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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
Identification of Rice Species by Three Side (Top, Side and Front) Images of Brown Rice
Kim, Sang-Sook ; Lee, Sang-Hyo ; Rhyu, Mee-Ra ; Kim, Young-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 473~479
Identification of rice species was attempted by three side (top, side and front) images of brown rice. Nine parameters of each image were area, aspect ratio, maximum diameter, minimum diameter, perimeter, roundness and red (R), green (G) and blue (B) pixel values of an image. Forty rice samples consisted of 19 species used for the study and total 27 image characteristics for a kernel were measured. For calibration and confirmation, 105 and 20 brown rice kernels per each sample were used respectively. For best identification of rice species, 24 image characteristics were selected for discriminant analysis. Average percentages for correct identification of rice species were 84.75% and 84.93% for calibration and confirmation data set, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage for correct identification were 99.05% for Nongan and 50.63% for Hwaseung respectively in calibration data. The confirmation data showed that the correct identification of Nongan or Paalgong was 100%, while that of Hwaseung was 47.62%. The result of the study showed that three side (top, side and front) image of brown rice was not suitable for identification of rice species suggesting that additional techniques are required for better discrimination of rice species.
Changes in Functional Characteristics of Maillard Reaction Products by Ozonolysis
Lee, Gee-Dong ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ; Kim, Jeong-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 480~486
It was investigated that the reduction of the intense brown color and increase of solubility, and depolymerization of polymerized melanoidins by ozonolysis affect their antioxidative and antimutagenic activities. Melanoidins was depolymerized and decolorized by ozonolysis. Ozone-treated melanoidins revealed a lower antioxidative activity and a higher antimutagenic activity than those of the untreated control. Fractions of ozone-treated melanoidins showed three peaks resemble to that of the melanoidins on Sephadex column chromatogram. Melanoidins of above MW 1,200 showed intense brown color. However, the strongest electron-donating ability was detected in the melanoidins of between MW 750 to 900. Ozone-treated and ozone-untreated melanoidins of between MW 900 to 1,000 revealed the higher antioxidative and antimutagenic activities.
Changes of Chemical Components during Seibel White Grape Must Fermentation by Different Yeast Strains
Koh, Kyung-Hee ; Chang, Woo-Young ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 487~493
This study was attempted to investigate the changes of chemical components by different yeast strains during alcohol fermentation at
. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae+Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe were inoculated in the Seibel grape must, respectively. Sch. pombe began to metabolize malic acid after 4 days fermentation actively and utilized approximately 54% of initial malic acid. Ethanol contents of S. cerevisiae, S. cerevisiae+Sch.. pombe and Sch. pombe were 11.5%, 11.2%, and 10.0%, respectively. The fermentability of Sch. pombe was slower than that of S. cerevisiae. The production of sulfite showed a positive linear relationship with the yeast growth (P<0.01). Sensory scores indicated that the wine samples fermented by S. cerevisiae and Sch. pombe were not significantly different in color, odor, after taste and overall acceptability. Especially, the taste of Sch. pombe was significantly better than that of S. cerevisiae (P<0.05).
Formation of Dimeric Acids in Soybean Oil in the Deodorizing System
Park, Choul-Soo ; Yoon, Kwang-Ro ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 494~497
Deodorization of soybean oil was carried out at a temperature range of
for 1 or 2hrs. HPSEC(high performance size exclusion chromatography) method was used for the analysis of dimeric acids in deodorized soybean oil. Dimeric acid moieties were produced through the deodorization at
for 2 hrs. The amount of dimeric acids produced was found to be in the range of 0.36 to 3.39%. Dimeric acids were not detected under the deodorizing condition of
. The soybean oil deodorized in these conditions had good quality by the color and viscosity tests. The best condition of minimizing the formation of dimeric acids in soybean oils was the deodorizing conditions of
Application of Photostimulated Luminescence to Detection of Irradiated Foods
Hwang, Keum-Taek ; Uhm, Tai-Boong ; Wagner, Ute ; Schreiber, Georg A. ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 498~501
It was determined whether photostimulated luminescence (PSL) is applicable to the detection of post-irradiation of foods by measuring PSL photon counts for unirradiated and irradiated pepper powder, dried herbs, fresh shrimp, potato, soybean, dried fig, chestnut, dried squid, and dried cod. The samples were irradiated with
source and PSL photon counts were measured for them. The photon counts of unirradiated samples were lower than 2,000 for potatoes and less than 1,000 for the others. The photon counts of the irradiated samples except dried figs (0.5 kGy), chestnuts (0.2 kGy), and dried squid (0.5 kGy) were higher than 1,000, and the photon counts increased with dose. Thus, PSL might be applied to the primary detection of irradiated foods.
Hydration and Hot-water Solublilization of Milled Rice During Cooking
Kang, Kil-Jin ; Lho, Il-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 502~508
The characteristics of hydration and hot-water solublilization of milled rice during cooking were investigated using Korean rice [3 varieties of Japonica type and 3 varieties of Tongil type (Japonica-Indica breeding type)]. The water uptake rate constants of Japonica type varieties during cooking were later than those of Tongil type varieties. The contents of solubles and soluble amylose among Japonica type varieties during cooking were similar, but those among Tongil type varieties were different. At the same cooking conditions, Japonica type varieties showed higher contents and leaching rate constants of solubles as well as soluble amylose than Tongil type varieties.
Detection of Irradiation Treatment for Seasoned-Powdered Foods by Thermoluminescence Measurement
Chung, Hyung-Wook ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 509~516
Thermoluminescence measurements were applied to the detection of seasoned-powered foods such as shellfish extract powder, seasoned marine products, Ramen soup powder and sardine extract powder whether they are irradiated or not. Correlation coefficients
between irradiation doses and corresponding TL responses were more than 0.5966 in all samples and 0.9500 in Ramen soup powder. TL threshold value was pre-established for the detection of unknown Ramen soup powders by verifying TL responses with a re-irradiation step. Threshold values were maximum 1.37 for the nonirradiated samples and minimum 6.06 for the 2.5 kGy-irradiated samples. The samples showing values between 1.37 and 6.06 were subjected to a re-irradiation step for their detection, which results were reconfirmed by enumerating the total bacterial load of the detected samples. Pre-established threshold values were successfully applicable to the detection of 167 coded unknown samples, both nonirradiated and irradiated with gamma or electron-beam energy. In the assessment of irradiated doses, three calibration curves were pre-established by plotting TL intensity versus applied doses, of which a quadratic equation was obtained for the potential estimation of irradiated doses with some variations from the real doses.
Hydrocarbons Detected in Irradiated Soybeans
Hwang, Keum-Taek ; Park, Jun-Young ; Kwon, Yong-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 517~522
Hydrocarbons in soybeans were analyzed to determine whether the hydrocarbons can be applied for detecting post-irradiation of soybeans. Yellow and green soybeans were irradiated at 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kGy. Fats were extracted with hexane and then hydrocarbons were separated from the fat through Florisil column. The hydrocarbons were analyzed with GC. Hydrocarbons 17:2, 16:3, 17:1, and 16:2 were detected in the samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy or higher, but not in the unirradiated ones. The detection levels of hydrocarbons increased with the dose of the irradiation. When unirradiated or irradiated soybeans were roasted or boiled, these hydrocarbons were detected in the samples irradiated at 1 kGy or higher, but not in the unirradiated ones. A blind test confirmed that the hydrocarbon determining method could detect the soybeans irradiated at 1 kGy.
Optimization for Electron Donating Ability and Organoleptic Properties of Ethanol Extracts from Chrysanthemum Petals
Park, Nan-Young ; Lee, Gee-Dong ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ; Kim, Hyun-Ku ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 523~528
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to monitor extraction characteristics of electron donating ability and organoleptic properties for ethanol extracts from Chrysanthemum petals, thereby determining optimum extraction conditions. A central composite design was applied to investigate effects of solvent per sample
, ethanol concentration
and extraction time
on dependent variables such as electron donating ability
, organoleptic color
and organoleptic aroma
of the extracts. Second-order models were employed to generate 4-dimensional response surfaces for qualitative and quantitative aspects of ethanol extracts. Coefficients of determination
of the models for dependent variables were ranged from 0.8180 to 0.9696. Optimum extraction conditions for each variable were 50 mL/g, 61% and 16 hrs in electron donating ability, 88 mL/g, 21% and 16 hrs in organoleptic color, 55 mL/g, 73% and 19 hrs in organoleptic aroma, respectively. The optimum condition ranges for maximized characteristics of ethanol extracts were
. Predicted values at the optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.
Changes of Composition in the Species of Persimmon Leaves(Diospyros kaki folium) during Growth
Choi, Hee-Jin ; Son, Jun-Ho ; Woo, Hi-Seob ; An, Bong-Jeon ; Bae, Man-Jong ; Choi, Cheong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 529~534
A functional and taste related composition was determined to investigate the possibilites of developing a highly functional beverage from Chungdo Bansi, Sangju Dungsi and Byue during growth. Moisture content decrease continously from 77.9% to 80.1% at the begining of May during growth. Crude protein and fat contents in the three species gradually increased according to growth until August. There ware four sorts of free sugar components which were sucrose, glucose, fructose and raffinose in the three species. Buyu's sucrose content was each 1378, 143 times higher than Chungdo Bansi and Sangiu Dungsi by the standard of July. Vitamin C content in the three species gradually increased form the flowering time and was the highest content in July. The sorts of free amino acids in persimmon leaves were detected eighteen free amino acids in all three species. As a result, the materials of persimmon leaves exhibited the highest component from June to July and Buyu of them excelled in a lot of composition.
Changes of Sensory Characteristics in Red Pepper by Different Extraction Conditions
Lee, Hyun-Duck ; Lee, Cherl-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 535~541
The soluble solid of red pepper extracted by water was evaluated with descriptive analysis by 10 trained sensory subjects. In the result of the sensory evaluation, the character notes on the flavor of soluble solid were expressed as pungency, sweet, fresh sour, bitter, alcoholic, meaty, chalkiness and astringent. The score of redness was the highest at
and decreased after 2 hr at
and the score of sensory pungency was more than 50 and was especially higher at
. Principal component analysis of the mean ratings showed that kochoojang (fermented red pepper paste) and chigae (meat and vegetable stew) differed from kimchi (unfermented kimchi) and that they had unique sensory attributes. The first two principal components could be explained by 51% of all the components and the taste of soluble solid at
was highly correlated with sensory attributes such as meaty, fresh sour and sweet and that at
was chiefly correlated with color components and the taste of soluble solid at
was showed close relation to astringent, alcoholic and pungency.
Bread Properties Utilizing Extracts of Pine Needle according to Preparation Method
Kim, Eun-Ju ; Kim, Soo-Min ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 542~547
In order to study bread properties utilizing extracts of pine needle, various mixing percentage were applied to select appropriate ratio between water and extracts. Dough pH, dough pH after first fermentation, dough volume, bread volume and baking loss rate were tested to investigate bread properties after adding extracts of pine needle to bread. The results were summarized as follows; The effects of extracts percentage on pH value of dough according to preparation method were the lowest in the method of hot air drying of pine needle powder. After first fermentation, dough pH was tended to have a the same tendency as above. Dough volume and bread volume were tended to be increased as extracts percentage of pine needle were increased. The percentage of baking loss tended to be a little increased as addition level of extracts was increased. Strength of hardness were increased as storage time passed away. In conclusion, the taste and texture of bread were tended to be decreased as storage time goes, but the strength of pine needle flavour were tended to be increased as addition level of extracts were increased, irrespective of preparation method.
Changes of Physicochemical Characteristics of Korean Type Hot Sauce during Storage
Kwon, Dong-Jin ; Lee, Sung ; Kim, Yoo-Jin ; Yoo, Jin-Yong ; Jung, Kun-Sub ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 548~551
Physicochemical characteristics of the Korean type hot sauce during storage were investigated. Chemical analysis of the Korean type hot sauce showed as follows; pH 3.29, titratable acidity 3.88%, capsanthin 0.13% and capsaicin 2.68 mg%. The contents of capsanthin and capsaicin except pH and titratable acidity decreased during storage for 50 days at 20 and
. The results of sensory evaluation showed the decrease of value according to storage time. Especially change of color in sensory evaluation was outstanding. For correlationship between the color of sensory evaluation and capsanthin content was high, capsanthin content was selected as a quality index of the Korean type hot sauce. Shelf-lives of the Korean type hot sauce were predicted to be 232.5 days at
, and 178.0 days at
Quality Changes of Seasonning Material of the Mixture of Laminaria and Enzyme Treated Mackerel Meat during Storage
Lee, Kang-Ho ; Jeong, In-Hak ; Hong, Byeong-Il ; Jung, Byung-Chun ; Jung, Woo-Jin ; Min, Jin-Gi ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 552~556
In this study, the quality stability of a kind of natural seasoning material, the mixture of enzyme treated mackerel meat and Laminaria powder during the storage was investigated by measuring the TBA(thiobarbituric acid)value, extend of browning, changes in amino nitrogen and chlorophyll a, and fatty acid composition, and the results of sensory evaluation. Addition of sodium alginates (0.08%) and calcium carbonate (0.02%) seemed effective as a binder to yield clarity of the hot water extract of the product. In results, the mixture of Laminaria powder and the enzyme treated mackerel meat added with 0.08% sodium alginate and 0.02% calcium carbonate was more stable in overall quality than the other cases of preparation. And the taste of the mixture could favorably compete with that of dried anchovy extracts.
Influences of Extraction pH on the Functionality of Soybean Protein Isolate
Bae, Song-Hwan ; Rhee, Chul ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 557~561
This study was conducted to investigate the functionality of soybean protein isolates extracted in acidic range (pH 2.0 and 3.0), neutral range (pH 7.0) and alkaline range (pH 10.0 and 12.0). The protein content of soybean protein isolates extracted at pH 3.0 was maximum (93.31%), but that of pH 7.0 was minimum (73.93%). The extraction yield of soybean protein isolates extracted at pH 3.0 was minimum (0.36%), but that of pH 12.0 was maximum (47.54%). The functionality (solubility, water absorption, oil absorption, foam capacity, foam stability, emulsion capacity and gelation) of soybean protein isolates was significantly influenced by pH of extraction medium. The soybean protein isolates extracted at pH 2.0 and 3.0 were more soluble at acidic ranges and those of pH 3.0 and 7.0 were more soluble at neutral ranges, but those of pH 2.0, 3.0, 7.0, 10.0 and 12.0 were more soluble at alkaline ranges than other ranges. The soybean protein isolates extracted at pH 2.0 and pH 12.0 gave greater water absorption, oil absorption and foam capacity than those extracted at pH 3.0, pH 7.0 and pH 10.0. And the emulsion capacity of soybean protein isolates was increased by the increase of extraction pH.
Cooking Conditions and Textural Changes of Cooked Rice Added with Black Rice
Kim, Du-Woon ; Eun, Jong-Bang ; Rhee, Chong-Ouk ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 562~568
Rice (Dongjin-byeo) added with black rices (Chindo and Suwon-415) was cooked and the changes of texture and color of this cooked rice were investigated by texture analyser and color & color difference meter. The hydration time to come to the equilibrium condition was at least 11 hr in black rices. The optimum ratio of water to cooked rice added with black rice was 1.6 (ratio of water to rice) and the hardness of cooked rice added with 5% Chindo black rice was
. Regardless of ratio of water to rice, Hunter a value increased as the ratio of black rice addition to rice increased, while L value decreased. The color elution rate of Suwon 415 was 4 times greater than that of Chindo black rice. The pH of the steep water of Suwon 415 at
during 120 min decreased from pH 6.40 to pH 6.16 as the steeping time increased. The optimum heating time by microwave oven of cooked rice added with black rice was between
to recover the original texture after cold storage treatment of 7 days.
The Effects of Microwave Heating on the Texture of Sugared Chestnuts
Hwang, Tae-Young ; Kim, Joon-Han ; Kim, Jong-Kuk ; Moon, Kwang-Deog ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 569~573
This study was conducted to investigate the differences of textural characteristics and microstructure of sugared chestnuts between heated by a heater and microwave. Raw chestnuts were boiled and infiltrated the sugar in sugar syrup by heating. The content of WSP (water soluble pectin) was increased, but HSP (hydrochloric acid soluble pectin) was decreased by boiling and sugaring. This change was remarkable when it was boiled and sugared by a microwave heating. The hardness, gumminess and chewiness were more decreased in the sugared chestnut boiled and sugared with a microwave than that processed with a heater. Microstructure of sugared chestnut processed with a microwave heating showed the distruction of cell wall.
Cholesterol Removal from Milk Fat by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction in coupled with Adsorption
Lim, Sang-Bin ; Jwa, Mi-Kyung ; Kwak, Hae-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 574~580
The technical feasibility of removing cholesterol from milk fat by supercritical carbon dioxide
extraction followed by adsorption on different adsorbents and of fractionating milk fat into different fatty acid composition at
bar was investigated. Cholesterol could be selectively removed from milk fat by adsorption on a typical commercial florisil with
extraction. Lower weight ratio of milk fat feed to florisil showed higher reduction of cholesterol, but gave lower yield in the milk fat fractions. The effective capacity of florisil for removing cholesterol from milk fat was 2.0g/g, which is the ratio of the fat feed to the adsorbent for 89% cholesterol reduction with a fat yield of 57.5%. Fatty acid composition showed higher short-chain and lower unsaturated long-chain fatty acids in the extracted fractions. Milk fat fractionation method by supercritical fluid extraction in coupled with adsorption would appear suitable for removing undesirable ingredients such as cholesterol and for enriching short-chain fatty acids in the fractions.
Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Microbial Decontamination, Extraction Yields and Physiological Effectiveness of Korean Medicinal Plants
Yook, Hong-Sun ; Cha, Bo-Sook ; Jo, Sung-Kee ; Byun, Myung-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 581~589
Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality, extraction yields and physiological effectiveness in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal plants were investigated. Gamma irradiation at
eliminated the microorganisms contaminated in Korean medicinal plants. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of Korean medicinal plants increased by
at 10 kGy gamma irradiation. The physiological effectiveness such as antioxidation, anticomplement functions, nitrite scavenging and electron donating abilities of medicinal plants exposed to 10 kGy gamma irradiation were not different from that of the nonirradiated control.
Effects of Amylose Content on Quality of Rice Bread
Kum, Jun-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 590~595
Seven varieties (Suweonjo, Suweon232, BG276-5, IR44, IR41999-139, Suweon230 and Yongjubyeo) of rice were used to study for making rice bread by amylose content. Suweonjo had the highest amylose content (27.07%) and Yongjubyeo had the lowest one (17.17%). Suweonjo showed the highest volume after baking, while Yongjubyeo the lowest volume one. Volume and hardness of the rice bread decreased as amylose content decreased. The amylose content was not associated with hardness and color values of rice bread after baking. Sensory evaluation for internal parts of rice bread showed that score of air cell, color of crumb, aroma, taste, chewability and texture decreased as amylose content increased, while volume of rice bread increased. The low-amylose rice cultivar revealeded better suitability for rice bread.
Changes in Microorganisms, Enzymes and Texture of Dongchimi by High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment
Hong, Kwan-Pyo ; Park, Ji-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 596~601
Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on microorganisms, pectin enzymes and texture of dongchimi (pickled radish roots) were investigated. Dongchimi was pressurized at
for 5 min when its pH reached to 4.0. Total aerobes, initial concentration of
, were completely inactivated by high hydrostatic pressure at 600 MPa. Lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, initial concentration of
, respectively, were completely inactivated by high hydrostatic pressure at 400 MPa. Leuconostoc mesenteroides appeared to be the most barotolerant lactic acid bacteria because it was the sole bacteria survived at 380 MPa. Pectinesterase (PE) and polygalacturonase (PG) activities increased after high hydrostatic pressure treatment. Residual PE activity was 193 after pressurization at 500 MPa, and residual PG activity was 191 after pressurization at 686 MPa when the initial enzyme activity of control was set to 100. The hardness of pressurized dongchimi was higher than control.
Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Shelf-life and Quality of Dongchimi
Hong, Kwan-Pyo ; Park, Ji-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 602~607
Changes in microbial count, enzyme, texture and color during storage of dongchimi (pickled radish roots) were investigated. Dongchimi was pressurized at 400 MPa for 5 min. Pressurized dongchimi stored at
were compared with control
. PS4 and PS37 maintained their initial pH values during storage. Lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mold were not detected during storage in pressurized dongchimi. Pectinesterase, polygalacturonase activities and hardness of pressurized dongchimi decreased during storage. PS4 maintained its hardness longer than both control and PS37 during storage. The yellowness of PS37 was too high compared to control and PS4, indicating that storage of pressurized dongchimi at
Improvement of Meju Preparation Method for the Production of Korean Traditional kanjang (Soy Sauce)
Im, Moo-Hyeog ; Choi, Jong-Dong ; Chung, Hyun-Chae ; Lee, Seon-Ho ; Lee, Coon-Woo ; Choi, Cheong ; Choi, Kwang-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 608~614
In order to establish the scientific foundations for the production of Korean traditional kanjang (soy sauce) in a semi-pilot scale, meju preparation and kanjang mashing methods were investigated. Two types of meju, one that was prepared by conventional method (CM-meju) and the other that prepared by modified conventional method (MCM-meju), were made and compared their characteristics. The former made of cooked and crushed soybean with a brick shape was fermented at
relative humidity (RH) for 30 days in koji room and the latter was fermented at
RH seemingly being optimum for the growth of meju-organisms for the same period. The quality of MCM-meju as a raw material for the kanjang preparation was considered to be superior to that of CM-meju as the higher soluble nitrogen and total free amino acids content, the major factor for the evaluation of the quality of meju, were found in the former although the higher total nitrogen content and lower % weight loss were observed in the latter during meju preparation process. The quality of MCM-kanjang with higher total nitrogen, free amino acids, free sugars and the lower residual nitrogen content in cake after separation of kanjang was also found to be superior to that of CM-kanjang in sensory evaluation results.
Storage Stability of the Concentrated Garlic Juices with Various Concentration Methods
Bae, Soo-Kyung ; Kim, Mee-Ra ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 615~623
The garlic juices were extracted and concentrated by heating at
, by using a rotary vacuum evaporator at
, or by freezing at
until the volume was reduced to 70% of the original volume. The concentrated juices were kept at
for 60 days and the changes of bacteria and color were monitored every 10 days. Flavors of the raw garlic juices, concentrated garlic juices, and garlic powder by hot-air drying were analyzed monthly using GC and GC/MS. The CFUs/mL of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria in the garlic juice concentrated at
were lower about 1 to 2 log cycles than those of other concentrated juices. Hunter L, a, and b values in the raw garlic raw juice and the juice concentrated at
significantly increased at the beginning of storage, in particular, when they were stored at
. The garlic juice concentrated at
showed relatively low L value but the juice concentrated at
showed high a value. The main peaks in chromatograms of volatile components identified by GC/MS were 3,3'-thiobis-1-propene, di-2-propenyl disulfide, 3-(methylthio)-1-propene in the raw garlic juice and the concentrated juices, and the juices concentrated at
showed relatively high preservation of garlic flavor.
Effect of Medicinal Herbs' Extracts on the Growth of Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kimchi and Fermentation of Kimchi
Lee, Shin-Ho ; Choi, Woo-Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 624~629
This studies were carried out to investigate antimicrobial activity of 35 kinds of medicinal herbs against lactic acid bacteria isolated from home-made Kimchi. The most isolated lactic acid bacteria were inhibited by ethanol extract of various medicinal herbs such as Schizandra chinensis (SC), Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU), Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) and Sophrora flavescens AITON (SF). But Cnidium monnier, Pinus densiflora, Paeonia suffruticosa, Acanthopanax sessiliflorum and Rhus chinensis inhibited the growth of only a few isolated lactic acid bacteria. The pH of Kimchi containing 1% of medicinal herbs extracts such as SM, GU, LE and SF was higher than that of control during fermentation for 25 days at
, respectively. Titratable acidity and viable cells of total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria of the Kimchi were lower than that of control during fermentation. The sensory quality (taste, flavor and overall acceptability) of SM, GU, and LE added Kimchi was similar to that of control at 10th day of fermentation. But Sophrora flavescens AITON added Kimchi decreased significantly its sensory quality compared with control(P<0.05).
Comparison of Kinetic Parameters, pH and Thermal Properties of Soluble and Immobilized Transglucosidase from Aspergillus niger
Ahn, Jang-Woo ; Park, Kwan-Hwa ; Seo, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 630~637
Enzymatic properties of immobilized transglucosidase (TG) from Aspergillus niger was characterized and compared with soluble TG. Michaelis-Menten constant
and maximum velocity
of immobilized TG were
and in case of soluble TG, 21 mM, 0.4 mM/min. The optimum pH of immobilized TG was pH 5.0 like soluble TG but immobilized TG showed 16% and 45% higher activity than soluble TG at pH 5.0 and pH 6.0. Both of immobilized TG and soluble TG were stable from pH 2.0 to pH 9.0, and therefore their activities in these pH ranges were remained more than 90%. The temperature was optimal at
for soluble TG and immobilized TG, respectively. The thermal stability of immobilized TG was significantly improved than that of soluble TG, and immobilized TG retained
higher activity than soluble TG. D-values from thermal inactivation of immobilized TG were 7690 sec at
, 83 sec at
, 7.2 sec at
. Z-values of soluble and immobilized TG were
, respectively. The little difference of activation energies of soluble TG and immobilized TG supposed that there was little difference in mass transfer limitation during the reaction of soluble TG and immobilized TG.
Volatile Flavor Components in Takju Fermented with Mashed Glutinous Rice and Barley Rice
Lee, Taik-Soo ; Choi, Jin-Young ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 638~643
The volatile flavor components in Takju made from mashed glutinous rice and barley rice were identified by GC and GC-MS using polar column. Twenty eight kinds of flavor compounds including 10 alcohols, 9 esters, 2 acids, 7 aldehydes were identified. At the beginning of fermentation 14 kinds of volatile components were detected and the kinds of volatile components were increased up to maximum after fermentation for 16 days. The contents of volatile components in the sample made from glutinous rice contained slightly higher than the sample made from barley rice. Ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, iso-amyl alcohol, n-hexyl alcohol, hexenyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, ethyl succinate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, butyic acid, benzaldehyde and 3-methoxybenzaldehyde were detected in the both of the sample throughout the fermentation process. Five kinds of aldehyde including ethyl propionate, iso-amyl acetate, ethyl caprylate and ethylphenyl acetate were detected only in the sample fermented for 16 days. The main components of the both sample were ethyl alcohol, iso-amyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, hexenyl alcohol and iso-butyl alcohol. Besides ethyl acetate and benzaldehyde from glutinous rice Takju and hexenyl alcohol from barley rice Takju were found as main components.
Changes of Fermentation Characteristics and Sensory Evaluation of Kimchi on Different Storage Temperature
Choi, Shin-Yang ; Lee, Myoung-Ki ; Choi, Kwang-Sik ; Koo, Young-Jo ; Park, Wan-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 644~649
To investigate the fermentation characteristics of Kimchi which was made at
and stored at
, pH, total acid, total microbes, lactic acid bacteria cell count, dissolved
content, reducing sugars and temperature at the center of Kimchi jar were measured and to know how much Japanese like to have Korean traditional Kimchi, Kimchi samples with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0% salt contents were prepared and surved to panelist at
. Sensory evaluation of Kimchi in terms of appearance, texture, carbonated mouthfeel, salty taste, sour taste, peppery taste and overall acceptability was done by scoring system with maximum 7 points and was analyzed statistically by SAS program. The results of fermentation of Kimchi which was made at
and stored at
were as follows: pH and total acid content of Kimchi which was stored at
for 4 days were almost same as those of Kimchi at
for 48 days. Cell counts of total microbes and lactic acid bacteria in Kimchi which was stored at
for 2 days and at
, respectively. Time and temperature at the center of Kimchi jar during fermentation was took 25 and 35 hours to get to
from initial temperature, respectively. Japanese who had experiences in eating Kimchi liked Korean traditional Kimchi with 2.0% of salt content. Sensory evaluation of Japanese consumer on peppery taste and overall acceptability of Kimchi showed significant difference (P<0.05).
Changes in the Bacterial Flora during Kakdugi Fermentation and the Physiological Characterization of Lactic Coccal Isolates
Ryu, Chun-Sun ; Kim, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Young-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 650~654
Three distinct phases were observed in acidity change during the Kakdugi fermentation; the first increasing phase, a stable phase, and the second increase phase. Enterobacter strains were the dominant bacteria (more than 90%) just after preparation of Kakdugi. Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc sp. were the mainly isolated from properly-ripened (53 and 43%, respectively) as well as from over-ripened Kakdugi (63 and 37%, respectively). Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. paramesenteroides was the dominant one among the lactic cocci from Kakdugi. The isolates from properly-ripened Kakdugi required more amino acids for growth compared to those from over-ripened one while no difference was observed with vitamins. Their physiological characteristics such as amino acid and vitamin requirement were different from those of 9 type strains of various Leuconostoc species.
Screening and Identification of the Fibrinolytic Bacterial Strain from Jeot-Gal, Salt-fermented Fish
Jang, Young-Ryeol ; Kim, Won-Keuk ; Kwon, Ik-Boo ; Lee, Hyun-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 655~659
Bacterial strain showing the strong fibrinolytic activity (2.04 plasmin unit) was screened from Jeot-Gal, Korean salt-fermented fish collected from various region. For the identification, when the strain was characterized morphologically, culturally, and biochemically, it was identified to Bacillus pumilus. And, when the fatty acids composition of the strain was analyzed, it was identified to Bacillus atropheus. Finally, the 16S rRNA partial sequence (V3 region) showed that the fibrinolytic stain screened from Jeot-Gal was identified as Bacillus subtilis. So, we named it Bacillus subtilis KJ-48.
Death of Non-growing Microbial Cells in Saline
Kang, Young-Mi ; Kyung, Kyu-Hang ; Park, Se-Won ; Yoo, Yang-Ja ; Kim, Youn-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 660~664
Death of non-growing microorganisms in saline was studied to observe the inhibitory effect of NaCl in foods on the viability of microorganisms. When Leuconostoc mesenteroides LA10, Staphylococcus aureus B31 and Escherichia coli B34 were incubated in McIlvaine buffer with 0, 10, 20, 30% NaCl at
, they survived best at pH 6, 5, 7, respectively. The survival of 5 lactic acid bacteria, 9 other bacteria and 2 yeasts was tested at pH 5, 6, 7 with 10% NaCl. Gram-positive bacteria survived in saline better than Gram-negative bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria and S. aureus survived better than other bacteria. The number of survivors decreased as concentrations of NaCl increased and as pH moved to acidic or alkaline side from the above-mentioned. When L. mesenteroides LA10 was incubated in saline with those materials which are known to protect microorganisms from the killing effect of NaCl, protective effect was not observed.
Anti-tumor Activity of Protein-bound Polysaccharides Extracted from Mycelia of Lentinus edodes
Lee, Byung-Woo ; Park, Ki-Moon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 665~671
Protein-bound polysaccharides (PBP) were extracted from the mycellia of Lentinus edodes SR-1, and their anti-tumor activities and immunopotentiating properties were observed. The amounts of PBP needed to extend the doubling time twofold (1 unit) were found to be 1 mg for mouse leukemic cells
; 4.4, 3.6 and 6.6 for bowel cancer cells, HCT-48, HRT-18, HT-29 respectively; and 2.6 mg for liver cancer cell, Hep G2. When
were treated with 4 mg of PBP, more than 90% of the cell number were reduced in 48 hours. However, 9 mg of PBP and 72 hrs of incubation time were needed to obtain the same effect for HRT-18, HT-29, and Hep G2. The significant reduction of cell size was observed as the amount of PBP and the incubation time increased. Mice spleen weight and plaque forming cell number increased when the cancer cells were treated with PBP.
Isolation and Identification of Antimicrobial Active Substance from Sophora flavescens Ait.
Ahn, Eun-Young ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Baek, Nam-In ; Oh, Jin-A ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 672~679
The ethanol extract and its chloroform fraction of Sophora flavescens Ait. exhibited growth inhibition on some food poisoning bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the above extracts were
and below 50 ppm Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19111, 19112, 19113, 19114, 15313). By silica gel column chromatography twice, antimicrobial active compound S-10-6 was isolated from chloroform fraction of Sophora flavescens Ait. The fraction S-10-6 showed strong growth inhibition at 10 ppm on 5 strains of L. monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 14593 and Staphylococcus aureus KFCC 11764 but Esherichia coli ATCC 25922 was not inhibited at 100 ppm and also confirmed bactericidal effect at 30 and 50 ppm on 5 strains of L. monocytogenes. The antimicrobial compound S-10-6 was identified as kushenol F, a kind of flavanone compound, by EI/MS,
Isolation and Identification of Antimicrobial Active Substance from Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH
Ahn, Eun-Young ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Baek, Nam-In ; Oh, Jin-A ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 680~687
The ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH showed growth inhibition on 5 strains of Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19111, 19112, 19113, 19114 and 15313) at
. By silica gel column chromatography twice, antimicrobial active compound G-4-4 was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH. The G-4-4 fraction showed growth inhibition at
and confirmed bactericidal effect at 50 and 100 ppm on 5 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Staphylococcus aureus KFCC 11764 was inhibited at
of G-4-4 but Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was not inhibited at 100 ppm. The antimicrobial active substance G-4-4 was identified as liquiritigenin, a kind of flavanone compound, by IR, MS,
Screening for Antimutagenic Effects of the Wild Mushrooms in Korea
Kim, Hyun-Jeong ; Lee, Byeung-Hun ; Kim, Ok-Mi ; Lee, Kap-Duk ; Lee, Kap-Rang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 688~692
To detect naturally occuring antimutagenic substances from wild mushrooms in Korea, the screening for the antimutagenic compounds containing in ethanol and water extracts of 13 wild mushrooms toward benzo(a) pyrene (B(a)P) and
using the Ames assay system with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 were studied. The ethanol extracts of Polyporus dispansus, Cantharellus infundibuliformis, Agaricus subrutilescens, Daedalea dickinsii, Panaeolus papilionaceus and Hydnum repandum showed significantly antimutagenic activity toward B(a)P. The water extracts of Hydnum repandum showed the strong antimutagenic activity toward B(a)P in S. typhimurium TA100, however the water extracts of the mushrooms did not show antimutagenic activity. Whereas 5 out of 13 samples exhibited antimutagenicity toward a direct mutagen of MNNG. The water extracts from mushrooms also not showed antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic effect increased with increasing concentraion of the ethanol extracts from Polyporus dispansus.
Effects of Chitooligosaccharides on Liver Function in the Mouse
Kim, Se-Jae ; Kang, So-Young ; Park, Seung-Lim ; Shin, Tae-Kyun ; Ko, Young-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 693~696
Chitosan is the deacetylated product of chitin. Chitosan and its derivatives have many properties that make them attractive for a wide variety of health applications. This study was performed to investigate some effects of water soluble chitooligosaccharides on liver function in the mouse. The animals given the sterol diet containing 3% cholesterol for 6 weeks showed increase in plasma cholesterol level, which were lowered by 23% when they were fed on 1% chotooligosaccharide. While there was no significant change in liver cholesterol and plasma HDL-cholesterol levels. Continuous administration of 15% ethanol via drinking water to mice for 8 weeks elicited pathological alterations such as inflammation, necrosis, accumulation of lipid droplets in the liver and increase in GPT activity, while simultaneous administration of ethanol and chitooligosaccharide prevented remarkedly ethanol-induced liver injury; there was no observable lipid droplet and GPT activity was decreased by 25% in the liver. These results suggest that chitooligosaccharide play some roles in liver function, such as reducing the plasma cholesterol level and preventing alcoholic liver disease.
Inhibitor of Xanthine Oxidase from Onion Skin
Ra, Kyung-Soo ; Chung, Soo-Hyun ; Suh, Hyung-Joo ; Son, Jong-Youn ; Lee, Hyo-Ku ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 697~701
Two major flavonoid compounds having inhibition activity of xanthine oxidase from onion skin were separated, isolated and identified by ODS chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, UV/visible absorption spectroscopy and FAB Mass. Spectral analyses indicated that
was a flavonol having 3,5,7,3'-OH and 4'-glucoside (quercetin 4'-glucoside), and
was a flavonol having 3(5),7,3',4'-OH (quercetin). FAB-Mass of fraction
in positive-ion-mode produced a spectra containing main ions at m/z 465, corresponding to the
ion of quercetin 4'-glucoside, and m/z 303, corresponding to the
ion of quercetin. The inhibition mechanisms of
were a mixture of the uncompetative and non-competative modes, with respect to xanthine as a substrate.
Anti-cancer Activity of Lentinus edoeds and Pleurotus astreatus
Park, Moo-Hyun ; Oh, Kook-Yong ; Lee, Byung-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 702~708
The effects of mushrooms such as Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus on anti-cancer activity through in vivo and in vitro experiments were powders of protein-bound polysaccharides in mushrooms were solubilized in 0, 5, 25 mg/kg saline, respectively and were used in vitro experiments. The in vivo experiments were carried out as followed: i) anti-cancer activities on Leukemia
, Hepatlicus cancer
and Sarcoma180/(S180), and ii) the effect on immune system through changes in intestine weight and the number of hemolytic plague forming cells. Protein-bound polysaccharides of all showed anti-cancer activity on
and fruit body of Lentinus edodes 25 mg/kg treatment group showed the highest inhibition rate (86%). Pleurotus ostreatus mycelial in medium of cultivate 25 mg/kg treatment. Fruid body of Lentinus edodes 25 mg/kg treatment group showed the highest inhibition rate (86% and 71%, respectively) on
among them. The inhibition rates of fruit body and mycelial of Lentinus edodes 25 mg/kg treatment groups on S180 were 33.9% and 30.9%, respectively. Each samples of 50, 100, 200,
on in vitro cell toxicity test did not show significantly different cell death rates at P<0.05. In immune test, weights of liver and spleen were increased according to increase in conc. but were not significantly different at P<0.05. The weights of thymus were heavy in fruit body and mycelial of Lentinus edodes treatment group but were not significantly different at P<0.05. Hemolytic plague forming cells with antibody formation capability were significantly high in fruit body and mycelial of Lentinus edodes treatment samples.
Structural Characterization of the Anti-Complementary and Macrophage Activating Polysaccharides Isolated from Agaricus bisporus
Kim, Byung-Hee ; Kweon, Mee-Hyang ; Lim, Wang-Jin ; Sung, Ha-Chin ; Yang, Han-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 709~716
Three kinds of anti-complementary system and macrophage activating polysaccharides, AB-20-Ia, AB-20-IIa-2a and AB-20-IVa-2 were isolated from the fruit body of Agaricus bisporus and their structures were characterized. The proteoglycan, AB-20-IVa-2 showing the most potent anti-complementary and macrophage activity was composed of glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, fucose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 3.48:1.83:1.00:0.79:0.74:0.11 and its main component amino acids were phenylalanine (34.72%) and valine (27.84%). The neutral polysaccharides, AB-20-Ia and AB-20-IIa-2a showing lower activity than AB-20-IVa-2, consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, fucose and arabinose in molar ratios of <0.05:<0.05:2.07:1.00:2.72 and 2.16:1.58:1.00:0.20:0.14, respectively. The molecular weights of AB-20-Ia, AB-20-IIa-2a and AB-20-IVa-2 were 840,000, 750,000 and 650,000 respectively. In the
spectra of AB-20-Ia and AB-20-IIa-2a, AB-20-Ia showed only
in the anomerization of the glycosidic linkages, while AB-20-IIa-2a had both
. Especially, AB-20-Ia and AB-20-IIa-2a showed acetyl signals
. In the methylation analysis of the three polysaccharides, high proportion of 1,6-linked glucofuranosyl residues were detected in AB-20-Ia, whereas 1,6-linked glucopyranosyl residues and branches linked at position 4 of those mainly contained in AB-20-IIa-2a. AB-20-IVa-2 consisted mainly of 1,2-linked xylofuranosyl residues and 1,6-linked glucopyranosyl residues and branches linked at position 3 of those.
Some Components Analysis for Chinese Water Chestnut Processing
Lee, Boo-Yong ; Hwang, Jin-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 30, issue 3, 1998, Pages 717~720
Some physico-chemical components of Chinese water chestnut were analysed to provide fundamental data for water chestnut processing and products development. The contents of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, crude ash, crude fiber and carbohydrate of Chinese water chestnut were 79.40%, 1.74%, 0.06%, 1.10%, 0.60% and 17.71% respectively. Free sugars identified in Chinese water chestnut juice were sucrose 8.58%, glucose 1.64% and fructose 1.58% as major component and maltose as trace component. The proportion of major free sugars to total soluble solid content of juice was about 66.0%. Potassium content in Chinese water chestnut was 408.57 mg% as major mineral, iron and manganese content were 0.21 mg% and 0.08 mg% as minor mineral.
and C content were
and trace respectively. Organoleptic properties of Chinese water chestnut were fresh fruit odor and sweet taste as main flavor. Though water chestnut was boiled for 20 min, crunchy texture of flesh was almost maintained.