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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
A Comparison of Characteristics of Minerals and Phytate between Korean and Imported Wheat Varieties
Koh, Bong-Kyung ; Lim, Seung-Taik ; Lee, Gui-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 231~237
A Comparative study was performed among five Korean wheat(Greu, Eunpa, Tapdong, Allgreu, Woori) and three imported wheat(Dark Northern Spring, Austrian Standard Wheat, Western White) to investigate the characteristics of minerals and phytate from Korean wheat varieties. Ash contents of kernel was higher in Korean wheat than in imported wheat and related to ash contents and darkness of flour. More contents of Fe, P, and Mg from Korean wheat grains and Fe from Korean wheat flours were observed in comparison to imported wheat varieties. Fe concentration in Korean flour show high, indicating Fe was distributed at endosperm layer of kernels and not eliminated with milling. In addition, phytate affecting availability of minerals was determined from kernels and flours. Even though Korean wheat kernels had more phytate than that of imported wheat kernels, it is believed that most of phytate was removed with milling and there was no major difference between Korean and imported wheat flours. We also observed that the content of phosphate closely parallels the content of phytate from both the flours and kernels.
Studies on the Volatile Flavor Compounds of Sesame Oils with Roasting Temperature
Kim, Hyeon-Wee ; Park, Ki-Moon ; Choi, Chun-Un ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 238~245
This study was investigated to compare the changes of flavors in sesame oil with roasting temperature
. In the results of analyzing the volatile flavor compounds of sesame oil with GC and GC/MS, 26 pyrazines, 11 pyridines, 9 thiazoles, 6 furans, 8 pyrroles, 5 phenols, 8 aldehydes, 8 hydrocarbons, 7 alcohols, 2 indoles, 3 ketones, 10 acids, 4 nitriles, 7 esters, and 5 others were isolated, identified, and quantified. The total amount of flavor compounds was increased with roasting temperature. Detected flavors could be devided into top(peak No.
and last note
by rentention time. The top notes(initial content 19.87 ppm) which contain pyrazines and provide representative roasted flavors were increased significantly with roasting temperature. Initial content of middle note(17.72 ppm) was increased to 36.71 ppm at
, to 95.61 ppm at
, and to 138.62 ppm at
. Last note was almost unchanged up to
and increased at
, whereas it indicated a tendency to decrease at
. Pyrazines such as methylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine which indicate the major components among volatile flavors were increased slightly up to
and revealed the higher increase than any other components above
. This tendency was also similar to pyridines, thiazoles, and furans. Most of these compounds are assumed to be developed by thermochemical reactions of sesame components by roasting above
. It seemed that a lot of increase in phenols above
resulted from the production of guaiacol. Acids were almost unchanged up to
, increased at
, and then decreased above
. It seemed to be resulted from pyrolysis of free fatty acids formed from thermal oxidation of oil.
Studies on the Antioxidative Compounds of Sesame Oils with Roasting Temperature
Kim, Hyeon-Wee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 246~251
This study was investigated to compare the changes of antioxidative compounds in sesame oil with roasting temperature
. Lightness was decreased markedly over
. In the changes of lignan contents, 7 different lignans unchanged up to
and sesamolin and sesamin decreased markedly, whereas sesamol, unknown1, unknown3 increased drastically at the higher temperatures. In tocopherol contents,
decreased from 70.59 mg% in unroasted oil to 33.87 mg% at
, and to 26.73 mg% at
. In the result of AOM(active oxygen method) test carried out at
for evaluating oxidative stability, the induction period of unroasted oil was 4.12 hrs and that of roasted oils was increased with roasting temperature (induction period at
was 27.9 hrs.). From the above results, it was confirmed that correlation coefficient between oxidative stability and lightness is -0.993 and that between oxidative stability and sesamol content is 0.934 above
. Therefore its remarkable oxidative stability with the roasting temperature, might be considered to be due to the increase of sesamol, other lignans(unknown 1, unknown 3).
Comparisons of Characteristics of Amaranth Starches Isolated from five Cultivars Grown in Korea
Choi, Cha-Ran ; Choi, Hun-Jae ; Kim, Sung-Ran ; Lee, Jae-Hak ; Shin, Mal-Shick ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 252~257
The physicochemical and pasting properties of amaranth starches isolated from five cultivars, Andy, Suvarna, Nu World, K266-1, K432, grown in Korea, were investigated. The shapes of starch granules were all polygonal and size was in the range
for all five cultivars. X-ray diffractograms were shown typical A type diffraction patterns for all amaranth starches. The protein and crude lipid contents of starches were
, respectively. The apparent amylose contents ranged from
and the water binding capacities were
. The transmittances of 0.1% amaranth starch suspensions except K266-1 increased rapidly above
, thereafter increased slowely. The initial pasting and peak temperature ranges of five cultivars by RVA were
, respectively. The peak and cooling viscosities followed the order : Nu World>Andy>Suvarna>K432>>K266-1. Nu World was shown the highest peak (166), final (103) and cooling viscosities (30 RVU). K266-I exhibited the lowest setback (-38) of all five cultivars. Gelatinization (To) and peak temperature (Tp) of amaranth starches in DSC thermograms were
, respectively. Enthalpies followed the order: K266-1
Physicochemical Properties of Starch Granules from Endosperm Mutants in Rice
Kang, Mi-Young ; Han, Ji-Yeun ; Nam, Seok-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 258~264
Starches from the eight varieties of rice were analyzed using scanning electron microscope(SEM), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and X-ray diffractometry, and tested on the starch-granule susceptibility to 15%
and glucoamylase. The shape of starch granules from normal rice varieties and low-amylose mutants were polygonal while shrunken and floury mutants were globular. According to DSC, starches from Nampung CB243 showed higher onset temperature
, completion temperature
and Punchilmi, Nampung EM90 showed higher enthalpy
of gelatinization than others. shr showed the highest hydrolysis rate to 15%
while Nampung CB243 showed the lowest one. Eight varieties of rice starch granules showed A-type pattern on X-ray diffractograms. The lower amylose content rice varieties showed the higher hydrolysis rate treated with glucoamylase.
Photostimulated Luminescence-Thermoluminescence Application to Detection of Irradiated White Ginseng Powder
Chung, Hyung-Wook ; Delincee, Henry ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 265~270
White ginseng powder, permitted to be irradiated in Korea for the purpose of microbial decontamination, was treated with electron beam at doses of
for a detection trial whether it is irradiated or not by measuring photostimulated luminescence for whole samples first and then (TL) for the mineral adhering to the samples. PSL values were less than threshold value (700,
) and were negative for nonirradiated samples but more than 5000
and were positive for irradiated ones. After PSL measurement mineral was separated from the whole samples using density separation. Mineral of nonirradiated samples was characterized by glow curves which have low intensity and were situated at the high temperature region (about
) by the low level of natural radioactivity. Glow curves of minerals for all irradiated samples were observed at about
. TL ratio by normalization was 0.01 for nonirradiated sample and more than 0.78 for irradiated samples, and it was possible to detect whether white ginseng powders were irradiated or not.
Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on Physicochemical Qualities of Red Pepper Powder
Lee, Jung-Eun ; Lee, Moo-Ha ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 271~276
Electron beam (EB) irradiation was compared with gamma ray (GR) in terms of their effects on physicochemical qualities of microbial-decontaminated red pepper powder. The pH and soluble solid of the samples were relatively constant when exposed to EB and GR up to 15 kGy, which also did not induce significant chances in total and reducing sugars. The water soluble pigment and capsanthin content of red pepper powder showed a decreasing tendency as the irradiation dose increased. However, the pungent components, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were shown resistant to irradiation doses applied. Based upon the results, EB was similar to GR in its effect on the physicochemical attributes of the samples, and the irradiation doses required for microbial control were not detrimental to the quality attributes of red pepper powder.
Effect of Ozone Water on Pesticide-Residual Contents of Soybean Sprouts during Cultivation
Kim, Soon-Dong ; Kim, Il-Doo ; Park, Mee-Za ; Lee, Yoon-Gyeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 277~283
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ozone treatment on the growth and pesticide-residual contents of soybean sprouts during cultivation. Total weight and length of the soybean sprouts treated by 0.3 ppm ozone water for 30min during soaking of soybean increased 27% and 19% higher than those of control group, respectively. But 27% of root weight decreased. No major differences in growth state were observed between the treatments during soaking and watering with ozone water, and watering with ozone water. Pesticide residues in soybeans treated with carbendazim, captain, diazinon, fenthim, dichlorvos and chlorpyrifos ranged from 4.75 to 8.35 ppm. The pesticides in soybean sprouts by the treatment of soaking and watering with water for 5 days, those by 0.3 ppm ozone-water watering, and those by soaking and watering with 0.3 ppm ozone water were destroyed to
, respectively. The order of degradation ratio in the pesticides was captan>dichlorvos>fenthion>carbendazin>diazinon>chlorpyrifos.
Physicochemical Properties of Agarooligosaccharides for Using as Food Stuffs
Kim, Bong-Jo ; Song, Chang-Moon ; Ha, Soon-Duck ; Hwang, Sun-Hee ; Kim, Hak-Ju ; Bae, Seoung-Kwon ; Kong, Jai-Yul ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 284~290
A marine bacterium Bacillus cereus ASK202 showing a high agar degrading activity, was incubated in the culture medium containing agar. After incubation for 30 hr, the productivity of agarase in the culture broth reached to maximum value (160.8 units/L). As the results of TLC and HPLC analysis, agarooligosaccharides (degrees of polymerization 2, 4 and 6) were produced from the hydrolysis of agar by using the crude agarase. Physical and chemical properties of agarooligosaccharides were compared with the manufactured products of other oligosaccharides (fructooligosaccharide; isomaltooligosaccharide; maltotetraoligosaccharide) and agarooligosaccharides showed higher viscosity, higher contents of oligosaccharides, higher stability at low pH's and higher temperatures, and lower sweetness than other oligosaccharides.
Extraction Characteristics and Browning Inhibitory Effects of Fresh Garlic by Microwave-assisted Extraction
Kang, Deog-Sun ; Jeong, Seong-Weon ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ; Kim, Hyun-Ku ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 291~297
Oleoresin was extracted from fresh garlic by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and its functionality and antibrowning effect were investigated at various extraction conditions. The yield and polyphenol contents of the garlic oleoresin were inversely related to extraction time. The highest yield was l2.9% and maximum polyphenol contents was 574.3 mg% when the oleoresin was extracted for 5 min with ethanol. Apparently, the electron donating abilities of garlic oleoresin increased with extraction time, but there were no significant differences among extraction time intervals. The highest nitrite scavenging effect was found at pH 1.2 and decreased as pH increased. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect was less than 30% for most garlic oleoresin but the 15 minute extraction with ethanol resulted in higher inhibitory effect. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect was highest (89.2%) when oleoresin extracted with ethanol for 20 min. The addition of cysteine, ascorbic acid and citric acid to oleoresin extracts retarded browning action of garlic oleoresin during 10 day storage. 0.1 % cysteine retarded browning reaction and some synergistic effect was found in the combination of citric acid and ascorbic acid.
Preparation of Noodle with Laver Powder and its Characteristics
Lee, Jang-Wook ; Kee, Hae-Jin ; Park, Yang-Kyun ; Rhim, Jong-Whan ; Jung, Soon-Teck ; Ham, Kyung-Sik ; Kim, In-Chul ; Kang, Seong-Gook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 298~305
Laver noodles were prepared with composite flour containing various ratios of laver powder sifted through 100-mesh sieve and their cooking characteristics were evaluated. Farinograph test results with the composite flour showed that water absorption rate increased linearly as the content of laver powder increased from 2% to 8%, while dough stability decreased linearly with the laver content. Dough development time increased 2.65-3.75 times by adding laver powder. DSC endotherms indicated that onset temperature
, peak temperature
, and conclusion tempearture
of composite flour starch gelatinization shifted to a higher temperatures as the laver powder content increased. Difference in laver species (e.g., Porphyra dentata and Porphyra tenera) did not affect dough characteristics and surface color of doughs and noodles made with composite flours. From the sensory evaluation test for noodles, a laver noodle containing 4% roasted Porphyra dentata was the most preferred among the noodles tested.
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Beef and Pork for Low Lipid Sausage Manufacturing
Kwon, Young-An ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 306~311
Lipid and cholesterol were extracted from beef and pork by the supercritical carbon dioxide
for the manufacturing of low-lipid and low-cholesterol sausage. The ranges of extraction temperature and pressure were from 35 to
and from 103 to 375 bar, respectively.
extraction yield of beef lipid increased as extraction pressure increased and/or extraction temperature decreased, while extraction temperature was more influential on the cholesterol extraction than pressure condition. When lipid and cholesterol of freeze-dried beef with varied moisture contents were extracted, their solubilities increased as the moisture content reduced. The extraction of lipid and cholesterol from pork was shown the same tendency as the beef. The chunk type of beef shape was more suitable for the lipid and cholesterol extraction than the powder type of beef. The color of meat after
extraction was lighter than the raw freeze dried meat because of the extraction of color pigments. After
extraction, beef and pork were rehydrated and mixed with raw beef and pork containing lipid and cholesterol. Their mixing ratio up to 50 : 50 did not affect physical properties of the sausage compared with the control sausage.
Effects of Ultrafiltration on the Production of Xylooligosaccharides
Park, Youn-Je ; Oh, Hwa-Gyun ; Lee, Ji-Wan ; Lee, Chang-Seung ; Lee, Un-Taek ; Rhew, Bo-Kyoung ; Yang, Chang-Kun ; Yoon, Se-Wang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 312~316
Crude xylooligosaccharides(XO) were separated with a cellulose membrane (10,000 molecular weight cut-off). Flux variation was measured at transmembrane pressures of 5, 10, 20 and 30 psi, while flow rates were maintained at 100, 200, 300 and 400 ml/min and temperatures at 10, 20, 23-25 and
. Optimal conditions were found at the transmembrane pressure of 20 psi, the flow rate of 300 ml/min and the temperature of
, where the flux was decreasing with time by 62% after 200 min. Total sugar, total solid and ash contents were rather independent of ultrafiltration but protein was removed up to 55% from crude XO. Especially, the use of ultrafiltration was very effective for decolorization (84%) of crude XO. These results suggest that ultrafiltration is a useful method for the primary purification of XO.
Effect of Nitrogen Gas Packing and
Treatment on the Shelf Life of Yukwa(Korean Traditional Snack)
Park, Yoon-Jung ; Chun, Hyang-Sook ; Kim, Sang-Sook ; Lee, Jong-Mee ; Kim, Kyu-Heun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 317~322
This study examined the effect of nitrogen
gas packing and
treatment on the shelf life of Yukwa(Korean traditional snack). Yukwa were stored with
gas packing with
treatment(ANA), and PE film packing with air(PE) for 20 days at
. They were evaluated by POV, AV, conjugated diene, hexanal, color and sensory characteristics. The POV, AV and conjugated diene content increased abruptly in PE and AN, but increased slowly in ANA with prolonged storage. Higher sensory scores for Yukwa were found in ANA as compared to those in PE and AN. Hexanal content, yellowness and redness in AN were higher than those in ANA and PE. The moisture content, which is supposed to be related with browning of Yukwa, was 3 times higher in AN than that in PE. Oxygen content of each Yukwa pack, even in
gas packing, increased remarkably as storage period increased because their highly porous, fragile and syrup-coated structure resulted in incomplete degassing before
gas was flushed into package. Consequently,
gas packing was inefficient, but
gas packing combined with antioxidant(such as
) treatment was effective for the extension of shelf life of Yukwa.
Pre-establishment of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Under Atmospheric Pressure Condition for Ginseng Components
Kim, Kyung-Eun ; Lee, Gee-Dong ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 323~327
Microwave-assisted process (2,450MHz), which is known as a more environmental-friendly process with economic advantages than the current extraction methods, was investigated to pre-establish the extraction conditions for soluble ginseng components used for the processing of ginseng products. The extractions of soluble ginseng components showed optimum conditions, such as 60 mesh in particle size, 1 : 10 (g/mL) in the sample to solvent ratio, and less than 100 watts in energy efficiency. Under these conditions using along with 60% ethanol for 5 min, the overall yield of ginseng extracts was about 83%. Most soluble components including saponins were extracted by repeating five times of microwave-assisted extraction.
Quality Characteristics of Noodle with Health-Functional Enzyme Resistant Starch
Mun, Sae-Hun ; Shin, Mal-Shick ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 328~334
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of ACAMS(Autoclaved-cooled amylomaize VII) and ACNMS(Autoclaved-cooled normal maize starch) containing resistant starch(RS) on ASW (Australian wheat flour) rheology and noodle quality. The water absorption in farinograph increased with the addition of ACAMS and ACNMS, but the dough stability decreased with the addition. The ACNMS added flours showed the highest initial pasting temperature and the lowest peak viscosity in RVA. The addition of ACAMS and ACNMS were not effective on the weight and volume of cooked noodles during cooking time for 5 min. However, as the cooking time increased, noodle weight and volume were the highest in control(no RS added flour) and the lowest in ACNMS added flours. Noodle texture was evaluated using rheometer. The hardness of RS(ACAMS, ACNMS) added noodles was higher than that of control. Cohesiveness was significantly different between control and ACAMS added noodles, but the cohesiveness of ACNMS added noodles was similar to other noodles. The elasticity of ACNMS added noodles in sensory test was lower than that of control but the smoothness and overall acceptibility were higher.
Changes in Physico-chemical Properties of Soft Persimmon and Puree during Frozen Storage
Yang, Hyoung-Suk ; Lee, Young-Chun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 335~340
The objectives of this research were to investigate changes in characteristics of whole frozen soft persimmon during storage, and to evaluate effects of blanching and addition of ascorbic acid on the quality of frozen soft persimmon puree. Reducing sugar, soluble solids and carotenoids contents in frozen soft persimmon did not change significantly during storage, while ascorbic acid of whole frozen soft persimmon and puree was continuously decreased during 8 months of storage. Whole frozen soft persimmon thawed at low temperature or by microwave oven did not show remarkable quality differences, whereas thawing puree resulted in a drastic decrease in consistency. Addition of ascorbic acid to puree reduced browning discoloration, but blanching puree caused significant loss of color and increase of consistency.
Effects of Sub-freezing Systems on the Freshness of Pork Loin, Beef Loin and Tuna
Kim, Don ; Chang, Young-Ki ; Park, Ki-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Chun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 341~348
Effects of different types of sub-freezing methods on quality of raw pork loin, beef loin and tuna were studied. Storage tests were undertaken as follows; the three different types of sub-freezing methods, such as regular cold chamber at
, air-blast sub-freezing at
and sharp-plate sub-freezing at
, were evaluated for extending freshness of samples. Pork loin packed with polyethylene-film showed no significant differences (P<0.05) in physico-chemical properties among the above sub-freezing methods. Air-blast sub-freezing methods revealed faster evaporation of moisture from samples. The same sub-freezing method also showed increased VBN values of pork loin and tuna samples. Regular cold chamber resulted in increased TBA values and K values of beef loin and tuna, respectively. It appeared that sharp-plate freezing system kept the food samples with the least loss of freshness among the above three sub-freezing methods. These results indicated that freshness of raw pork, beef and tuna could be significantly extended by the sharp-plate sub-freezing method.
Microbial Changes of Salted and Fermented Shrimp by High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment
Mok, Chul-Kyoon ; Song, Ki-Tae ; Lee, Sang-Ki ; Park, Jong-Hyun ; Woo, Gun-Jo ; Lim, Sang-Bin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 349~355
This study was conducted to enhance the storage stability of fermented shrimp with different salt contents using a high hydrostatic pressure. The effects of the magnitude of pressure and treatment time on the microorganisms of the fermented shrimp were investigated. The highest microbial counts with respect to the salt levels were observed at 18% salt, showing
for general bacteria,
for halophilic bacteria,
for yeast and
for halophilic yeast. The degree of sterilization increased with the magnitude of pressure and treatment time, and the sterilization could be analyzed by the first order reaction kinetics. The sterilization rate constants
of the halophilic bacteria was lower than that of general bacteria. The
increased linearly with pressure and the slope of the regression line of the halophilic bacteria was greater than that of general bacteria, indicating that the sterilization of the halophilic bacteria was more dependent on the pressure. High hydrostatic pressure treatment was an effective non-thermal sterilization method for the salted and fermented shrimp, and the optimum treatment condition was for 10 min at 6,500 atm.
Sterilization of Yakju(Rice Wine) on a Serial Multiple Electrode Pulsed Electric Field Treatment System
Mok, Chull-Kyoon ; Lee, Sang-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 356~362
Yakju(rice wine) was sterilized with high-voltage square-wave pulses of
duration at various electric field strengths and frequencies on a serial multiple electrode pulsed electric field(PEF) treatment system consisted of 7 electrodes connected in series. The initial microbial counts of Yakju were
CFU/mL for total aerobes,
CFU/mL for lactic acid bacteria and
CFU/mL for yeasts. The sterilization of microorganisms in Yakju was a first order reaction and the sterilization effect increased as the field strength and the frequency increased. The
decreased with the electric field strength. Yeast showed lower
than bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria showed lower
than general aerobic bacteria under the electric field strength below 30 kV/cm, but higher ones under that above 40 kV/cm. The
of general aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeast in Yakju were 39.4, 49.3 and 47.6 kV/cm, respectively. The PEF sterilization resulted in less changes in color and sensory properties than heat sterilization, and the PEF treated Yakju showed superior quality to the heat treated one. The commercial sterilization of Yakju was accomplished with 2-cycle treatment on the tested serial PEF treatment system.
Irradiation of Korean Beef for the Improvement of Hygienics and Quality Preservation
Kwak, Hee-Jin ; Kang, Il-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 363~372
was applied to Korean beef to improve the hygienics and quality preservation. The effective dose of irradiation was 3 kGy for the sterilization of the initially contaminated microorganisms. After 8 weeks of storage at
, no growth of the microorganisms were observed in the samples irradiated above 5 kGy. The pH was slightly increased as storage period increased. However, no significant change in pH was observed by gamma irradiation. The acid value of beef during storage at
was increased rapidly with the elapse of the storage period in both nonirradiated and irradiated samples, but that of the 3 kGy irradiated samples increased more slowly than the nonirradiated. VBN value increased more rapidly in nonirradiated sample than the irradiated during storage. Especially VBN value of the nonirradiated sample was four fold higher than that of the 3 kGy irradiated sample after 8 weeks of storage at
. No significant differences in the components of fatty acid were observed by gamma irradiation. The amount of released free amino acid was increased during storage and was not significantly affected by gamma irradiation.
Quality Changes during Storage of Low Salt Fermented Anchovy treated with High Hydrostatic Pressure
Lim, Sang-Bin ; Jwa, Mi-Kyung ; Mok, Chul-Kyoon ; Woo, Gun-Jo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 373~379
Low salt fermented anchovy was stored at
for a period of 20 days from the time of ultra-high pressure treatment under different operating conditions, such as magnitude of pressure(
and treatment time
with viable cell count(VCC) and quality assessments conducted at regular intervals. VCC decreased logarithmically during storage. Lower values of VCC in the treated samples were observed compared to the untreated. A gradual increase in peroxide value was noticed during storage, compared to those of the untreated which showed a sudden rise. Thiobarbituric acid value decreased initially and remained at that level before rising almost exponentially between 12 and 20 days. Volatile basic nitrogen increased gradually during storage. Amino nitrogen remained almost constant up to 20 days, regardless of any conditions investigated. High pressure treatment maintained better quality during storage at
by reducing the viable cell count in low salt fermented anchovy.
Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on Microbiological and Organoleptic Qualities of Powdered Red Pepper and Ginger
Lee, Jung-Eun ; Kwon, Oh-Jin ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 380~386
Electron beam (EB) was applied to study the sterilizing techniques for powdered red pepper and ginger by determining their quality over gamma radiation (GR) from the microbiological and organoleptic points of view. The samples showed high microbial loads, such as
in total aerobic bacteria, negligible levels in yeasts & molds and
in coliforms. EB irradiation at 5 kGy resulted in the reduction of microbial loads by 2 to 3 log cycles, thereby decreasing the levels of total bacteria to
and resulting in negative in coliforms. Decimal reduction doses
value on the initial bacterial loads in red pepper were
in EB and
in GR, while powdered ginger showed
in EB and
in GR, respectively. EB and GR showed a similar effect on microbial decontamination for both samples. Microbial populations in stored samples for 4 months at room temperature were not remarkably different from the initial loads in all samples. Irradiation caused little changes in Hunter's color parameters, but that were changable during storage. Sensory evaluations on color and odor of powdered samples indicated that no significant differences were observed among the all samples compared. These results revealed that EB irradiation at optimal dose levels for microbial control was not detrimental to the sensory quality of powdered red pepper and ginger.
Rheological Properties of Wheat Flour Dough and Qualities of Bread Prepared with Dietary Fiber Purified from Ascidian(Halocynthia roretzi) Tunic
Yook, Hong-Sun ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Ahn, Hyun-Joo ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Jung-Ok ; Byun, Myung-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 387~395
The rheological properties of wheat flour dough and qualities of bread prepared with 0, 10, and 20% of dietary fiber slurry extracted and purified from ascidian (Halocynthia roretzi) tunic were investigated. Water absorption of the dough increased with the increase of dietary fiber slurry. Both arrival and development time of the dough with 10 and 20% dietary fiber slurry added were shorter than those of the control. An increase in the added amount of the dietary fiber slurry resulted in an increase of weakness. The dough's extensibility and resistance to extension were decreased, and the ratio of resistance to extensibility (R/E) decreased with the increase in the dietary fiber slurry. The maximum viscosity gradually decreased with the increase in the amount of dietary fiber slurry, while the temperature of gelatinization was not changed. Both loaf and specific volume of bread were slightly decreased with an increase in the amount of dietary fiber slurry. Overall preference scores by sensory evaluation and the quality characteristics of the bread with up to 20% dietary fiber slurry added was not significantly different from those of the control(p<0.05). The results indicated that the addition of the dietary fiber from ascidian tunic retarded staling and improved the shelf-life of the bread by enhancing the water holding capacity.
Quality Properties of Gamma Irradiated Samjang, Seasoned Soybean Paste during Storage
Kim, Dong-Ho ; Ahn, Hyun-Joo ; Yook, Hong-Sun ; Kim, Mi-Jung ; Sohn, Cheon-Bae ; Byun, Myung-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 396~401
The effect of gamma-irradiation on quality changes of Samjang, Korean traditional seasoned soy paste, was studied. Samjang was prepared, irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 10 kGy, and then stored at
, respectively. Non-irradiated control, sample 2%- ethanol added and sample heated at
for 30 min were prepared with the same conditions to be compared. The results showed that yeasts were completely eliminated by gamma-irradiation with dose at 2.5 kGy or more, and total bacteria decreased by 5 log cycles with doses at 10 kGy, showing a significant decrease during storage. The gamma irradiation treatment showed repressive effect on the swelling by gas production and browning formation of Samjang during storage. Also, the indicators of enzyme activity, such as amino nitrogen, protease activity and pH change in the gamma irradiation treatment were more stable than control. The sensory evaluations showed that irradiated samples were more acceptable. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation was effective for processing Samjang and for maintaining better quality during subsequent storage.
Quality Attributes of Whole Soybean flour Tofu Affected by Coagulant and Theirs Concentration
Kim, Ju-Young ; Kim, Jun-Han ; Kim, Jong-Kuk ; Moon, Kwang-Deog ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 402~409
To investigate the textural and physical characteristics of WSF(whole soybean flour) tofu affected by coagulant and its concentration,
, and some mixed coagulants were used in this study. Yields of WSF tofu coagulated with
and GDL were ranged 4.3-4.5(g/g WSF), but common tofu was 2.2-3.0(g/g soybean). As the water addition ratio increased, L and a value were increased while heating time increased, b value increased. L value of WSF tofu was lower and b value was higher than conventional tofu and 4 commercial tofus. Kinds of coagulant and its concentration significantly affected to textural properties of WSF tofu. As the concentration of coagulant increase, the hardness increased in most all coagulants. WSF tofu coagulated with
and GDL recorded low hardness and adhesiveness, and high springiness among the used coagulants at the same concentration. As the hardness increased, the gumminess and chewiness increased in most all coagulants. As coagulation temperature and molding pressure increase, hardness also increased. WSF tofu coagulated with 0.3%
was the most similar in the textural properties with conventional tofu and 4 commercial tofus. WSF tofu coagulated with 0.3% of
, 10 times water addition, 5min. heating and
molding pressure recorded the highest score in the sensory evaluation.
Changes in Microflora and Enzyme Activities of Kochujang Prepared with Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus licheniformis and Saccharomyces rouxii during Fermentation
Oh, Hoon-Il ; Shon, Seong-Hyun ; Kim, Jeong-Mee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 410~416
Changes in microflora and enzyme activities of three kinds of kochujang were investigated during 6 months of fermentation. Three different kinds of kochujang were prepared using Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus oryzae plus Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus licheniformis plus Saccharomyces rouxii. The pH of kochujang showed a slight decrease during fermentation. The number of mold and bacteria increased up to 30 days of fermentation and then decreased rapidly thereafter and the numbers of yeast increased after 30 days of fermentation. The viable cell counts of anaerobic bacteria increased remarkably up to 30 days of fermentation and then decreased to 60 days of fermentation. The activities of
and protease were the highest in kochujang prepared with Aspergillus oryzae plus Bacillus licheniformis.
Culture Conditions on the Antimutagenic Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum KLAB21 isolated from Kimchi against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide
Rhee, Chang-Ho ; Park, Heui-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 417~423
Lactobacillus plantarum KLAB21 isolated from Kimchi has been reported to produce antimutagenic subtance(s) in the culture medium. In this study, antimutagenic effects of the strain KLAB21 were investigated to under various culture conditions maximize the production of antimutagenic substance(s) against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) on Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide(NQO) on S. typhimurium TA98. Glucose(2%) as a carbon source and yeast extract(1%) as a nitrogen source resulted in the highest production of the antimutagenic substance(s) against both mutagens in the culture supernatant of L. plantarum KLAB21. The most effective concentrations of bactopeptone as a nitrogen source were 1% against MNNG and 1.5% against NQO. Optimal pH of the medium, culture temperature, and shaking speed for the antimutagenic substance(s) production were pH 7.0,
and 150 rpm, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the antimutagenic effects of L. plantarum KLAB21 culture supernatant were 98.4% against MNNG on S. typhimurium TA100 and 57.3% against NQO on S. typhimurium TA98.
Effects of Addition of Adipic acid-resistant Strains on Extending Shelf-life of Kimchi
Lee, Joong-Keun ; Lee, Hong-Seok ; Kim, Young-Chan ; Joo, Hyun-Kyu ; Lee, Si-Kyung ; Kang, Sang-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 424~430
The purpose of the study was to investigate effect of addition of mutant strains of both Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leu. paramesenteroides on extending shelf-life of Kimchi. The mutant strains have an increased adipic acid resistance in comparison with that of their paired wild types. Addition of both strains was more effective than that of one strain alone to extend shelf-life of Kimchi. The optimal amount of inoculation was determined as 0.005% of the two mixed mutant strains with a ratio of 1 : 10, Leu. mesenteroides : Leu. paramesenteroides based on the results of acidification and organoleptic tests.
Properties of Acid Tolerance of the Adipic acid-resistant Mutant of Leuconostoc paramesenteroides
Lee, Joong-Keun ; Lee, Hong-Seok ; Kim, Young-Chan ; Joo, Hyun-Kyu ; Lee, Si-Kyung ; Kang, Sang-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 431~438
Properties of acid tolerance of an adipic acid-resistant mutant, Leuconostoc paramesenteroides (ANaP100) were studied and compared with those of its paired wild type of Leu. paramesenteroides (LPw). The value of protons permeability of LPw after an acid shock at pH 5.0 was 4.3 min, while the value of ANaP100 was 4.8 min at the same pH. The maximal specific activities of ATPase of LPw and ANaP100 were 0.59 unit/mg protein and 0.63 unit/mg protein at pH 6.0, respectively. The release of magnesium ion from the mutant strain was about 27.3% at pH 4 after 2 hrs, while the wild strain was about 52.2% under the same conditions. The contents of
in a membrane fatty acid of ANaP100 and LPw were higher and lower, respectively, than that of LPw. These results indicated that acid tolerance of ANaP100 was improved in comparison with that of its wild type, LPw.
Screening of Deoxynivalenol Producing Fungi from Greenhouse Horticulture by Enzyme Amplification System Immunoassay
Park, Mi-Ja ; Park, Jung-Hyun ; Chung, Duck-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 439~443
In order to evaluate the safety of greenhouse horticulture products in Korea, we carried out this work by screening of Fusarium species, which produce deoxynivalenol (DON) from greenhouse horticulture in Western Gyeongnam and Northern Gyeongbuk, Korea. For this study, high sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ALP/NADP method, was applied to detection of DON by enzyme amplification system. From 192 samples of greenhouse horticulture soil and its products, 103 isolates of Fusarium species were obtained. The isolates were cultured at 28C for 15 days and the cultured mediums were extracted by ethyl acetate. The production of DON was verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). As the results of TLC, 8 strains were identified as DON producing strain. We screened potential producers of DON by ALP/NADP. The levels of DON production were shown from 0.007 to 1.21 g/ml of YES medium. The maximum DON producing strain No. 32-D-3 was isolated from soil in Namhae, Korea. In conclusion, the above results indicate that DON producing fungi contaminated greenhouse horticulture products in Korea. Therefore, further studies are required to accumulate more detailed data about the contamination of DON in various cereals.
Microbial Changes in Salted and Fermented Shrimp at Different Salt Levels during Fermentation
Mok, Chul-Kyoon ; Lee, Ju-Yeon ; Park, Jong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 444~447
The microbial changes during the fermentation of salted and fermented shrimp at different salt levels
were investigated to elucidate the effect of salt on the microflora of the fermented shrimp. During 22 weeks of fermentation, the numbers of total bacteria and yeasts of the fermented shrimp with 3, 8, 30% salt generally decreased with fermentation time, while those in the fermented shrimp of 18% salt increased. Halophilic bacteria were found only in the late stage of the fermentation at 18% salt. The greatest number of the halophilic yeasts was observed also at 18% salt level. The results indicated that 18% salt provided the most favorable environment for the microorganisms related to the shrimp fermentation.
An Apoptosis Regulator isolated from Petasites japonicum
Lee, Choong-Hwan ; Chung, Myung-Chul ; Lee, Ho-Jae ; Kho, Yung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 448~453
During the screening of inhibitors of caspase-3 induction in U937 human monocytic leukemia cells from natural sources, Petasites japonicum, which showed a high level of inhibition was selected. The inhibiting compound was purified from the methanol extract by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and HPLC. The inhibitor was identified as [3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-oxopropyl]ester, petasiphenol, by spectroscopic methods of UV, EIMS,
and HMBC. It showed a caspase-3 inducing inhibitory activity at
value with DNA fragmentation inhibition in U937 human leukemia cells. It also showed a free radical scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.
Tyrosinase Reaction in AOT/Isooctane/Reverse Micelles
Han, Dae-Seok ; Shin, Yu-Jung ; Jung, Sung-Won ; Song, Hyo-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 454~460
It is difficult to accurately evaluate the effect of lipophilic compounds in aqueous reaction system of enzymes because they are immiscible with water. To screen lipophilic inhibitors of tyrosinase which catalyzes the synthesis of melanin in vivo, an optically clear organic system composed of organic solvent, surfactant, and water, often called reverse micelles(RM), was introduced. Optimal RM to let tyrosinase act normally was composed of isooctane as an organic solvent and dioctyl sulfosuccinate(AOT) of 100 mM as a surfactant. When a molar ratio of water to surfactant was 15, tyrosinase(105.3 units) in RM showed a similar reactivity toward 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine(0.18 mM) as in the aqueous assay system. In the presence of cinnamic acid, the product formation of tyrosinase reaction was proportional to the reaction time. This indicates that the inhibitory effect of lipophilic compounds could be analyzed in RM.
Investigation of in vitro Antigenotoxic Effect of Korean Mistletoe(Viscum album coloratum) Using Comet Assay
Park, Jong-Heum ; Ji, Seung-Taek ; Hyun, Chang-Kee ; Chin, Koo-Bok ; Shin, Heuyn-Kil ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 461~468
To investigate the antigenotoxicity of Korean mistletoe using Comet assay, the crude extract was divided into 4 fractions, i.e. fraction I (MW range over 14,000), fraction II
, fraction III
, and fraction IV (below 3,500) by molecular weight fractionation. In the non-tumoral 3T3 cells, fraction IV could reduce DNA damage induced by MNNG in a dose dependent pattern while fraction I and III which were known to contain lectins and viscotoxins, respectively, did not show the activity. By heat treatment, the antigenotoxic activity of faction IV, though was gradually diminished according to heating time, was found to be maintained significantly. From the Sephadex G-25 gel filtration chromatography, a more purified fraction responsible for the activity of faction IV was obtained from the latter part of total elute. Therefore, it was concluded that the antigenotoxic components of Korean mistletoe were water soluble substances of MW below 1,000 and there is a possibility of utilization as a material of functional foods for chemoprevention.
Inhibitory Effect of Major Food Components on the Activity of Antimicrobial Active Substance from n-Hexane Fraction of Mallotus japonicus Muell on Listeria monocytogenes
Ahn, Yong-Seon ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Kim, Yong-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 469~476
Inhibitory action of major food components on antimicrobial active substance (linolenic acid) was tested against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111 for 72 hr at
. Linolenic acid (50, 1000 ppm) and n-hexane fraction of Mallotus japonicus Muell (50, 1000 ppm) were added to the broth culture medium containing casein(1%, 3%), soybean oil(1%, 3%) and soluble starch (1%, 3%), respectively. Linolenic acid 1000 ppm and n-hexane fraction 1000 ppm exhibited strongly antimicrobial actions on L. monocytogenes which were not detected viable cell after 24 hr. But casein (3%) and soybean oil (3%) strongly diminished the antimicrobial action of 1000 ppm of n-hexane fraction. Soluble starch (1%, 3%) did not affect the antimicrobial action of 1000 ppm of linolenic acid and n-hexane fraction.
In vitro and in vivo Antitumor Activity of the Fruit Body of Phellinus linteus
Rhee, Young-Kyung ; Han, Myung-Joo ; Park, Soon-Young ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 2, 2000, Pages 477~480
This study was undertaken to investigate immunochemotherapeutic activity against tumor growth and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines. Phellinus linteus (PL), which was artificially cultured in Morus alba, prolonged significantly the survival rate of mice intraperitoneally implanted with sarcoma 180 and inhibited solid tumor growth on mice subcutaneously implanted with sarcoma 180. The acetone precipitate of water extract of PL was better than its water extract. However, PL showed little cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.