts significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood glucose concentration during the GTT and reduced the mean peak rise and area under blood glucose curve. The glycemic indices of all dried chicory extract,
roasted chicory extract groups were significantly decreased compared with glucose control. Chicory extract is therefore likely to be useful in modifying postprandial hyperglycemia.
Chemical Structure and Isolation of Novel Glucosyltransferase Inhibitor from Artocarpus heterophyllus folium
An, Bong-Jeun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1304~1308
In the course of studies for anti-plaque agents, novel procyanidin structure isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus folium was established by thiolysis and spectroscopic analysis. The chemical structure was identified for
containing the trimeric flavan-3-ols and molecular weight was 833[M-H] by FAB-MS negative ion method. The inhibitory effect on the glucosyltransferase activity was investigated, novel compound showed complete inhibition at 1.0 mM and inhibited on the glucosyltransferase noncompetitively.
Enzyme-Resistant Starch Formation from Mild Acid-Treated Maize Starches
Lee, Shin-Kyung ; Mun, Sae-Hun ; Shin, Mal-Shick ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1309~1315
Yields of enzyme-resistant starch (RS) from three kinds of maize starches (Amioca, normal starch and Amylomaize VII) which were treated with 1 N HCl for 24 hr and physicochemical characteristics were investigated. Hydrolysis rate of maize starches decreased with increasing amylose content. Maximum wavelength
and iodine affinity were decreased by the acid treatment. The yields of RS increased with acid treatment up to 12 hr and then decreased. The yield of for 12 hr acid-treated Amioca increased 8 times more than untreated sample, but those of normal starch and Amylomaize VII slightly increased. Using SEM, acid-treated and autoclaved maize starches showed gel like structure, but RS had round and rod shape small particles. X-ray diffraction patterns of autoclaved starches showed amorphous structure in Amioca and B-type in normal starch and Amylomaize VII, and those of RS showed all completely crystalline structure.
Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of the
Fragments Hydrolysated by Chymosin, Pepsin, and Trypsin
Oh, Se-Jong ; Kim, Sae-Hun ; Kim, Sang-Kyo ; Baek, Young-Jin ; Cho, Kyung-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1316~1318
on gel permeation chromatography was hydrolyzed by chymosin, trypsin, and pepsin. The 3% TCA soluble portion of the hydrolysates were dialyzed on the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition rate (%,) and inhibitory activity
were determined. The trypsin hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE inhibition rate while the chymosin hydrolysation showed the lowest activity. The hydrolysate was dialyzed using dialysis membrane with various molecular cut-offs, and
was determined. As the pore size of the dialysis tubing increased, the ACE inhibitory activity decreased.
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Hexanal Content of Peanut Milk
Lee, Chan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1319~1321
The effect of cooking peanut kernels before grinding on the hexanal content of peanut milk was investigated. Hexanal which is thought to be one of the major compounds contributing to the beany flavor of peanut milk, was quantified using a simplified headspace gas chromatographic method. Four cooking times (0, 10, 20 and 30 min) were evaluated. The concentration of hexanal in peanut milk was one-third by cooking peanut kernels for 10 min or longer. Protein content of peanut milk gradually decreased by heat treatments.
Characteristics of Spray Dried Polysaccharides for Microencapsulation
Lee, Seung-Cheol ; Rhim, Chae-Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Chun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1322~1326
Characteristics of viscosity and spray dried particles for several polysaccharides were studied to investigate the possibilities as wall materials for microencapsulation. Viscosities of 10% maltodextrin, 10% gum arabic, 10% dextran, 1% gum locust bean, and 1% gum karaya were 2.2 mPa.s, 9.2 mPa.s, 13.0 mPa.s, 4660.0 mPa.s, and 77.0 mPa.s, respectively. In scanning electron micrographs for spray dried polysaccharides, gum arabic had spherical shapes at 20% and 30% emulsion concentration, while trailed shapes at 40%. Maltodextrin had uniform spherical shapes at 30%, while aggregated form with various kinds of capsule sizes at 40%. Dextran had spherical shapes at 20%, while trailed fibrous shapes at over 30%. Mixed polysaccharides with gum arabic:maltodextrin (1:3, w/w) had uniform spherical shapes at 20%, 30%, and 40% with increasing diameter with increasing concentration.
An Rapid Extraction of Ginseng Saponin Compounds
Kwak, Yi-Seong ; Kim, Mi-Ju ; Kim, Eun-Hee ; Kim, Yeoung-Ae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1327~1329
A new rapid saponin extraction method was developed with using of organic solvent and waring blonder. There was a good correlation between previous distillation method and this method in f major ginsenosides (
, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1) contents. When the ratio of methanol and chloroform was 7:3, this method showed similar saponin contents (total major. ginsenosides contents) comparing with distillation method. Contents of total major ginsenosides were 2.41% in this method and 2.54% in distillation method. However, crude saponin content of this method was higher than that of distillation method.