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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
Discrimination of Native Bee-Honey and Foreign Bee-Honey by SDS-PAGE
Lee, Deug-Chan ; Lee, Sang-Young ; Cha, Sang-Hoon ; Choi, Yong-Soon ; Rhee, Hae-Ik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~5
To find out the difference between native bee-honey (NBH) and foreign bee-honey (FBH), quantification of honey protein and investigation of specific protein in NBH were carried out by SDS-PAGE. Contents of honey protein in NBH and FBH were measured by Bradford and Lowry method. The contents of protein determined by Bradford method were
in NBH and
in FBH, and by Lowry method were
in NBH and
in FBH. In order to investigate the distribution of bee honey proteins, the SDS-PAGE was performed. The results showed that molecular weight of the major proteins in NBH and in FBH were 56 kDa and 59 kDa. respectively. Therefore, it was confirmed that the difference between NBH and FBH can be identified visually by SDS-PAGE analysis. The major proteins in NBH and FBH were purified through two step chromatography, and the obtained proteins were used as marker protein in SDS-PAGE to discriminate NBH and FBH.
Effect of Deodorizing Conditions on Formation of trans-Fatty Acids of Soybean Oil
Park, Choul-Soo ; Yoon, Kwang-Ro ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 6~12
Degummed and bleached soybean oil was deodorized at a temperature range of
under the vacuum (4-5 torr) for 1 or 2 hrs. Gas chromatography with SP-2560 100 m capillary column was used to separate and quantitate fatty acid methyl esters and their isomers. Fatty acids were identified by comparing retention time with standards and GC-MS spectrum. The isomers of linoleic acid and linolenic acid in deodorized soybean oils were identified to be
. The formation of trans-fatty acids by deodorization at
for 2 hrs was in the range of 1.78 to 5.74%. Conclusively, the deodorizing conditions of
for 2 hrs or
for 1 hr were suggested as the best conditions which could minimize the formation of trans isomers of fatty acids in soybean oils
Effect of Platycodon grandiflorum DC Extract on the Growth of Cancer Cell Lines
Lee, Ji-Young ; Hwang, Woo-Ik ; Lim, Seung-Taik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 13~21
To investigate the cytotoxic effect of Platycodon grandiflorum DC, petroleum ether extract of Platycodon grandiflorum DC was partially purified by a silica gel column chromatography. Among several fractions, fraction D which was obtained under the elution with a 7:3 mixture of petroleum ether and ethyl ether, showed patent cytotoxicity against mouse leukemia cell line (L1210), human rectum cancer cell line (HRT-18) and human colon cancer cell lint (HCT-48).
Development of Biosensor for Simultaneous Determination of Glucose, Lactic Acid and Ethanol
Kim, Jung-Ho ; Rhie, Dong-Hee ; Kim, Tae-Jin ; Noh, Bong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 22~34
The purpose of this study is to develop biosensor for determination of glucose, lactate, and ethanol in foods and food-stuffs simultaneously. The multiple cathode system was prepared with an oxygen electrode having one anode and hexagonal cathode. Glucose oxidase, mutarotase, lactate oxidase, alcohol oxidase and catalase were used for immobilization to determine glucose, lactate, and ethanol. These components including ethanol were simultaneously determined by the immobilized enzymes in the multiple cathode system. The determination of the components by enzyme sensor was based on the maximum slope of oxygen consumption from enzyme reaction of each sensor part. The response time for analysis was 1 min. The optimum condition for glucose, lactate and ethanol sensor was found to be 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at
. Interferences of various sugars and organic acids were investigated. Less than 10% of error was found in determination of the components except organic acids. This difference was compensated by the modified equation. This system was confirmed by conventional methods. It was concluded that the multiple cathode system of this study is for an effective method to determine sugar, organic acid, ethanol simultaneously in foods.
Survey for Amino Acid of Medicinal Herbs
Hwang, Jin-Bong ; Yang, Mi-Ok ; Shin, Hyung-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 35~41
Essential amino acid composition of seventy eight medicinal herbs marketed in Korea was analyzed of the basis of their dried weight. From the results analyzed, it was shown that Alisma orisntale (S.) J. (1,911.5 mg%), Foeniculum vulgare M. (1,090.8 mg%), Artemisia princeps P. (1,073.6 mg%) and Typha latifolia L.(956.1 mg%) contain in threonine. Alisma orisntale (S.) J. (2,523.3 mg%), Nelumo nucifera G. (1,984.7 mg%) and Foeniculum vulgare M. (1,553.8 mg%) contain in lysine. Nelumo nucifera G. (738.3 mg%), Alisma orisntale (S.) J. (635.2 mg%) and Foeniculum vulgare M. (507.7 mg%) contain in methionine. Nelumo nucifera G. (2,496.9 mg%), Alisma orisntale (S.) J. (2,295.6 mg%) and Coix lachrymajobi L. var. M. S. (2,222.5 mg%) contain in leucine. Nelumo nucifera G. (1,624.6 mg%), Alisma orisntale (S.) J. (1,432.7 mg%) and Xantnium strumarium L. (1.371.7 mg%) contain in isoleucine. Alisma orisntale (S.) J (1,791.0 mg71), Nelumo nucifera G. (1,570.6 mg%) and Xantnium strumarium L. (1,498.7 mg%) contain in phenylalanine.
Physicochemical Properties of Oxidized Waxy Maize Starches with Sodium Hypochlorite
Chung, Man-Gon ; Jeon, Young-Seung ; Lee, Sur-Koo ; Park, Jong-Moon ; Lim, Bun-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 42~48
Physicochemical properties of waxy maize starch and oxidized waxy maize starch with sodium hypochlorite
were studied. As sodium hypochlorite concentration was increased, the content of crude lipid and crude protein of the oxidized starch were decreased. And crude protein content and whiteness was considered to show negative regression. However, the crude ash content of the oxidized starch increased significantly with oxidation and bore a positive regression to the chlorine content. There was a progressive increase in the carboxyl content with increasing oxidant level. After pasting in hot water and cooling, viscosity of the oxidized starches were drastically lower than that of native starch . As carboxyl contents of the oxidized starch increased, the solubility and swelling power was increased. When waxy maize starch treated with 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0% sodium hypochlorite, temperature of initial gelatinization of oxidized starch was shown to 65, 65, 60 and
, respectively. The oxidized waxy maize starches also form clearer pastes. Water binding capacity of the oxidized starch decreased as the degree of carboxyl group substitution increased. Waxy maize starch has polygonal and some round granules which range from about 3.7 to
in diameter. Surface appearance of the waxy maize starch became rough when oxidized with sodium hypochlorite. When homogenate of the oxidized waxy maize starch solution and corn germ oil was stored under room temperature for 24 hours, the emulsion stability was considered to depend on starch concentration and degree of substitution.
Changes in Taste Compound of Low Salt Fermented Pollack Tripe during Controlled Freezing Point Aging
Park, Seong-Min ; Park, Chan-Kyu ; Lee, Keun-Tai ; Kim, Sang-Moo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 49~53
For the effective utilization of by-products from pollack, Theragra chalcogramma, processing, low salt fermented pollack tripe were produced and changes in taste compounds of low salt fermented pollack tripe during the controlled freezing point aging were investigated. No significant changes in contents of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid and ash were found during aging. The volatile base nitrogen of low salt fermented pollack tripe increased steadily as aging progressed. Contents of amino nitrogen and nitrogenous compounds of extract reached a peak in 50 days of aging, as 190.7 mg% and 2085.8 mg%, respectively. Inosine(HxR) of low salt fermented pollack tripe increased as controlled freezing point aging progressed for 60 days. 18 species of amino acid were detected in raw pollack tripe and law salt fermented pollack tripe aged for 50 days. The major amino acids were tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, arginine, lycine, leucine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in raw pollack tripe. After 50 days aging, increase of a series of bitter taste amino acid such as methionine, valine and isoleucine were higher than other amino acids.
Characteristics of Samjangs Prepared with Different Doenjangs As a Main Material
Kim, Hye-Lim ; Lee, Taik-Soo ; Noh, Bong-Soo ; Park, Jung-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 54~61
Samjangs (Korean-style mixture of soybean paste) were prepared using magjang, traditional doenjang (Korean style soybean paste), and mixture of traditional doenjang and magjang (a kind of Korean style soybean paste) as a main composition. Charateristics including volatile compounds were investigated. Total sugar in samjang by using magjang was higher than that of other treatment while reducing sugar of the mixed treatment was high. Glutamic acid
was highest among free amino acids. Hunter color values of samjang with magjang was lower than those of others. Volatitle flavor components of smajang were identified with GC and GC-MSD. Fifty four components including 11 alcohols, 7 esters, 13 acids, 3 aldehydes, 4 alkanes, 4 phenols, 3 pyrazine and others were found in samjangs. Ethanol, acetic acid ethyl ester, 3-methyl butanoic acid, 2,4-hexadienoic acid and acetic acid might be major volatile components considering of high peak area. Pentanoic acid methyl ester and 4-methoxy-2-buten-1-ol were higher than other components in samjang with magjang while 2-methyl-1-propanol, butanoic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid were in samjang with traditional doenjang and ethanol, acetic acid ethyl ester and 2,4-hexadienoic acid were in the mixed treatment.
Conditions of Water Activity of Raw Material and Adding Levels of Papain and Glucose for Processing Fermented Squid with Low Salt Concentrations
Jo, Jin-Ho ; Oh, Se-Wook ; Kim, Young-Myoung ; Chung, Dong-Hyo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 62~68
To develop methods to produce low salt fermented squid with rich flavor and acceptable shelf life, the optimum processing conditions such as water activity of raw material, amounts of NaCl, papain and gucose were investigated. Water activity of squid meat was adjusted to 0.94 (raw meat), 0.90 and 0.88 by cold air blast and each was salted with 3, 5, or 7% NaCl followed by fermenting at
for 6 weeks. Amino nitrogen was increased rapidly with high water activity and low NaCl concentration. As a result of organoleptic evaluation it was concluded that optimum conditions were to adjust water activity of raw material to 0.90 and to salt with 5% NaCl. When squid meat adjusting water activity to 0.90 was treated with 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5% papain and fermented at
for 6 weeks, SDS-PAGE pattern showed rapid breakdown of myofibrilar protein with increasing amounts of papain but the treatment with 0.1% enzyme was best organoleptically. pH values of squid meat added with 1 and 2% glucose were maintained lower than control (glucose 0%) but there were no significant differences between the two glucose treatments. Therefore, it was thought that adding of glucose might be extended shelf life of fermented squid with low salt concentration.
Functionality of Extracted Proteins by Additives and Ionic Strength
Rhee, Min-Suk ; Lee, Jun-Sup ; Koh, Kyung-Chul ; Kim, Young-Kyo ; Kim, Byoung-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 69~76
This study was investigated to determine the effect of additives and ionic strength on the functionality of extracted proteins in preblends in order to use less additive in restructured meat products. Preblends contained the combinations of sodium chloride (NaCl; 0, 4.5, 9.0%), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP; 0, 2.5, 5.0%), and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (PP; 0, 2.44, 4.88%). The pH values increased linearly with increasing STPP and PP concentrations (p<0.01). In the equivalent ionic strengths, PP was more effective than STPP in increasing pH. Phosphate ions were more effective on total extractable protein (used 1 M NaCl buffer) than chloride ion at equivalent ionic strengths. Solubility was decreased by adding NaCl and increasing total extractable proteins. Meat sulfhydryl contents were high with increasing total extractable proteins. When protein extracts were heated at
, 7 min, meat sulfhydryl contents decreased and surface hydrophobicity increased (p<0.01). However, all protein extracts showed no differences in SDS-PAGE pattern. In conclusion, PP is more effective than STPP in order to use less additive but there was no linear relationship between functionnal improvement and ionic strength.
Changes during Storage of Rice Germ Oil and Its Fatty Acid Composition
Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Chung, Jong-Ku ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 77~81
Rice germ oils were extracted from common and dried rice germ
, and their oxidative stabilities were evaluated by measuring acid value, peroxide value and fatty acid composition during storage at
. The acid values of all lipids were slightly changed during storage, but peroxide values (POV) were greatly dependent on storage temperature. The POVs of the dried germ oil and the refined rice bran oil were 146.2 meq/kg and 15.1 meq/kg, respectively after 31 days storage at
. However after 24 days of storage at
, the POVs of the dried germ oil and the refined rice bran oil were 151.7 meq/kg oil and 219.6 meq/kg oil, respectively. Major fatty acids were linoleic (39.8%) and oleic acid (34.7%) in rice germ oil, and oleic (40.1%) and linoleic acid (38.1%) in rice bran oil. The major fatty acid compositions were not greatly influenced by drying and storage temperature but linoleic acid decreased about half during storage.
Purification and Characterization of Alkaline Protease from saewoo-jeot, salted and fermented shrimp (Acetes japonicus)
Nam, Eun-Jung ; Oh, Se-Wook ; Jo, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Young-Myung ; Yang, Cha-Bum ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 82~89
This study was performed to elucidate the purification and characterization of pretease from saewoo-jeot, a Korean traditional salt-fermented shrimp product. The protease in saewoo-jeot (Acetes japonicus) were extracted, desalted through electrodialysis and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. Purified enzyme had specific activity of 8.4 unit/mg, yield of 14% and purification fold of 9.8. Purified enzyme was confirmed as single band protein by polyacrylamide gel electrophresis and the molecular weight was estimated to be about 24 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were 8.0 and
, respectively. The range of its stability to the pH and temperature were 7.0 to 10.0 and
, respectively. The activity of enzyme to synthetic substrate showed BAPNA and TAME. The enzyme was activated significantly by manganese ions, while inhibited by STI, TLCK. metals
. The Km value of the enzyme was
to hammersten casein. It's suggested that purified protease from saewoo-jeot seemed to be trypsin-like enzyme.
Preparation and Characteristics of Mixed Fruit and Vegetable Juices
Kim, Su-Yeun ; Choi, Eon-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 90~96
An experiment to make mixed juices carrying the freshness and other specific characteristics of vegetables and fruits which are useful for the prevention and treatment of various diseases was attempted on the emphases of pretreatment methods, combination of fruits and vegetables, and elimination of microorganisms. Blanch in boiling water prior to extraction for green vegetables, addition of ascorbic acid during extraction for tomatoes and apples, or addition of ascorbic acid after blanch in 3% acetic acid for carrots was effective to keep colors and suspended solids in liquid extract. On the basis of sensory evaluation the extracts from tomatoes, apples. carrots. mallows, watercreses+pine needles, Angelica keiskei Koiz, jujubes and lemons were selected and mixed at the ratio of 3 : 3 : 3 : 1/2 : 1/2 : 1/2 : 1/2 : 1/5. The mixed extracts were pasteurized for 15sec at
or filtered through a ultramembrane filter. While the centrifuge precipitation and retentates on the membrane filter were autoclaved and combined with ultrafiltrates. The mixed juices showed
, soluble solid
, reducing sugar
and high content of K, Mg and Ca. Ultrafiltration showed better quality scores in color, juice. Peroxidase and microorganisms were inactivated by thermal treatment and ultrafiltration.
Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Arrowroot Starches Harvested in Different Time
Park, Jong-Hoon ; Na, Hwan-Sik ; Kang, Kil-Jin ; Kim, Kwan ; Kim, Sung-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 97~102
Arrowroot starches, harvested in March, June, September and December, indicated that the December starch had the lower values of amylose content,
limit and intrinsic viscosity, but the highest value of water-binding capacity. The swelling power were similar among different starches. The gelatinization by KSCN revealed that the December starch was the most resistant to alkali gelatinization. Gelatinization temperature, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, of the December sample was shifted to higher temperture by
compared with the others. When the December starch was heated at
for 8min, 93.8% of total amylose and 7.2% of total amylopectin were solubilized, which was the highest and the lowest, respectively.
Physicochemical Properties of Dried Anchovy (Engraulis Japonica) Subjected to Microwave Drying
Kum, Jun-Seok ; Park, Kwang-Jang ; Lee, Chang-Ho ; Im, Ji-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 103~109
For the purpose of improving quality of dried anchovy, raw anchovies after hot air drying were subjected to six different processes: 5 min microwave and 1 min holding-12 times (MW5), 10 min microwave and 1 min holding-6 times (MW10), 5 min microwave with hot air and 1 min holding-12 times (MWH5), 10 min microwave with hot air and 1 min holding-6 times (MWH10), 5 min microwave vacuum and 1 min holding-12 times (MWV5), 10 min microwave vacuum and 1 min holding-6 times (MWV10) at 100 Watt and 2450MHz. There were no significant effects of different processes on water content, pH, color, acid value and volatile basic nitrogen. The sum of fatty acids on commercial anchovy occupied 38.34% of saturates 22.91% of monoenes and 22.91% of polyenes and dried anchovies subjected to microwave processes had similar compositions. Dominant fatty acids were palmitic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in each process. Among the free amino acids, alanine, arginine, lysine and leucine were dominant in all processes. Dried anchovies showed little significant differences in texture in all processes. Sensory evaluation data showed that the quality of dried anchovy subjected to microwave process was acceptable and microwave vacuum process was the most desirable one.
Continuous Production of Isomaltooligosaccharides by Immobilized Transglucosidase in a Packed-bed Reactor
Ahn, Jang-Woo ; Park, Kwan-Wha ; Seo, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 110~117
A packed-bed reactor with immobilized transglucosidase (TG) was operated to test the possibility of continuous production of isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) and the effect of concentration and feed rate of substrate solution on the production pattern as well as operational stability The pattern of formation of IMO was the same to the one of soluble TG. The concentrations of glucose and isomaltose produced by the packed-bed reactor were gradually decreased as the flow rates were increased regardless of the concentrations and kinds of maltose solution as substrate. Isomaltotriose showed the same tendency except 10% maltose solution. But the concentration of panose was increased and then decreased as the flow rates were increased. The maximum yield of IMO was 52.1% when 10% (w/v) solution was fed to the reactor at 2 mL./min feed rate. When each 20% and 30% (w/v) solution was respectively used at
, the maximum yield were
. The maximum yield was 36.3% at
when a commercial maltose product containing 20% maltose was used. The reactor was stably operated at
. 85% and 65% of initial activity was maintained for 144 hours and 288 hours of operation, respectively. A reactor analysis strongly an immobilized TG system could apply to continuous production of IMO.
Cowpea Starch Extraction Process using Microparticulation/Air classification Technology
Ku, Kyung-Hyung ; Park, Dong-June ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 118~124
Dehulled cowpea was microparticulated and coarse fractions and fine fractions were collected by air classification at air classifying wheel speed (ACWS) of 15,000 rpm, 12,000 rpm and 9,000 rpm, respectively. Protein content in fine fraction after air classification was 2 times higher than that of microparticulated cowpea, emulsion capacity was about 3 times than coarse fraction. The coarse fraction of the highest viscosity on the gelatinization properties were detected by amylograph, was C-3 (9,000 rpm coarse)fraction. The majority of microparticulated cowpea particles were oval shaped starch and the rest of them were indeterminate minute particles which had some sharp corners. As an application test, microparticulated cowpea and coarse fraction (C-3) were used for mook (Korea traditional starch jelly) preparation and the wet milled cowpea starch was compared as a control. Some impurities induced discoloring was detected by sensory evaluation but after washing, it made no difference in sensory scores between washed starch and the control cowpea mook. And also syneresis of washed cowpea was less than control. At the above result, it can be to recovery about 85% of cowpea starch using microparticulation/air classification technology.
Processing of Low Sugar Jams from Fig Pulp Treated with Pectinesterase
Hou, Won-Nyoung ; Kim, Myoung-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 125~131
The change of pectinesterase (PE) activity and pectin substances in fig fruit were investigated and low sugar jams prepared by various methods from fig fruit were compared. Fig fruit PE, which began to show the activity at the harvest time, was not inactivated and had slight activity during frozen storage at
. The amount of alcohol insoluble solid (AIS) and the degree of esterification (DE) of AIS were reduced by its own PE activity. However the intrinsic PE of fig fruit was not enough to make low-methoxyl pectin below 50% of DE. Fig pulp treated by its own PE and combination of fig PE and orange PE could make low-methoxyl pectin. After PE treatments, fig pulp adjusted below pH 4.0 by addition of citric acid kept red colour. Fig Jams processed by various methods had lower soluble solid
compared with conventional fig jam. Five kinds of fig jams out of those showed higher score than others in the sensory evaluation. For preparation of the five jams, the fig pulps with or without 1% pectin were treated at
for 25 minutes with addition of orange PE (200 units/400 g pulp). The treated pulps were added with 0.25% citric acid, 0.7% calcium and 20% cane sugar. The mixed pulps were prepared for jams containing low sugar by hot plate or microwave or refrigeration (excepting the mixed pulp without pectin).
Improvement in Storage Stability of Danmooji (Salted Radish) by High Hydrostatic Pressure and Heat Treatment
Kim, Byong-Ki ; Hong, Kwan-Pyo ; Park, Ji-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 132~138
This study was conducted to evaluate the storage stability of danmooji(salted radish) treated with high hydrostatic pressure
. Danmooji pressurized at 500 MPa and 686 MPa for 5 min showed
reductions in total microorganism, while danmooji heated at
reductions. However, danmooji pressurized at 300 MPa for 5 min showed a 2 log-cycle reduction, indicating that pressurization at lower than 300 MPa is insufficient for sterilization. After pressurized at 300 MPa, 500 MPa and 686 MPa for 5 min, pectinesterase (PE) activity of danmooji was increased by approximately 35%, 76% and 64%, respectively; and polygalacturonase (PG) activity of danmooji was increased by 109%. 163% and 120%, respectively. After heated at
for 2 hr, PE and PG activities of danmooji were increased by 18% and 200%, respectively. This indicates that PE in danmooji was more activated bypressure than heat, while PG was mostly activated by heat. Pressurized and heat-treated danmooji had higher hardness than control and maintained its hardness during storage at
Manufacture Condition of Oleoresin using Citron Peel
Jeong, Jin-Woong ; Lee, Young-Chul ; Lee, Kyung-Mee ; Kim, In-Hwan ; Lee, Mie-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 139~145
This study was performed to provide fundamental data on the optimum manufacture condition of oleoresin using citron peel. Oleoresin was extracted from freeze-dried or hot air dried citron peels using various solvents (hexane, ether, dichloromethane, acetone. and methanol), mixing ratio, extraction temperature, and time. As a result, optimum extraction conditions of oleoresin were: solvent mixing ratio 1:10 (w/v), extraction time 2 hours, and extraction temperature
when used methanol, and their dichloromethane 1:10 (w/v), 4 hours and
, respectively. At optimum extraction conditions, the yield of oleoresin was shown that 35.79% at hot air drying samples, 32.04% at freeze-dried ones when extracted by methanol, but shown 5.86% and 6.16% when used dichloromethane respectively. The number of volatile components present in citron oleoresin were confirmed as thirty two in methnol extracion method and twenty nine in dichloromethane extraction method by GC and GC/MS, respectively. But, in the kinds and amounts of volatile flavor components, relatively greater numbers of volatiles were identified in freeze-dried sample extracted by dichloromethane compared with other methods. In freeze-dried sample extracted by dichloromethane, volatile components of citron oleoresin predominantly occupied by limonene and
with about 85%. Other important compounds were shown hydrocarbons. such as
, myrcene, terpinolene,
, and linalool as alcohols.
Preparation of Sikhe with Brown Rice
Lee, Won-Jong ; Kim, Suk-Shin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 146~150
This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using brown rice as a raw material for preparation of sikhe. The
activity of germinated brown rice was much lower than that of germinated barley; however, the extract and its sugar content of extract prepared from germinated brown rice was similar to those of germinated barley. The extract of sikhe prepared with brown rice at
for 4 hr was similar to that of milled rice for 1 hr. Sikhe prepared with brown rice did not differ from sikhe prepared from milled rice in sweetness, pH and acidity. Sensory evaluation of sikhe prepared with brown rice showed increase in aroma and decrease in texture compared with sikhe prepared with milled rice.
Optimization of Separation Process of Bioflavonoids and Dietary Fibers from Tangerine Peels using Hollow Fiber Membrane
Lee, Eun-Young ; Woo, Gun-Jo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 151~160
Tangerine peel is mostly discarded as waste in citrus processing. However, tangerine peel contains besides dietary fibers bioflavonoids such as naringin and hesperidin which act as antimicrobials and blood pressure depressants, respectively. A continuous membrane separation process was optimized for the production of bioflavonoids relative to feed flow rate, transmembrane pressure, temperature, and pH. The tangerine peel was blended with 7.5 times water volume and the extract was prefiltered through a prefiltration system. The prefiltered extract was ultrafiltered in a hollow fiber membrane system. The flux and feed flow rate didn't show any apparent correlation, but we could observe a mass-transfer controlled region of over 8 psi. When temperature increased from
, the flux increased about
, the flux increased only 2 LMH. At every transmembrane pressure, the flux of pH 4.8 was the most highest and the flux at pH 3.0 was lower than that of pH 6.0, 7.0, or 9.0. Therefore, the optimum operating conditions were 49.3 L/hr. 10 psi,
, and pH 4.8. Under the optimum conditions, the flux gradually decreased and finally reached a steady-state after 1 hr 50 min. The amount of dietary fibers in 1.0 g retentate in each separation step was analyzed and bioflavonoids concentration in each permeate was measured. The contents of total dietary fiber in the 170 mesh retentate and soluble dietary fiber in the prefiltered retentate were the highest. Naringin and hesperidin concentration in the permeate were
times higher than those in the tangerine peel. Therefore, it can be said that PM 10 hollow fiber membrane separation system may be a very effective method for the recovery of bioflavonoids from tangerine peel.
Alcohol Fermentation of Cheese Whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Lactic Acid Bacteria
Shim, Young-Sup ; Kim, Jae-Won ; Yoon, Sung-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 161~167
Whey is by-product from natural cheese manufacturing process. For alcoholic fermentation, the initial lactose content and pH were adjusted to 4.5% and 4.2, respectively. Two strains of yeasts (Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and seven strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus lactis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus) were examined for their alcohol production and sensory acceptability. Ethanol content in the whey fermented by lactose-fermenting K. marxianus was 2.8% at 4th day of incubation and that fermented by nonlactose fermenting S. cerevisiae was 0.2%. In case of mixed fermentation with yeasts and tactic acid bacteria (LAB being inoculated at 0 hr), the maximum ethanol production was obtained in the sample inoculated at 16 hr by s. cerevisiae, and in the sample inoculated at 24 hr by K. marxianus. The optimum temperature was
for alcohol production under static condition. The production of
gas was higher in the whey fermented by K. marxianus (1.88%) than by S. cerevisiae (0.04%). The titratable acidity of the whey gradually increased with fermentation time and its content was 0.39% at 4th day of fermentation by K. marxianus and 0.52% by S. cerevisiae. Among seven strain of latic acid bacteria tested, Lactococcus lactis exerted synergistic effect for acid production with K. marxianus. Therefore, overall results suggestd that the combination of Lactococcus lactis and K. marxianus was best choice in fermenting cheese whey for edible purpose.
D(-) and L(+)-Lactic Acid Determination of Lactobacillus acidophilus during Fermentation and Storage Period
Lee, Kyung-Wook ; Shin, Yong-Kook ; Baick, Seung-Chun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 168~174
The amount of D(-)-lactic acid in fermented dairy products is very important because the rate of metabolism of D(-)-lactic acid is lower than that of L(+)-lactic acid. The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimum condition during fermentation and storage of yogurt for the formation of isomers of lactic acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The production of acid was excellent at
of fermentation and the ratio of D(-)-lactic acid was also lower than that of other conditions such as
. Among shaking and non-shaking treatment under aerobic condition and anaerobic condition, non-shaking treatment under aerobic condition was the best condition at the production of acid and L(+)-lactic acid during fermentation. During storage at low temperature, a larger amount of L(+)-lactic acid was produced than at higer storage temperature.
Effect of the Water Quality on the Variation of Ascorbic Acid Content during Yulmoo Mul-kimchi Fermentation
Kim, Yoo-Jin ; Oh, Ji-Young ; Lee, Tae-Young ; Hahn, Young-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 175~183
Yulmoo Mul-kimchi was prepared by fermentation of the mixture of 1 part of leafy radish and 2.75 parts of water. It is thought that during the kimchi fermentation both the biosynthesis and destruction of ascorbic acid occurred at the same time. So the ascorbic acid content in Kimchi broth was strongly influenced by the environment of the processing period. In the present studies, an attempt had been made to elucidate the effect of water quality on the content of ascorbic acid and the population change of microorganism during Mul-kimchi fermentation. Five kinds of water such as tap water, an underground water, one commercially available processed water, distilled water and triply distilled water were examined. Nevertheless there were no differences in the population of microorganism and the pattern of acid formation among the five different kind of waters, a large variation of ascorbic acid content was observed. The ascorbic acid content of Kimchi prepared with triply distilled water showed the highest of 7.2 mg% in contrast to 3.37 mg% in tap water kimchi, and 5.72 mg% in the kimchi using underground water which has relatively high concentration of Ca. These results suggested that pure water free of metal ions might prevent the destruction of ascorbic acid during the fermentation. The considerable amount of ascorbic acid in the Kimchi with underground water might be due to Ca ion in the water.
Volatile Aroma Compounds of Fermented Milk Prepared from Milk and Fruit Juices
Ko, Young-Tae ; Kang, Jung-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 184~191
Gel-type fermented milk was prepared from mixture of milk and apple juice or grape juice by fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus (KCTC 2182). Changes in volatile aroma compounds during 21 hr-lactic fermentation were studied. Diacetyl and acetoin, that were produced by L. acidophilus, were detected at 6 hr or 12 hr and showed peak values at 12 hr. Acetone and butanol, that were present originally in sample, decreased gradually during fermentation. Ethanol, that was either present originally in sample or produced by L. acidophilus, showed peak value at 18 hr in case of mixture of apple juice and milk. The concentration of ethanol was substantially high during whole period of fermentation in case of mixture of grape juice and milk though it showed peak value at 18 hr. Because the concentrations of ethanol in apple juice and ethanol and acetone in grape juice were relatively high, it might affect the results.
Studies on Screening of Paraquat Toxicity Reducing Agent and its Inhibition Mechanism
Lee, Jeong-Hun ; Koo, Sung-Ja ; Choung, Se-Young ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 192~198
In this study, we intended to evaluate the modulatory effects of natural products,
, aloesin and semiessential amino acid, taurine on the toxicitiy of paraquat. In the taurine treated groups, serem glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (s-GOT), serem glutamic pyruvic transaminase (s-GPT). blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in serum and MDA, ALP activity, collagen in lung tissue were decreased to the normal values. In the aloesin treated groups, s-GPT, BUN, creatinine, MDA level in serum were decreased to the normal values significantly. In the
treated group, only s-GPTactivity was reduced to the normal values. In the lung tissue of taurine treated groups, MDA value, G-6-phosphatase activity and collagen synthesis were recovered to the normal valuse and ALP activity was increase about 40%. From these results, we concluded that taurine is an effective agent to inhibit the pulmonary and internal organs toxicities induced by paraquat and the inhibition effects of taurine are due to remove free radicals directly.
Inhibitory Effect of Zizyphi fructus on
and Tryptophanase of Human Intestinal Bacteria
Rhee, Young-Kyoung ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Han, Myung-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 199~205
In human intestine, more than 100 species of bacteria reside and dietary factors may alter the bacterial flora which produce bacterial enzymatic activities. Especially
and tryptophanase activities in colon are closely associated with occurrence of colon cancer. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of traditional herbal food extracts on these intestinal bacterial enzymes are measured. The results of this study showed that Zizyphi fructus and Glycyrrhiziae radix decreased not only
and tryptophanase productions of human intestinal bacteria but also inhibited potently
and tryptophanase. Among solvent-extracted fraction of tested herbal foods, ether fraction of Glycyrrhiziae radix and ethylacetate fraction of Zizyphi fructus inhibited potently
and tryptophanse. Thus, ethylacetate fraction of Zizyphi fructus separated six components by silica gel column chromatography. The component having Rf=0.34 and Rf=0.43
shwed the highest inhibitory effect of
and tryptophanase among them.
Glutathione-S-transferase Activity and its Changes to Chemical Pollution in Edible Shells and Fishes
Song, Mi-Ran ; Choe, Sun-Nam ; Park, Kwan-Ha ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 206~212
This study was undertaken to explore the applicability of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity as a predictable indicator to monitor chemical pollution in shells and fishes utilized for food. There were some variations in the basal level of GST activity depending on species tested. Ark shells, Anadara satowi, showed the highest normal enzyme activity, followed by catfish and marine mussels, Mytilus coruscus. White clams, Meretrix lusoria, Israeli carp and catfish had lower activity. When A. satowi was exposed to 3-methyl-cholanthrene (3-MC), a prototypic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon for 1 week, GST activity decreased by about 30%. This reduction in GST activity induced by 3-MC did not recover until two weeks after the cessation of exposure. GST activity increased in response to 3-MC in most of the other species studied. The GST elevation in M. coruscus attained its maxinum of about 200% at the termination of 3-MC exposure maintaining this level up to 2 weeks, and declined gradually thereafter. 3-MC also induced GST activity in lsraeli carp in a similar fashion to M. coruscus. Phenobarbital induced GST activity both in M. coruscus and lsraeil carp. Other chemicals. such as clofibrate, butylated hydroxyanisole. hexachlorobenzene, and oxolinic acid did not change the enzyme activity significantly in most speciel. Phenol depressed GST activity only in lsraeli carp. These results suggest that the basal level of GST activity is somewhat variable and that the direction of change in response to chemicals seems to be related to its normal activity. The change in enzyme activity can be a preditable indicator of some environmental chemicals such as PAHs and phenol.
Cytotoxic Effect of the Pine needle extracts
Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Jung, Sung-Won ; Choi, Keun-Pyo ; Ham, Seung-Shi ; Gang, Ha-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 213~217
This study was performed to observe cytotoxic effect of the pine needle extracts against cancer cell lines including human gastric carcinoma (KATOIII), human lung carcinoma (A549), human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and SRB (sulforhodamine B) method. The extracts were prepared by step-wise fractionation of ethanol extract of pine needles using diethylether, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol and water. The growth of the cancer cells in medium containing pine needle extracts were significantly inhibited degree in proportion to the increase of the extract concentration. A significant shrinkage of Hep3B cells was observed when the cells were exposed into 0.5, 1 mg/mL of pinus rigida extract.
Iron Binding Peptides from Casein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase
Choi, In-Wook ; Kim, Kee-Sung ; Lim, Sang-Dong ; Lim, Sin-Won ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 218~223
Casein was hydrolyzed by alcalase to produce iron binding peptide (IBP). IBP was effectively separated from casein hydrolysates by immobilized
affinity chromatography and further purified by reverse phase chromatography.
of IBP solubilized
of ferric at duodenum condition
, respectively. According to the result of MALDI analysis, molecular weight of IBP was determined to 2,175 dalton. IBP was mainly composed of proline (24.5 mol%), lysine (15.7 mol%), and glutamine or glutamic acid (14.9 mol%) and its N-terminal sequence was Met-Ala-Pro-Lys-His. According to the information obtained from molecular weight, amino acids composition and N-terminal sequence of IBP, it was evident that IBP was from f102-119 of
Screening of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Ethanol and Methanol Extracts from Cereals and Regumes
Ha, Tae-Youl ; Cho, Il-Jin ; Lee, Sang-Hyo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 224~229
A study was conducted to screen the inhibitory activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A(HMG-CoA) reductase, which is known to be rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol bosynthesis, from the extracts of 80% methanol and 70% ethanol of cereals and regumes. The strongest inhibitory activity was shown in the ethanol extract of sorghum among the ethanol extracts. The inhibitory activity of HMG-CoA reductase of prosomillilet methanol extract was 73%, and highest among the methanol extracts. The inhibitory activity of 44.7% was observed in sorghum methanol extract. The methanol extracts of prosomillet and sorghum were further fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol and water. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity was shown in all fractions of prosomillet and sorghum methanol extracts. Hexan fraction of both prosomillet and sorghum had the strongest inhibitory activity among five fractions, and the inhibitory activity was increased compared to each crude extracts.
Isolation of an Anticariogenic Compound from Magnoliae Bark
Lee, Youn-Soo ; Park, Hun-Joo ; You, Jae-Sun ; Park, Hyung-Hwan ; Kwon, Ik-Boo ; Lee, Hyeon-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 230~236
We have screened total 32 herbal drugs to find the highest activity against human cariogenic enzyme, glucosyltransferase (GTase) from the extracts of Magnoliae bark. The extracts were separated into three phases, i. e. water, n-butanol and ethylacetate according to their solvent polarity. Among them, ethylacetate fraction had approximately more than 70% of total activities, and the active principle was further isolated by prep. HPLC following silicagel column chromatography to yield single compound as white powder. The chemical structure of the compound was finally elucidated to be 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxylignan from the spectral data of FAB-MS.
spectrometries. The compound was also shown to have relatively strong antibacterial activity against ten types of cariogenic oral bacteria and one kind of Actinomyces sp.
Application of a Low Calorie Sweetener, Tagatose, to Chocolate Product
Roh, Hoe-Jin ; Kim, Sang-Yong ; Noh, Bong-Soo ; Kim, Suk-Shin ; Oh, Deok-Kun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 237~240
The application of a low calorie sweetener, tagatose, to chocolate product was investigated. The viscosity of chocolate prepared with tagatose were almost the same as that of chocolate with sucrose. The melting point and endothermic enthalpy of chocolate prepared with tagatose, which were obtained from the analysis of differential scanning calorimetry, were also almost the same as those of chocolate with sucrose. However, chocolate with tagatose was softer than that of chocolate with sucrose.
Chemical Composition of the Rice Germ from Rice Milling and its Oil Stability during Storage
Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Chung, Chong-Ku ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 1, 1998, Pages 241~243
The chemical composition of rice germ, a by product of rice milling, was analyzed and its oil stability was evaluated by acid value and Rancimat method during storage. The predominent components of the germ were carbohydrate (36.5%). crude lipid (21.6%) and crude protein (18.7%). The time taken to double the acid value was 2 days for common rice germ, while it took 31 days to increase 1.15 times for rice germ dried at
for 6 hours. Induction periods of the lipid oxidation from common or dry germ stored at different temperature were not significantly different.