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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Studies on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Sesame with Roasting Temperature
Kim, Hyeon-Wee ; Jeong, So-Young ; Woo, Sun-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1137~1143
The change of physicochemical characteristics of sesame with roasting temperature
were investigated to get a useful index which needs to manufacture roasted sesame and sesame oils, In the physicochemical properties of roasted sesame, the contents of moisture, specific volume, oil yields and sesame cakes were changed significantly above
. Fat and protein in sesame cakes were changed slightly. Desirable roasting temperature was
in considering oil yields and sensory qualities. Total amino acids such as arginine, serine, threonine, lysine. cystine, tyrosine and most of the free amino acids, and sucrose of free sugars were reduced significantly above
. respectively. These reductions of sugar and amino compounds were assumed to play an important role in Maillard reaction for the formation of browning pigment, taste and aroma. It was confirmed that this reaction was pyrolytic degradation which took place in water-deficient and oil-rich system at relatively high temperature.
Studies on the Naturally Occurring Benzoic Acids in Foods. Part(I) - Naturally Occurring Benzoic Acid and Sorbic Acid in Serveral Plants Used as Teas or Spices-
Kim, Myung-Chul ; Park, Hye-Kyung ; Hong, Jin-Hwan ; Lee, Do-Youn ; Park, Jong-Seok ; Park, Eun-Ji ; Kim, Jong-Wook ; Song, Kyung-Hee ; Shin, Dong-Woo ; Mok, Jin-Min ; Lee, Ju-Young ; Song, In-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1144~1152
In order to investigate the content of preservative components occurred naturally in foods, the content of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in 48 kinds of plants which used as commercial teas or spices was determined according to the method of 'Korean Food Code' and analyzed with a gas chromatograph. The recoveries of the benzoic and sorbic acid were 82.5% and 94.5%, respectively. The naturally occurring benzoic acid was less than 50 ppm in most of the plants used as commercial teas. The content of benzoic arid in spices and the content of sorbic acid in teas or spices were less than 10 ppm. The average contents of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in edible part of each plant were as followed ; leaf 12.5 ppm and 8.1 ppm, root 16.8 ppm and 3.7 ppm, seed 9.8 ppm and 2.3 ppm, fruit 33.8 ppm and 1.2 ppm, fungus 18.3 ppm and 14.6 ppm, respectively. The contents of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in several plants used at teas or spices extended over a wide range.
Volatile Flavor Characteristics of Propolis
Song, Hyo-Nam ; Kim, Young-Eon ; Hwang, In-Kyeong ; Ahn, Seung-Yo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1153~1158
Propolis is a resinous bee-hive product that honeybees collect from plant exudates, flower and leaves. Flavor characteristics of two varieties of propolis collected from different plant origins, falseacacia(Robinia psedoacacia L.) and chestnut tree(Castanea crenata), were analyzed using Aroma Scan and GC/MS. Two varieties of propolis were grouped with quite different aroma profiles by Aroma Scan. Fifty five flavor compounds were identified by GC/MS, of which 44 compounds were found from the propolis of falseacacia and 47 compounds from chestnut tree. Five aldehydes, eight alcohols. five ketones, three esters, one fatty acid, twenty seven hydrocarbons. two terpenes and four phenolic derivatives were identified. Thirty six compounds including benzaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, eudesmol and benzyl benzoate were detected in both propolis, eight compounds including geraniol and n-undecane only in propolis of falseacacia and eleven compounds including piperitenone and valencene only in chestnut tree.
Detection and Absorbed-Dose Estimation of Irradiated Enzyme Powder Using ESR Spectroscopy
Chung, Hyung-Wook ; Jeong, Jae-Young ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1159~1163
Along with the increasing demands for food irradiation technology in the food industry, a proper detection means for controlling irradiated foods is required. Enzyme powder, which is permitted to be irradiated in Korea, was subjected to a detection trial by ESR spectroscopy. The high correlation coefficients were observed between the absorbed doses ranging from 2.5 to 15.0 kGy and the corresponding ESR signal intensity, such as
= 0.9904 in gamma irradiation and
= 0.9696 in electron beam. Pre-established threshold values for both non-irradiated control (1.19) and 2.5 kGy-irradiated samples (6.97 in gamma-ray; 7.36 in electron-beam) were successfully applicable to the detection of 30 coded unknown samples of enzyme powder. The calibration curves obtained from the samples irradiated at 2.5 to 15 kGy were expected to be potentially adopted to estimate absorbed doses ranging front 4 to 7 kGy with a quadratic equation.
Physicochemical Characteristics of
Isolated from Barley
Kim, Sung-Ran ; Choi, Hee-Don ; Seog, Ho-Moon ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Lee, Young-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1164~1170
The physicochemical characteristics of
isolated from waxy and non-waxy barley were investigated. The hull-less waxy and non-waxy barley containing 6.5% and 5.3% of total
respectively, were used as a starting material. The yield and
content of crude
from waxy barley was 5.54% and 62.9%, respectively, and those were higher than 3.34% and 59.2% from non-waxy barley. The crude
purified with selective precipitation and enzymatic treatment to obtain the
isolate of high purity (>99%). The total yield of purified
from waxy and non-waxy barley was 4.46% and 2.59%, respectively. The surface appearance of the purified
by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed randomly entangled multi-net structure of
microfibrils. The melting temperature of
from waxy and non-waxy barley measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was
, respectively. DSC endotherm of
solution showed 2 peaks near
. Enthalpy of phase transition was higher in non-waxy
, and the intrinsic viscosity of
solution from waxy barley was higher than that of non-waxy
. The pasting viscosity of barley starch with the purified
determined by Rapid Visco-Analyzer was higher than that of barley starch without
, and the effect of
on increasing the paste viscosity was greater in non-waxy barley starch.
Microstructure of Recombinated Gels of Amylose and Amylopectin Isolated from Rice Starch
Baek, Man-Hee ; Shin, Mal-Shick ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1171~1177
The changes on microstucture of recombinated gels with different ratio of amylose(A) and amylopectin(AP) which were isolated from nonwaxy rice starch were investigated by scanning electron microscope(SEM) and X-ray diffractometer. As the concentration of amylose was above 3%(1.08% of soluble amylose) in the amylose suspension, gel matrix became like a three-dimensional network. The microstructure of amylose gels showed a network including macroporous structure, but the higher the ratio of amylopectin content were, the firmer network were formed. In case of A/AP mixed gels(15%) with different amylose/amylopectin percent ratios ; 0/5, 5/10, 10/5, 15/0%, as the storage time of gels and the percent ratio of amylose content were increased, network was formed harder with thick films. While X-ray diffractograms of waxy rice starch which contained 100% amylopectin showed A type, those of purified amylose and amylopectin showed V type and amorphous patterns, respectively. Amylose(3%) gels added
amylopectin and A/AP mixed gels(15%) showed peak at
which were shown B type crystallinity similar af retrograded starches. Also as the percent ratio of amylose content in mixed gels was increased, peak intensity wat increased.
Analysis of Essential Oils from the Peel of Mandarine (Citrus unshiu Marc. Var. Okitsu)
Kim, Yu-Kyoung ; Hyun, Seung-Won ; Ko, Young-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1178~1183
Essential oils were isolated from the peel of mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. Var. Okitsu) cultivated in Cheju Island. Among three different isolation methods investigated, simultaneous distillation gave higher yield 1.14%(w/w) than solvent extraction or cold pressing. The densities of essential oils were between 0.8409 and 0.8530, which showed no significant effect of the isolation methods. Some variations in the number of constituents detected and the content of d-limonene in the peel oils were observed depending upon the isolation methods. The citrus fruit was collected seasonally from the field and used as a sample for analysis. The peel thickness and the peel content of citrus fruit were around 2 mm and about 17% on wet weight basis, respectively, in harvest season. The maximum yield of essential oils was obtained in September from citrus peels just prior to ripeness and thereafter the yield had a tendency of decrease but remained over 1%(w/w). The relative content of d-limonene, the major constituent of citrus peel oils. increased gradually with ripening up to 68.69%(relative peak area, RPA). The other minor constituents were
, farnesene, hexadecanoic acid,
and linalool in the decreasing order of their own contents of 7.75, 2.96, 2.29, 1.76, 1.63, 1.56 and 1.46%(RPA).
Conversion Patterns of Yellow Pigment from Gardenia jasminoides by Staphylococcus epidermidas and Lactobacillus plantarum
Jeong, Hyung-Seok ; Park, Keun-Hyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1184~1187
The Gardenia jasminoides yellow pigment and converted pigments were completely separated by Amberlite XAD-4 column chromatography. These Pigments were gel filtrated on Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The characteristics of absorption spectra of eluate and fractionated pigments were investigated. The pigment converted by Lactobacillus plantarum showed a single blue color with an absorption peak at 588 nm and its molecular size was bigger than that of crocetin. The pigment, converted by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Showed blue-green color, which was composed of yellow color with an absorption peak at 418 nm and blue color at 588 nm. Molecular size of the yellow pigment was smaller than crocetin and that of blue color.
Physicochemical Properties of Insoluble Mineral Substances in Food Additives
Kim, Hee-Yun ; Lee, Young-Ja ; Hong, Ki-Hyoung ; Kwon, Yong-Kwan ; Kim, So-Hee ; Kim, Hyun-Jong ; Lee, Chul-Won ; Kim, Kil-Saeng ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1188~1195
This study was conducted to determin basic mineral compositions, chemical components, description of particle size distribution and whiteness for 32 items of insoluble mineral substances, i.e., 3 items of diatomaceus earth, 1 item of kaolin, 10 items of bentonite, 13 items of acid clay, 3 items of talc and 2 items of perlite. The chemical components and XRD (X-Ray diffractometer) for insoluble mineral substances, were similar with those of the reported references except kaolin. However, whiteness was determined in 90% level for talc, diatomaceus earth and kaolin. The contents of heavy metals in insoluble mineral substances were determined as follows : Pb,
ppm ; Cd,
ppm ; Hg,
ppm ; As,
ppm ; Cu,
ppm. These data were significanty lower than the references.
Pasteurization Efficiency and Physico-chemical Changes of Soymilk HTST Pasteurized Using Microwaves
Kim, Suk-Shin ; Lee, Joo-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1196~1202
This work was to determine the microbial and physico-chemical changes of HTST-pasteurized soymilk using microwave energy. Soymilk was HTST pasteurized
by three methods: by heating in a stainless steel tube immersed in a hot water bath(MP0), by heating in a microwave cavity to a defiled temperature and then holding in a hot water bath(MP1), and by both heating and holding in a microwave cavity(MP2). The microbial quality based on the total plate count was in the order of MP0, MP2 and MP1. The three samples pasteurized by different methods showed the similar microbial quality with respect to the coliform count, psychrotrophic bacterial count and phosphatase activity. The destruction of trypsin inhibitor was in the order of MP0, MP1 and MP2. There were no significant differences in pH, titratable acidity, viscosity and vitamin
content before and after pasteurization and among the different pasteurization methods. The similar or higher quality retention of the MP1 or MP2 supports the possibility of using microwave energy for the HTST pasteurization of soymilk and other fluid food products.
Production and Characteristics of Fermented Soy Sauce from Mountain Herbs
Kang, Il-Jun ; Ham, Seung-Shi ; Chung, Cha-Kwon ; Lee, Sang-Young ; Oh, Deog-Hwan ; Do, Jae-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1203~1210
Soy sauce was fermented with the addition of mountain edible herbs, Ligularia fischeri, Codonopsis lanceolata and Symphytum officinale. In general, the total nitrogen content of soy sauce was increased with the increment of the amount of added mountain herbs. The mineral contents of calcium and potassium in the soy sauce after four months of aging at 20% substitution of Codonopsis lanceolata were increased by 1.3 and 1.5 times, respectively. With 10% substitution of mountain herb mixtures, the contents of tyrosine and arginine were increased by about 2 times as compared to the control. In the Rec assay system, antimutagenic effect of soy sauce with 10 and 20% substitution of Codonopsis lanceolata was higher than other samples. The results of sensory evaluation revealed that overall acceptability of soy sauce with 7% substitution of Codonopsis landeolata and 5% of mountain herb mixture exceeded other groups of samples.
Effects of Salts, pH, Acidulants and Carbohydrolase on Extraction Yield and Color Change of Garlic
Cho, Jin-Sook ; Kim, Dong-Hee ; Kim, Woo-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1211~1215
The solid yields and color changes of garlic aqueous extracts were determined to study the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis, pH treatment, and addition of organic acids and some organic or inorganic salts. Hydrolysis with commercial polysaccharases resulted in an
increase in the solid yields, with a greenish color change in the garlic extracts. pH treatment gave it similar effect at the pH range of
. Among the salts and acidulants used,
, sodium oxalate, tartaric and phosphoric acids were effective for increase in the yield and
was effective for both yield increase and control of greening.
Effects of Low-temperature Blanching on Physical Properties of Chestnut Powder
Lim, Jeong-Ho ; Kim, Jun-Han ; Seo, Young-Ho ; Moon, Kwang-Deog ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1216~1220
The effects of low-temperature blanching on the physical properties of chestnut powder were studied. Chestnuts were blanched in water for 15, 30 and 60 min., each at three temperatures viz.
. The particle size of chestnut powder was prepared smaller than 60 mesh
. Higher blanching time and temperature increased water binding capacity(WBC) of chestnut powder. Water soluble index(WSI) was the highest for chestnuts blanched at
for 30 min. As with water binding capacity(WBC), swelling power of chestnut powder increased with increasing blanching time and temperature but solubility showed an reduction by increasing blanching temperature. In Brabender amylographic examination, peak viscosity of chestnut powder showed great change, but the gelatinization temperature showed no significant differences by blanching conditions.
Characteristics of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Improved Kochujang Prepared with Glutinous Rice Koji during Fermentation
Choi, Jin-Young ; Lee, Taik-Soo ; Noh, Bong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1221~1226
Volatile flavor components of glutinous rice koji kochujang made by an improved method were analyzed by using a purge and trap method during fermentation and identified with GC-MSD. Twenty-one volatile flavor components detected immediately after making kochujang including 6 alcohols, 6 esters and 2 aldehydes. Forty-six volatile flavor components including 15 alcohols, 15 esters, 5 acids, 5 aldehydes, 1 alkane, 1 amine, 1 alkene and 3 others were found in an improved kochujang after 150 day of fermentation. Twenty kinds of flavor components, 5 alcohols such as ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol. 2-methyl-1-propanol, 6 ester such as ethyl acetate. 2-methylpropyl acetate, ethylbutanoate, phenylacetate, 2 aldehydes and 7 others were commonly found through the fermentation period. Peak area(%) of ethenone was the highest one among the volatile flavor components at immediately after mashing, and ethyl acetate showed the highest peak area after
day of fermentation, and ethanol showed the highest peak area after
day of fermentation, and 3-methyl-1-butanol showed the highest peak area after 150 day of fermentation(as major components). 2-Methyl-1-propanol, 1-butanol and methylbenzene were detected in glutinous rice koji kochujang during the fermentation.
Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch) for Distribution at Ambient Temperature
Park, Jong-Dae ; Hong, Seok-In ; Park, Hyung-Woo ; Kim, Dong-Man ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1227~1234
Modified atmosphere packaging of peaches(Prunus persica L. Batsch) was investigated to extend their freshness during distribution. Peaches were packaged in the PE film(20LD, 40LD), the PE film modified by addition of 5%(w/w) zeolite(20CK, 40CK), and the PE film containing
sachet(20LP, 40LP). Quality indexes of peaches during storage at
were measured in terms of weight loss, soluble solids content, pH, titratable activity, firmness, color and sensory properties. Gas composition and ethylene content In the film bags changed rapidly at the early stage of storage. Within 8 days, weight loss of the unpacked control increased upto ll.8% but those of the packaged remained below 2%. There was no significant difference in soluble solids content and pH in all the treatments. Ethanol content of peaches packed in 40LD was 12.88 mL/kg and acetaldehyde content in 40CK was
for 8 days. Peaches packed in 20CK showed a good visual and sensory Quality. The result suggested that active packaging treatment such as 20CK could be used for extending freshness of peaches during transport period at ambient temperature.
Processing and Sensory Characteristics of Lipoxygenase-Deficient Soybeans
Kim, Soo-Hee ; Hwang, In-Kyeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1235~1240
The objective of this study was to investigate the application of lipoxygenase(LOX)-deficient soybean to food processing by evaluation of processing and sensory characteristics. LOX activity of some processed products of soybean was decreased as the order of whole soy flour, defatted flour, isolated protein. Particularly the decrement of LOX activity of Hwangkeumkong having all L-1, L-2 and L-3 was so high in defatting and isolation of protein. LOX activities of cotyledon of Jinpumkong sprouts were so high. When soy milks were prepared with LOX-deficient soybeans, its beany flavor was evaluated to be weaker than that of Hwangkeumkong. And soybean sprout of Jinpumkong 2 showed less beany flavor but hypocotyl elongation was poor. The beany flavor of ice cream prepared with defatted flour of Jinpumkong 2 didn't make a significant difference from that of ice cream made with defatted milk powder. We suggest that LOX-deficient soybean may have on relatively good oganoleptic properties of processed foods, so it takes advantage of food processing.
Selection of Lactic Starter for the Improvement of Jeungpyun Manufacturing Process
Moon, Hye-Joon ; Chang, Hak-Gil ; Mok, Chul-Kyoon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1241~1246
Jeungpyun has a unique sponge-like texture and sour taste imparted by the lactic acid and alcohol that are produced by the addition of Takju(turbid rice wine) as a starter. Its consumption, however. has been decreased due to the long preparation time, the difficulties in quality control and the offensive odor derived from the Takju. The present study was carried out in order to shorten the preparation time and to improve the quality of Jeungpyun. To achieve the objectives an appropriate commercial lactic acid starter was selected and a cofermentation system with yeast was developed. A starter containing Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus cremoris and Lactococcus diacetylactis was selected based on the acid production rate and the quality of the produced sour taste. It took 3 hr for the lactic acid fermentation of rice slurry. The optimum addition levels of the lactic acid starter and yeast were 0.45% and 0.60%, respectively. The lactic acid fermented rice slurry was mixed with the rice slurry separately fermented for 2 hr by yeast, and cofermented for another 1 hr before steaming. Jeungpyun Prepared by the developed method was superior in quality to that Prepared by conventional method using Takju. The developed method reduced the preparation time more than 50% compared with the conventional method.
Sterilization of Yakju(Rice Wine) Using a Batch-type High Voltage Pulsed Electric Field System
Kim, Su-Yeon ; Park, Young-Seo ; Mok, Chul-Kyoon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1247~1253
Yakju(rice wine) was sterilized with high-voltage pulses of short time on a batch pulsed electric field(PEF) system. The initial microbial counts of Yakju were 7.52 X
for total aerobes, 2.20 X
for lactic acid bacteria and 7.08 X
for yeasts. The pH, acidity and electric conductivity of Yakju were 3.36, 0.462% and 1.24 mS/cm, respectively. Yakju was treated with 2-250 of pulses exponential-wave formed electric pulses under the field strength of 12.5-25 kV/cm. The critical strengths of the electrical field for the sterilization of Yakju were 7.5 kV/cm for total aerobes, 8.5 kV/cm for lactic acid bacteria and 6.5 kV/cm for yeasts. Logarithmic survival rates decreased linearly at low pulse number, but curvilinearly at high pulse number. The PEF sterilization kinetics of Yakju could be analysed by In s = In A-k In (n) and the sterilization rate constant increased with electric field strength and the size of target microorganisms. No changed in pH, acidity, and the growth of microorganisms were found in the PEF treated Yakju during the storage for 6 weeks at both
Effect of Arrow Root Flour on the Flow Property of Rice Flour-water System
Lee, Shin-Young ; Oh, Kun-Jun ; Jung, Kwang-Seung ; Park, Heung-Cho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1254~1261
The influence of addition of arrow(Pueraria hirsuta Matsum) root flour and its fractions by ultrafiltration on the flow properties of the rice flour-water systems were investigated. The flow properties of rice flour pastes during cold storage
were measured and the components from arrow root flour responsible for changes of flow properties were screened. Addition of arrow root flour significantly changed the flow properties of rice flour pastes. Permeate fractions by ultrafiltration, representing low molecular weight component fraction, significantly affected the flow property of rice flour paste stored at
. Addition of permeate fraction to rice flour pastes rapidly decreased the consistency index, yield stress and pseudoplasticity, and showed a stability of flow property during storage suggesting the retardation of rice starch retrogradation. Permeate fractions of ultrafiltration were identified as puerarin, daidzein and daidzin known to representive isoflavonoid from arrow root.
Gelation of Rapeseed Protein Induced with Microbial Transglutaminase
Hyun, Eun-Hee ; Kang, Yeung-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1262~1267
Optimum reaction conditions for gel formation of rapeseed, Brassica napus, protein catalyzed by microbial TGase(transglutaminase) were evaluated by measuring breaking strength and deformation of gel. The polymerization of the protein gel was ascertained by SDS-PAGE and content of GL crosslinking
. In the reaction between rapeseed protein and TGase at
for 60 min, the breaking strength and deformation of the gel was the maximum at the ratio of 1 : 40 of enzyme to substrate. 10%(w/v) of rapeseed protein concentrate was optimum for gel production. The maximum breaking strength and deformation was shown at
The breaking strength increased linearly up to 90 min of the reaction time and remained unchanged. The breaking strength and deformation by TGase treatment was pH dependent and pH 7 was optimum for 10% rapeseed protein solution. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that new band of highmolecular polymers were formed by the enzyme reaction, with disappearing the original bands of rapeseed protein. According to HPLC analysis. the content of GL crosslinking was increased from 0 to
gel for 90 min of the reaction time.
A Comparison of Volatile Compounds in Pine Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction with Those by Simultaneous Steam Distillation and Solvent Extraction
Woo, Gaung-Yaul ; Kim, Kong-Hwan ; Lee, Mi-Jung ; Lee, Yang-Bong ; Yoon, Jung-Ro ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1268~1274
Pine twigs with buds were cut into
long pieces and about 18g was used for each experiment. Pressure and temperature ranges employed were
, respectively. Volatile compounds of extracts were isolated and identified by gas chromatography and mass selective detector. Twenty three compounds from the extracts were identified. Limonene and
were found to be the major components with
being limonene. Extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were lower in monoterpene and higher in oxygenated terpenoids than those by steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE). Sensory evaluation showed that the pine flavor extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide was much better in quality than that of SDE. In conclusion, it was found out that supercritical fluid extraction can successfully be applied to extract high quality flavor from pine.
Low Oxygen CA Storage of 'Fuji' Apples
Chung, Hun-Sik ; Chung, Shin-Kyo ; Choi, Jong-Uck ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1275~1282
The quality changes by storage conditions were examined in order to establish the optimum CA storage conditions of unbagged and bagged 'Fuji' apples. The weight retention rate of apples was higher in CA than air storage, but there was no significant difference among CA conditions. Bagged apples had higher weight than unbagged apples under the same condition. The loss of flesh firmness, titratable acidity and green color of apples was retarded more effectively in 1%
storage, and in
Titratable acidity tended to decrease more rapidly in bagged than unbagged apples. Soluble solid was not affected by storage conditions. Internal browning was developed within 2 months in 1%
storage, but there was no significant difference according to storage years and bagging treatment. At the sensory evaluation, unbagged apples were rated as higher quality than bagged apples after 8 months storage, and the hardness, juiciness, acidity and overall acceptability of apples stored in 1%
were Higher than those in 3%
but those of apples stored in 1%
were not affected by
(1, 3%) and temperature
differences. Above results suggest that the optimum CA storage condition of 'Fuji' apples is
Preparation of Laver Powder and Its Characteristics
Lee, Hyang-Hee ; Lee, Jang-Wook ; Rhim, Jong-Whan ; Jung, Soon-Teck ; Park, Yang-Kyun ; Ham, Kyung-Sik ; Kim, In-Chul ; Kang, Seong-Gook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1283~1288
Effect of drying methods, such as natural solar drying, hot air drying
, vacuum drying and freeze drying methods, on the quality of laver were investigated to develop optimum processing conditions for preparation of laver powder. Appreciable amount of laver pigments such as chlorophyll, carotenoid and phycobilin were lost during washing and drying process. Their loss was affected significantly by the method of drying. Among the methods tested, high temperature air drying was the worst in retaining laver pigment, while freeze drying was the best. Loss of vitamin C which was in the range of 75-99% was also affected by the method of drying. Isotherms for laver powder shelved sigmoidal shape and monomolecular layer moisture content of both laver powder(Porphyra dentata and Porphyra tenera) determined by the BET equation was 6.30%(dry basis). Laver powders prepared with Porphyra dentata and classified with 50-, 80- and 100- mesh sieves showed monomodal size distribution with the high frequency at 110-120, 100-110 and
, respectively, which indicated that size or laver powder was homogeneous.
Color Changes of Dried Squid Differs in Packaging Films during Storage
Yang, Seung-Yong ; Oh, Se-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1289~1294
To identify the effect of packaging film on browning reaction of dried squid, 3 kinds of packaging film
including transparency, white, black film were tested about browning degree of dried squid during storage at ambient temperature for 50 days. During storage period, water content and water activity were maintained almost constant, and microbial count was not changed. When color index was measured by color difference meter, L value and
value were the highest in the dried squid packaged with transparency film.
value was rapidly increased in early packaging period(within 10 day). TBA value was showed same tendency with
value in early storage period. So, the browning was supposed to originated from lipid oxidation by UV light transmitted through packaging film in the early storage period.
Suitability Judgment of Storage Conditions by Internal Gas Concentration of 'Fuji' Apples under CA Storage
Chung, Hun-Sik ; Choi, Jong-Uck ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1295~1299
This study was conducted to develop a index for the judgment of suitability of storage conditions by internal gas concentration of 'Fuji' apples under CA storage, and was examined the relationship between the levels of quality characteristics(flesh firmness, titratable acidity and surface green color) and the infernal ethylene and carbon dioxide concentrations of apples. The levels of quality characteristics were not decreased for terms of storage when the infernal ethylene concentration of apples was below 10 ppm, but the levels of quality characteristics were sharply decreased when it was above 10 ppm of Internal ethylene. The high levels of quality characteristics were maintained by the lower internal carbon dioxide concentration of apples, especially at below 2% of internal carbon dioxide. These result showed that the suitable condition for CA storage of 'Fuji' apples was a condition for having below 10 ppm of internal ethylene and below 2% of internal carbon dioxide in apples. The internal ethylene and carbon dioxide concentrations of apples during CA storage can be used as a crucial index for the suitability judgment of storage conditions.
Studies on the Recovery of Triglyceride from Used Shortening by Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Han, Byung-Seok ; Yoon, Jung-Ro ; Kwon, Young-An ; Jung, Mun-Yhung ; Kim, Kong-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1300~1307
Supercritical fluid extraction was applied to recycling triglyceride from used shortening. Used shortening and its fractions were analyzed with high performance size exclusion chromatography for their composition in triglycerides, polymer and low molecular weight compounds. Conjugated diene value and color of the fractions were also measured with a UV spectrophotometer and a colorimeter, respectively. Pressure and temperature ranges employed were
, respectively. Concentration of fat in supercritical (SC)
. An exponential relation between concentration of fat in SC
and density was observed. Color of the extracts was light yellow which was very close to that of the fresh shortening. Low molecular weight compounds were preferentially concentrated in the initial fraction, while polymer was extracted in the final fraction. Conjugated diene value of the initial fractions was clearly lower than that of feed. It increased sharply as the polymer content in the fraction became significantly large.
Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Quality of Chitosan and
Coated Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)
Lee, Jin-Sil ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1308~1314
The effects of modified atmosphere(MA) packaging and coating on the quality of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated. Whole mushrooms(100 g) were packed with polyvinyl chloride(PVC) film wrap, PD941 and PD961 film bags and were stored in a chamber at
and 80% RH for 6 days. Gas composition of packages, respiration rate, weight loss, color and maturity index of MA packaged mushrooms were examined. The wrap packaged mushrooms showed different level of internal
concentrations among water washed, chitosan coated and
coated subgroups significantly at 5% level. The maximum
concentration of PD941 and PD961 packages for all coated showed
, respectively, for the first day. PD961 package showed the lowest
concentration compared to other groups. There were no significant respiration rate differences between wrap packed and PD941 packaged. Respiration rate of water washed. chitosan coated and
coated in PD961 packaged was 192 mg, 226 mg and 245 mg, respectively. Maturity index of PD961 packaged were not significantly different among the water washed, chitosan and
coated packages. Chitosan coating showed a negative effect on color change of mushrooms. The weight loss of 961 packaged was lower
that those of wrap packaged and PD941 packaged.
Antimicrobial Effects of Organic Acids and Ethanol on Several Foodborne Microorganisms
Ahn, Yong-Seon ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1315~1323
The antimicrobial effects of ethanol and organic acids(acetic, citric, lactic. propionic, tartaric acid), either alone or in combination against four foodborne microorganisms (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7) in tryptic soy broth were determined. Area under the growth curve, minimum generation time, maximum growth rate, and detection time were measured by using automated turbidometer Bioscreen(Labsystem, Finland), for 24 hr at
. All microorganisms were not grown at 7% ethanol in the media. The 0.1% propionic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effects against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157 : H7 compared with other organic acids, whereas 0.01% organic acids did not show significant inhibitory effect against microorganisms tested (p > 0.01) except S. aureus. The combination of 1% ethanol and 0.01% organic acids were significantly more effective than alone on growth of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes(p < 0.01).
Isolation and Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes from Frozen Foods in Korea
Chang, Yun-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1324~1329
This study was carried out to investigate the distribution and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from frozen Mandoo and pizza in 1998. A total 72 samples were examined and USDA, FDA and modified cold enrichment methods were used for the detection of Listeria spp. Overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in frozen foods was 9.7% and L. monocytogenes was isolated from 11.1% of frozen Mandoo and 5.6% of frozen pizza. The highest detection rate of Listeria spp. in frozen Mandoo was found at USDA method and the serotype of L. monocytogenes isolates was 4. Isolated L. monocytogenes was confirmed by PCR method with Hly 1 and 2 as primers. It would be necessary to develop more rapid and specific method to isolate and confirm L. monocytogenes from foods because USDA and PCR methods used in this study took 3-4 days. D value of L. monocytogenes isolate in tryptic soy broth was 49.2 sec at
and 8.8 sec
, and D value of L. monocytogenes in foods with high distribution rate of Listeria spp. would be necessary to evaluate for the safe use of frozen foods.
Clarification and Aging of Fermented Honey Wine
Kim, Dong-Han ; Rhim, Jong-Whan ; Jung, Soon-Teck ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1330~1336
Effects of clarification and aging of honey wine(mead) and fruit honey wine(melomel) were investigated. Among the clarifiers tested, 'kaki shibu' and 'sake light' were effective in clearing honey wine. Clear honey wine with more than 90% light transmittance was obtained by treatment with
of 'kaki shibu' and 'sake light' for 2 days. Higher concentration of these clarifying agents was needed for the clarification of fruit honey wines. Treatment with 0.5% of 'sake light' and
of 'kaki shibu' for 4 days was effective for clearing Tangerine honey wine and Japanese apricot honey wine. Though Hunter L-values of honey wines decreased a little bit by using clarifiers, their light transmittance became more than 98% after ultrafiltration. As the content of soluble solid in mash at the beginning of fermentation increased, the content of acetaldehyde, n-propyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol and iso-amyl alcohol of honey wine increased during aging, while the content of iso-propyl alcohol decreased. During the aging of honey wines, the sensory quality of them became milder as the amount of acetaldehyde and fusel oil decreased. Among more than twenty different volatile flavor components detected from honey wines, 1-phenyl ethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenyl ethyl alcohol, octacosane and triacotane were identified as the major components for the flavor of honey wines. Sensory evaluation of the honey wines indicated that the melomel made with Japanese apricot was better than the Tangerine melomel in the aspects of taste, flavor, color and the overall acceptability. Tangerine melomel was even inferior to honey wine(mead).
Freeze Drying of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Food Prepared from Egg White Powder and Casein Supplemented with Growth Stimulating Agent
Ko, Young-Tae ; Lee, Eun-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1337~1344
Lactic acid bacteria fermented foods were prepared from egg white powder, casein and growth stimulating agent. pH change and growth of Lactbacillus acidophilus(KCTC 2182) during freeze drying were studied. The effects of freeze drying on sensory evaluation. hardness and volatile aroma compounds in freeze dried sample or reconstituted sample were also studied. Freezing and freeze drying did not affect pH of fermented samples. Number of viable cells in original fermented samples was markedly reduced during freezing or freeze drying. When number of viable cells in original fermented sampler was considered at 100%. survival ratio of viable cells after freezing was
and that after freeze dying
. When sensory properties of original fermented samples were compared with those of freeze dried/reconstituted samples, sensory properties of original samples were generally better than those of freeze dried/reconstitute samples. However, the reconstitution property and the acceptability of freeze dried samples were good. Volatile aroma compounds in original fermented samples were reduced during freeze drying. The reduction degree of volatile aroma compounds varied with sample.
Application of ATP Bioluminescence Assay for a Rapid Estimation of Microbial Levels in Mackerel(Scomber japonicus)
Oh, Se-Wook ; Jo, Jin-Ho ; Lee, Nam-Hyouck ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1345~1348
The utility of a bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate(ATP) assay method for estimating bacterial levels in mackerel(Scomber japonicus) was investigated. Mackerel was stored at
throughout 10 days and its RLU(relative light unit) and APC(aerobic plate count) was determined. The ATP bioluminescence assay was validated during the storage of 32 samples, resulting in an agreement between the ATP assay and standard plate count methods of over 90% credibility. Therefore, ATP bioluminescence assay was considered as a rapid and near real-time means in estimating the microbial load on mackerel skin.
Shelf Life of Freeze Dried Product of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Food Prepared from Milk or Egg White Powder
Ko, Young-Tae ; Kang, Jung-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1349~1356
Freeze dried products of lactic acid bacteria fermented food prepared from milk or egg white powder(EWP) were stored at
for 20 weeks. Properties of stored, freeze dried product and viable cell count. pH and organoleptic properties of stored, reconstituted product were investigated. (1) The viable cell count of reconstituted milk or EWP product stored at
was not changed markedly. However, the viable cell count of milk or EWP product stored at
was reduced during storage and it was changed substantially between 4 weeks and 5 weeks. However, pH of all samples stored at three different temperature was not changed. (2) Color of freeze dried product prepared from EWP became clearly brown at 16 weeks. (3) Appearance of reconstituted milk product stored at
for 20 weeks was not changed. However, homogeneity and solubility of reconstituted milk product stored at
for 20 weeks were reduced. Taste, odor and texture of reconstituted milk product stored at
for 20 weeks were markedly changed. (4) Viscosity of reconstituted EWP product stored for 20 weeks was slightly reduced. Solubility of reconstituted EWP product stored at
for 20 weeks was reduced and its taste and odor were markedly changed. Texture of reconstituted EWP product stored at
Isolation and Identification of
producing Clostridium sp. from Fecal Microflora
Park, Jong-Hyun ; Shin, Jee-Young ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1357~1362
For the study of human intestinal environments with the intestinal bacteria producing
, genus Clostridium, known as the producer, were isolated from the fecal microflora. Through screening twice for one person, fecal microflora without major bacterial group seemed to be changed, which indicated the microflora would be changeable by the diet factors. With using Neomycin-Nagler selective medium during the screening, 14 Clostridium spp. were isolated and then the harmful enzyme activities were determined. Isolate-11 among them produced strongly
and its activity was 0.021 unit/mg Protein. However, the strain producing
was not isolated. The Isolate-11 was tentatively identified as Clostridium scatologenes through cultural and physiological characteristic.
Macrophage Activation of Chitosan Hydrolysates with Different Molecular Weights in vitro
Chang, Hyun-Joo ; Chun, Hyang-Sook ; Lee, Su-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1363~1370
This study was performed to investigate the average molecular weight range of chitosan hydrolysates showing maximum effect in macrophage activation. Nitrite production by continuous macrophage cell line J774A.1 was the highest at
concentration of intact chitosan. Hydrogen peroxide production by J774A.1 showed the high value of
macrophage protein at
concentration of chitosan hydrolysate fraction 5 and
macrophage protein at
concentration of the fraction 6. Chitsan hydrolysate fraction 4, fraction 6 and intact chitosan enhanced
production, while the others did not. The production of tumor necrosis factor showed the high value at
concentration of chitosan hydrolysate fraction 4,
concentration of the fraction 5 and fraction 6, and
concentration of intact chitosan. In conclusion, fractions 4, 5 and 6 of the chitosan hydrolysatets with average molecular weight of
calculated by HPLC analysis are the most effective in macrophage activation tested in this study.
Comparative Antimutagenic and Antioxidative Activities of Rice with Different Milling Fractions
Chun, Hyang-Sook ; You, Jung-Eun ; Kim, In-Ho ; Cho, Jung-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1371~1377
Antimutagenic and antioxidative activities in the different milling fraction of rice(Oryza sativa L., illpumbyeo) were investigated. Twelve milling fractions including embryo, bran(I, II, III, IV and all) and milled rice(I, II, III, IV and V) and were obtained by abrasive milling. Antimutagenic effects of milling fraction against Trp-P-2-induced mutagenicity were shown as
for embryo fraction,
for bran fractions and
for milled rice fractions in salmonela typhimurium reversion assay. Milled rice V, inner fraction with 80.9% milling yields, showed the highest antimutagenic activity among milling fractions Antioxidative activity, measured by peroxide value(POV) of different milling fractions was higher in embryo(28%) and bran fractions
than milled rice fractions
. In terms of thiobarbituric acid(TBA). embryo. bran and milled rice fractions exhibited 14,
antioxidative activity, respectively. Antioxidative activity, measured by electron donating ability(EDA), was 45% for embryo fraction.
for bran fractions and
for milled rice fractions. Antimutagenic activity if milling fractions was correlated with POV (r=-0.471, p<0.01) and EDA (r = 0.609, p<0.001) but not correlated with TBA. Contents of total phenolic acid and SH were higher in bran and embryo fractions than in milled rice fractions, and were reversely correlated with antimutagenic activity (r=-0.523 and -0.451. respectively, p<0.05).
Antioxidant Effects of Fermented Anchovy
Park, Jong-Ok ; Yoon, Mi-Sun ; Cho, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Hee-Sook ; Ryu, Byung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1378~1385
The antioxidative activity of Fermented Anchovy on linoleic acid autooxidation was investigated in an aqueous system at pH 7.0. All solvent fractions from Fermented Anchovy were exhibited the strong antioxidative activity. Especially, BuOH and aqueous fractions were gained large amounts with strong antioxidative activity. Ultrafiltration, dialysis, heat treatment of aqueous fraction indicated that water-soluble antioxidants of Fermented Anchovy were heat-resistant, amino acid related compounds with smaller molecular weights than 1,000. Unbound fractions from DE-52 anion exchange chromatography were exhibited antioxidative activity with or without
. We were able to purify one methionine derivative from lots of antioxidative substances in Fermented Anchovy aqueous fraction by gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography, TLC and HPLC, successfully. These data suggest that Fermented Anchovy aqueous fraction is a mixture of fermented small molecules with strong antioxidative activities.
Isolation of 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid, Which Exhibits Antimicrobial Activity, from Fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis
Yim, Cheol-Keun ; Moon, Jae-Hak ; Park, Keun-Hyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1386~1391
The methanol extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis showed antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. The extract was successively purified with solvent fractionation, silica gel adsorption column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, octadecylsilane column chromatography. The purified active substance was isolated by high performance liquid chromatography. The isolated compound was 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid which was determined by mass spectrometer, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer,
magnetic resonance and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. The content of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was
in dried fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.
Pasteurization Efficiency of a Continuous Microwave HTST
Kim, Suk-Shin ; Lee, Joo-Hee ; Kim, Sang-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1392~1396
This work was to apply the microwave energy to HTST pasteurization of milk in order to prevent undesirable quality changes due to the fouling and overheating on the surface of heat exchanger. A continuous tubulartype microwave pasteurization system was designed using a domestic microwave oven(800w and 2,450MHz). Raw milk was HTST pasteurized
by three methods; by heating in a stainless steel tube immersed in a hot water bath(MP0), by heating in a microwave cavity to a desired temperature and then holding in a hot water bath(MP1) and by both heating and holding in a microwave cavity(MP2). The microbial quality based on the total plate count and Psychotrophic bacterial count was in the order MP0, MP2 and MP1 ; however, the quality difference was not significant(p<0.05) when the initial microbial numbers were involved in the statistical analysis. In addition, the three samples pasteurized by different methods showed the similar microbial quality based on the coliform count and phosphatase activity. The similar microbial quality of the three samples supports the potential use of microwave energy for the pasteurization of milk and other fluid food products.
Effects of Heat Treatment on Yield and Quality of Grape Juice
Kim, Jae-Sik ; Kim, Sung-Hee ; Lee, Won-Keun ; Pyun, Jae-Young ; Yook, Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1397~1400
The grape juice was found to have a good quality when grape was pressed after heating at
for 30 min. The extraction yield of juice from grape was above 75%(v/w). The yield was lower than 60% when grape was heated below
, although the taste was good. But when grape was overheated, for example, at
and pressed, the grape juice had dark brown color and showed off-flavor. The grape juice of which sugar content was above
and the ratio of sugar content to total acidity was over 20 was found to have the best quality to drink.
Short-term Oral Toxicity lest of the Pine Needle Extracts in Rat
Choi, Myong-Dal ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Jae-Heung ; Kim, Seung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1401~1404
The short-term toxicity tests of the pine needle extracts, which have been utilized for traditional remedies were examined. The pine extracts were injected into rats according to the method of intrastomachic administration at a dosage of 10 g/kg, and then the rats were brought up for 14 days. Following the period, death practice was not detected and
was calculated by >10 g/kg. And, there were no significant difference in the growth rate and histological observations compared to the control group. So, the pine extract was evaluated for safety reagent on rapid toxicity and side effect to the rat.