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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
Discrimination of Irradiated Beef Using Comet Assay
Jeong, Seok-Kyu ; Park, Jong-Heum ; Ji, Seung-Taek ; Park, Kum-Ju ; Kim, Hai-Hong ; Hyun, Chang-Kee ; Shin, Heuyn-Kil ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 747~754
DNA damages in post-mortem bovine muscle samples caused by gamma irradiation at doses of 1 to 10 kGy were determined by Comet assay. When the cell extract was prepared in a physical method and followed by neutral lysis and neutral electrophoresis, the optimal comet images could be obtained. DNA damages were evaluated from the mean tail length, the distributions of comet images in 4 groups divided by tail length and the relative damage index (RDI) values calculated from the distribution pattern. The mean tail length and RDI value were increased by increasing the irradiation dose, and the RDI value was found to be useful as an index for discriminating of irradiation and measuring the irradiated dose. Blind tests using Korean domestic (Hanwoo) and imported beef samples showed a higher RDI value for the latter. However, the value was lower than those of irradiated samples indicating that the cause of DNA damages in the imported beef samples might be not irradiation but low-temperature treatments. It was concluded from the results of this study that the irradiated beef and its irradiated dose could be detected and predicted by Comet assay.
Physicochemical Properties of Commercial Sweet Potato Starches
Baek, Man-Hee ; Cha, Dong-Su ; Park, Hyun-Jin ; Lim, Seung-Taik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 755~762
Physicochemical properties of commercial sweet potato starches manufactured by 7 different companies were investigated in comparison with corn and potato starches. Crude ash and protein content varied from 0.36 to 1.02%, and from 0.04 to 0.14% based on dry weight, respectively. The protein contents were relatively smaller than that of corn or potato starch. But whiteness of the sweet potato starches was less than that of corn or potato starch. Mean diameter of the sweet potato starch granules varied from 14.23 to
depending on the company and all sweet potato starches showed bimodal size distributions. Pasting viscosity measured by Rapid Viscoanalyzer(RVA) also showed variations among the starches of different companies. The starch from D company in Korea had the lowest pasting temperature
whereas the starch from a phillippine company(P) did the highest one
. The peak viscosity of sweet potato starches was higher than that of corn starch but lower than that of potato starch. The D company starch also showed the highest peak viscosity(2283 cp) among the starches tested. Paste breakdown by hot shearing ranged from 524 cp (S company) to 1279 cp (HL company). Textural properties of the starch gels appeared significantly different among the starches of different manufacturers. The greatest hardness of the gel was
at 1 day storage whereas the lowest value was
. Except the starches from 2 companies (P and S), the sweet potato starches formed very soft and weak gels. P or S company starches formed the gels similar to potato starch. Syneresis by freeze-thawing treatments appeared less for sweet potato starch gels than that for corn starch gels, but greater than that for potato starch gel. The overall properties of the sweet potato starches varied by the manufacturing companies, and ranged between those of corn and potato starches.
A Study on Residual Pesticides in Commercial Fruits & Vegetables
Kim, Young-Gook ; Lim, Tae-Gon ; Park, Sang-Su ; Heo, Nam-Chil ; Hong, Suk-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 763~771
The 88 kinds of pesticide residues were analyzed in 12 kinds(289 samples) of fruits and vegetables brought at department store & mart in Kwangju from Feburary to September in 1999. The detection rate of pesticide residue in 12 kinds(289 samples) of fruits and vegetables was 21.1%, and the rate exceeds standard was 5.2%. The order of highly exceed rate in fruits and vegetables were perilla leaf, lettuce, spinach and chickery. The order of pesticide which founded frequently in fruits and vegetables were procymidone, endosulfan, vinclozoline, chlorpyrifos, cyprermethrin, pirimiphos-M, fenvalerate, fenarimol, and monocrotophos. And that of pesticide which exceed highly standard were procymidone, vinclozolin, endosulfan, pirimiphos-M, fenarimol, monocrotophos, etc. Eight different washing methods were compared for removal efficiencies of residual pesticides(procymidone, vinclozoline) on the perilla leap, the lettuce, the spinach, the strawberry, and the minitomato. Residual pesticides such as procymidone and vinclozoline were removed most efficiently by ultrasonic washing.
Comparison of the Taste Compounds of Loach Differing in the Local, Growing Condition and Season
Kim, Hee-Yun ; Shin, Jae-Wook ; Sim, Kyu-Chang ; Park, Hee-Ok ; Jang, Young-Mi ; Kim, Hyun-Sook ; Hu, Jong-Wha ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 772~787
In this study, evaluation on the loaches from the various sources was carried out in respect of their taste compounds. The samples were classified by local, season and growing condition and evaluated in terms of composition, the refuse, contents of nucleotides and their related compounds, total and free amino acid, organic acid and fatty acid. Evaluation on the compositions revealed the fact that, in terms of the local, the imported loach contain a low level of fat and high level of ash, in comparison with Korean loach; in terms of growing condition, cultured loach contains a high level of fat and low level of moisture, in comparison with wild loach; and in terms of the season, the summer loach contains less moisture than the fall loath; but as for the contents of other component, the summer loach was superior. As for the refuse, the imported loach had a greater refuse than the Korean loach. In the growing condition, the wild loach had lower value than the cultured loach. There was no substantial difference in each season. Also nucleotide and these related compounds were detected in all of the samples, while ATP was not found. The content levels of such detected compound did not show a substantial difference in each condition. However, generally, the imported loach was poor in such compound and all of the samples were high in IMP. The samples were high in total amino acids. The local and growing conditions showed no substantial difference, while in the season, the summer loach had a higher content of total and essential amino acid than the fall loach. As for the contents of free amino acids, similar distribution of the composition was shown in each sample, even though there was little difference in their constituents. Also, total content of free amino acid varied with the conditions of the samples. As for total content of organic acid and the distribution of the composition, there was a little difference between each condition. In the season and growing condition, the summer loach was high in organic acid. As for the distribution of the fatty acid compositions, there was no substantial difference between each condition and each sample. In the case of the wild loach, the summer loach was high in
polyunsaturated fatty acid and the fall loach was high in essential fatty acid. Similarly, in the case of the imported loach, the summer loach was high in
polyunsaturated fatty acid and the fall loach was high in essential fatty acid.
Comparison of Colorimetry and HPLC Method for Quantitative Analysis of Chitooligosaccharide
Kang, Kil-Jin ; Cho, Jung-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 788~791
The quantitative analysis of chitooligosaccharide was compared to using colorimetry and HPLC method. HPLC method required less than 10mins per sample in analytical time of glucosamine and its the recovery rate was 98.4% (10 mg/ml, w/v). Also there was no the effects of interfering substances(false positive response) by HPLC method. The content of chitooligosaccharide in processed chitooligosaccharide products obtained using HPLC showed lower levels compared to colorimetry. Thus, HPLC method was more sensitive, effective and precise than the colorimetry currently used to determine the glucosamine of chitooligosaccharide.
Discoloration of Korean Wheat Flour Noodles with Additives
Kim, Myung-Shin ; Koh, Bong-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 792~798
The objectives of this study were to reduce the characteristic dark color of Korean wheat flour noodles. Several additives were tested to reduce dark color of wheat flour dough and 2% ascorbic acid and 0.05% cysteine were selected as additives to Korean wheat flour noodle. Comparative study was performed between commercial imported wheat flour noodle and Korean wheat noodle with two additives to investigate the color, mechanical and sensory properties of noodles. Addition of 2% ascorbic acid increased the brightness of raw and dried Korean wheat flour noodles and 0.05% cysteine was the most effective in improving the brightness for cooked wheat flour noodles. Mechanical properties of cooked Korean wheat flour noodles with 2% ascorbic acid and 0.05% cysteine were similar to that of the imported wheat flour noodles. However, sensory evaluation test showed Korean wheat flour noodles with 2% ascorbic acid had the darkest yellowish-red color, the strongest aftertaste and the lowest overall quality. Therefore, the addition of cysteine was the most effective in mechanical and sensory attributes as well as discoloration of cooked wheat flour noodles.
Preparation and Quality Characteristics of Korean Wheat Noddles Made of Brown Glutinous Rice Flour With and Without Aroma
Kee, Hae-Jin ; Lee, Su-Tae ; Park, Yang-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 799~805
In order to manufacture the high-quality products as well as to promote their consumption, dry noodles were prepared with Korean wheat flour and brown glutinous rice flour with and without aroma and quality characteristics of dry noodles were investigated. The average particle size distributions of aromatic brown glutinous rice flour and brown glutinous rice flour ranged from 12.38 to
, which was different from that of control. As a result of farinograph study, water absorption of dough increased and decreased with increasing amounts of brown glutinous rice flour with and without aroma, respectively. Stability, developing time and elasticity of dough showed a decreasing tendency. When compared with the control, aromatic brown glutinous rice samples produced noodles with a greater degree of lightness and a less intensity of yellowing. Replacement of up to 20% of Korean wheat flour by aromatic brown glutinous rice flour and brown glutinous rice flour in noodle had similar cooked properties such as weight gain, volume and water absorption as compared with the control. From the result of sensory evaluation, composite flours(addition up to 30% aromatic brown glutinous rice flour and up to 20% brown glutinous rice flour) and control were rated with a relatively high quality score for appearance, taste and overall eating quality.
The Physico-chemical and Sensory Properties of Milk with Water Soluble Chitosan
Lee, Jae-Won ; Lee, Young-Chun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 806~813
Attempts were made to evaluate possibilities of adding water soluble chitosan to milk for improving functionality of milk, and physico-chemical and sensory properties of chitosan added milk were studied. pH and acidity of milk with ethyl alcohol washed chitosan were close to those of control. Color and consistency of chitosan added milk were better with chitosan of lower molecular weight than with high molecular weight. Chitosan of high molecular weight resulted in increased consistency and browning of milk. Milk with less than 1.0% chitosan could be sterilized at
for 15 sec. with minimum protein coagulation and increase of consistency. Low molecular weight chitosan
accelerated the growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum, showing 10 times more cell population after 32 hrs incubation. Sensory tests showed that adding chitosan to the regular city milk resulted in significant difference in color and chemical off-flavor(p<0.05). When chitosan was added to coffee milk, there was no significant difference in sensory quality from control. The storage test showed that pH, acidity, consistency and color of coffee milk with 0.5% chitosan did not change markedly during 30 days storage at 0 and
, but changed rapidly after 16days storage at
. Bacterial counts increased when storage temperature was high, and the growth of bacteria was delayed in coffee milk with chitosan.
Changes in Chemical Components of Cocoa Beans during Microwave Roasting
Kim, Suk-Shin ; Lee, Joo-Hee ; Chang, Kyu-Seob ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 814~821
The physicochemical properties of microwave-roasted cocoa beans such as color, degree of browning, pH, titrable acidity, organic acid, and sugar content were determined and compared with those of conventionally-roasted beans. Microwave roasting temperatures were 110, 120, 130, 140 and
. Roasting times were 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min. Conventional roasting was done at
and 15 min as a reference. The pH had no relations with roasting temperature or roasting time. As roasting time and roasting temperature were increased, the titrable acidity values of roasted cocoa beans became higher than those of raw bean. But there were no differences among each condition. Color, degree of browning, and sugar content changed as roasting temperature and roasting time increased. The organic acid content of roasted beans increased but the degree of increase was different from organic acid to organic acid. Roasting by microwaves resulted in higher inner temperature of samples than the surface temperature. To increase roasting efficiency, the other heat sources should be used together with microwave.
The Changes of Allergenic and Antigenic Properties of Major Allergen(Pen a 1) of Brown Shrimp(Penaeus aztecus) by Gamma Irradiation
Lee, Ju-Woon ; Kim, Jae-Hun ; Sung, Chang-Keun ; Kang, Kun-Ok ; Shin, Myung-Gon ; Byun, Myung-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 822~827
Gamma irradiation was applied to reduce shrimp allergy. Shrimp heat-stable protein(HSP) and shrimp protein extract were gamma-irradiated at 1, 3, 5, 7 or 10 kGy in an aqueous state (1.0 mg/mL). The changes in allergenic and antigenic properties of protein extract and HSP resulted from gamma irradiation were monitored by ELISA with mouse mAb or human patients sera and immunoblotting. Conformational changes in irradiated HSP were measured by both GPC-HPLC and SDS-PAGE. The binding ability of shrimp allergic patients IgE to irradiated protein extract or irradiated heat-stable protein was dose-dependently reduced. When measured by gel permeation chromatography and sandwich ELISA, the amount of intact heat-stable protein in the irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the applied dose. SDS-PAGE showed that the main band disappeared and new bands appeared in a higher molecular weight zone. The results provide a new possibility to use irradiation process for reducing the allergenicity of shrimp.
Shelf Life Extension of White Rice Cake and Wet Noodle by the Treatment with Chitosan
Lee, Jang-Wook ; Lee, Hyang-Hee ; Rhim, Jong-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 828~833
The effect of treatments with alcohol, chitosan, or with both alcohol and chitosan for extending the shelf-life of Korean white rice cake and wet noodle was investigated by measuring quality changes such as total microbial count, pH, and sensory qualities. Total microbial counts for control, alcohol-treated, and 1% lactic acid-treated white rice cakes exceeded the initial putrefactive criterion level of
at 6, 27 and 20 days of storage, respectively. However, total microbial count of the white rice cake treated with chitosan was still less than the criterion level even at 76 days of storage. In the case of wet noodle, total microbial counts of control and alcohol-treated groups exceeded the criterion level within 7 days of storage, while that of chitosan-treated group was far less than the criterion level even at the end of storage of 82 days. Chitosan treatment extended the shelf-lives of both white rice cake and wet noodle appreciably.
Characteristics of Edible Films Based with Various Cultivars of Sweet Potato Starch
Lee, Jung-Ju ; Rhim, Jong-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 834~842
In order to investigate the characteristics of various sweet potato starches, gelatinization temperatures, solution viscosity of starch separated from two cultivars of the dry type sweet potatoes(Yulmi and Gunmi), one cultivar of moist type sweet potato(Jinmi), and one cultivar of purple colored variety(Jami) were compared, and properties of the edible films prepared with the starches were determined. Under a differential scanning colorimetry(DSC), initial temperatures for starch gelatinization of the dry type sweet potatoes (Yulmi and Gunmi) were higher than that of the moist type sweet potato (Jinmi), and that of Jami was close to those of the dry type ones. The sweet potato starch solutions tested by a cone and plate viscometer, showed peudoplastic characteristics. The moist type sweet potato was the most viscous followed by Jami, Yulmi, and Gunmi among the tested starch solutions. Total color difference of the edible films prepared with different cultivars of sweet potatoes showed appreciable differences between cultivars, caused by differences in Hunterb values. Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) of sweet potato starch films also showed significant differences between cultivars. Films prepared with the dry type sweet potato, Gunmi, showed the lowest WVP value of
, followed by Jami, Yulmi, and Jinmi. Water solubility of the films did not show any significant differences between cultivars. Tensile strength of the dry type sweet potato and Jami, which ranged 14.18-18.75 MPa, were higher than that of the moist type sweet potato, which was 4.66 MPa. Elongation values of the films, which were 5-6%, indicated that sweet potato starch films were not so elastic.
Optimization of Conditions for the Microencapsulation of
and Its Storage Stability
Chang, Pahn-Shick ; Ha, Jae-Seok ; Roh, Hoe-Jin ; Choi, Jin-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 843~850
We have produced the microcapsule composed of
as a core material (Cm) and the gelatinized polysaccharide as a wall material (Wm). Firstly, we have developed a simple, sensitive, and quantitative analysis method of the microencapsulation product using 5% cupric acetate pyridine solution. We could then optimize all the conditions for the microencapsulation process such as the ratio of [Cm] to [Wm], the temperature of dispersion fluid, and the emulsifier concentration using response surface methodology (RSM). As for the microencapsulation of
, the regression model equation for the yield of microencapsulation (YM, %) to the change of an independent variable could be predicted as follows : YM=99.77-1.76([Cm]:[Wm])-1.72
. From the ridge of maximum response, the optimum conditions for the microencapsulation of
were able to be determined as the ratio of [Cm] to [Wm] of 4.6:5.4(w/w), the emulsifier concentration of 0.49%, and dispersion fluid temperature of
, respectively. Finally, the microcapsules produced under the optimal conditions were applied for the analysis of storage stability. The optimal conditions for the storage were found to be the values of pH 9.0 and
. And the storage stability of the microcapsules containing
were higher than 99% for a week at pH 9.0 and
Sensory Evaluation and Changes in Physiochemical Properties, and Microflora and Enzyme Activities of Pumpkin-added Kochujang
Choo, Jong-Jae ; Shin, Hyun-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 851~859
In the present study, changes in physicochemical and sensory properties, and microflora and enzyme activities, by addition of pumpkin (1, 2 and 5% pumpkin on the weight basis), of Sunchang sikhe kochujang, the most famous traditional kochujang, were investigated. Moisture content appeared to be reduced during fermentation, possibly due to exposure to the sun. Patterns of pH changes were rather complicated. pH of control kochujang was gradually reduced from the begining of fermentation up to 60 days of fermentation. Thereafter, it tended to be increased but again reduced after 90 days of fermentation. On the other hand, titratable acidity increased with fermentation reaching at the highest level at 90 day of fermentation and then slowly decreased. The addition of pumpkin induced a reduction in pH and an increase in titratable acidity, but this was due to organic acid contained in pumpkin itself. Contents of reducing sugar and amino nitrogen were increased by the addition of pumpkin in relation to the level of addition. Ethanol content was highly increased by the addition of pumpkin. Bacterial and yeast count, and activities of amylase and protease were not affected by the addition of pumpkin. Sensory evaluation test revealed that the addition of pumpkin improved sweet and savory taste, but color turned to be undesirable. However, none of tested parameters except color showed statistical significance.
The Study of Developing and Stability of Functional Beverage from Korean Persimmon(Diospyros kaki L. folium) Leaf
Bae, Du-Kyung ; Choi, Hee-Jin ; Son, Jun-Ho ; Park, Mu-Hee ; Bae, Jong-Ho ; An, Bong-Jeon ; Bae, Man-Jong ; Choi, Cheong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 860~866
The efforts were made to develop persimmon leaf beverages on the basis of the results of sensory evaluation. The result of sensory evaluation for the development of persimmon leaf beverages showed that when the concentration of extracts was 10%, the aroma and flavor of persimmon leaves was best. The optimum concentration of sugar was 4.5% and apple juice was 15%. The change of pH had the tendency to keep stable range(3.82-3.71) during the period of 30 days and free-sugar had little change according to the temperature and time of preservation. The preservation of the change of ascorbic acid revealed that the range of decrease in the case of preservation at
was a bit narrower than in the case of preservation at
. Nonvolatile organic acids were four kinds of acids, oxalic acid, levulinic acid, malic acid, and citric acid, among which levulinic acid was on the increase for the first 10 days during the preservation period and then on the decrease regardless of the temperature of preservation. The browning of beverages was on the slight increase.
Characteristic Changes of Kochujang by Heat Treatment
Kim, Moon-Sook ; Ahn, Eun-Young ; Ahn, Eun-Sook ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 867~874
Kochujang, which is one of most favorable fermented hot seasonings in Korea, has swelling problem and color changes during distribution. To stop the gas formation, heat treatments were conducted at
for 5 to 15 min. at the beginning or after 40 days fermentation. Yeast were not detected at
for 15min. heat treatment and bacteria were not effected in number that is concerned in fermentation of kochujang. At above heat treatment, there was no effect
activity was increased in heat treated kochujang. The acid protease activity was higher than nonheat treated kochujang after 60 days fermentation but neutral protease decreased after 80 days fermentation. The L, a and b value by Hunter were gradually decreased during fermentation and
value showed difference in kochujang heated before fermentation. The total hydroxy methyfurfural content was increased, and carotenoid and capsanthin in heated kochujang decreased during fermentation.
Effects of Inducible Substrates on the Co-production of Glucoamylase and Exopolygalacturonase from Cryptococcus laurentii Y-23
Kim, Chang-Hwa ; Paik, Sang-Kyoo ; Yun, Hye-Sun ; Jin, Ing-Nyol ; Yu, Choon-Bal ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 875~880
The production of glucoamylase and exopolygalacturonase from Cryptococcus laurentii Y-23 were investigated with the inducible substrates and mineral salts. Soluble starch induced only glucoamylase wherease pectin induced exopolygalacturonase as well as glucoamylase, and glucose did not induce glucoamylase whereas pectic acid induced a little amount of exopolygalacturonase. At the productions of two enzymes by inducible substrates for the 5 day-cultivation, the yeasts started log phase around 12 hours and mostly reached stationary phase around 36 hours. The best productivity of glucoamylase was observed with addition of soluble starch in the cultivation for 72 to 86 hours, and the high productivity of exopolygalacturonase was done by addition of both pectin and soluble starch in the cultivation for more than 72 hours. Without ammonium sulfate in the medium, however, cultural pH was so increased gradually that production of both enzymes were decreased and delayed as well.
increased both productivities of glucoamylase and exopolygalacturonase with 21% and 18%, respectively.
Effects of Freeze Drying Protectant on Quality of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Food Prepared from Milk or Egg White Powder
Ko, Young-Tae ; Kang, Jung-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 881~888
Lactic acid bacteria(LAB) fermented food was prepared with milk or egg white powder(EWP) and added with freeze drying protectant(FDP). 0.2% of Tween 80 or 1% of ascorbate was added to milk sample and 3% of raffinose or 1% of ascorbate was added to EWP sample. Effects of FDP on sensory property, volatile aroma compounds and physical property of LAB fermented food were investigated. In case of non-freeze dried samples, sensory properties of milk sample with ascorbate were slightly better than those of reference sample(milk), while sensory properties of EWP sample or EWP sample with FDP were slightly inferior to reference sample. Sensory properties of all of the freeze dried/reconstituted samples were not different. Sensory properties of milk sample with ascorbate were reduced by freeze drying/reconstitution, while those of sample with ascorbate were not changed. Although all of the volatile aroma compounds were reduced by freeze drying, the residual ratio was slightly different between milk samples and EWP samples. Difference in volatile aroma compounds between milk samples and EWP samples before freeze drying was relatively large, while difference between two sample groups after freeze drying/reconstitution was relatively small. Rheological properties of milk samples were markedly changed by freeze drying/reconstitution, while those of EWP samples were changed slightly.
Effects of Xylose and Xylitol on the Organic Acid Fermentation of Kimchi
Kim, Dong-Kyung ; Kim, Sang-Yong ; Lee, Jung-Kul ; Noh, Bong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 889~895
This study was conducted to investigate the utilization of xylose and xylitol on Lactobacillus species isolated from Kimchi and their effect on the pH, titratable acidity, microorganism and formation of organic acids in Kimchi during fermentation at
. Five species among six Lactobacillus species isolated from Kimchi could not utilize medium with xylose. All the Lactobacillus species isolated from Kimchi could not utilize medium with xylitol. The pH of Kimchi samples were similar to that of control Kimchi. The titratable acidity of Kimchi with xylose or xylitol was lower than that of control. This agreed to the degree of formation of lactic acid during fermentation of Kimchi. Formation of lactic acid for Kimchi with xylitol was lower than those of others. Therefore, shelf-life of Kimchi with xylitol could be extended.
Changes of Microbiological and General Quality Characteristics of Gamma Irradiated Chungkukjang
Kim, Dong-Ho ; Yook, Hong-Sun ; Youn, Kyu-Chun ; Cha, Bo-Sook ; Kim, Jung-Ok ; Byun, Myung-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 896~901
The effect of gamma-irradiation on the microbiological and general quality changes of the Chungkukjang was studied. Chungkukjang was prepared, irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy, and then stored at
for six weeks. The results showed that the vegetative Bacillus cell was decreased by 5 log cycles with dose of 10 kGy with 1.78 kGy of
value. Also, Bacillus was nearly eliminated by 20 kGy and that survived 10 kGy gamma irradiation was decreased significantly with the duration of storage period. The formation of
, acidification and browning were repressed by gamma irradiation. Therefore, it was considered that the Chungkukjang treated with gamma irradiation maintained better quality than that of the control with storage.
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Protamine Prepared from Salmon Sperm
Joo, Dong-Sik ; Cho, Soon-Yeong ; Kang, Hyun-Joo ; Jin, Deok-Hee ; Lee, Chang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 902~907
Protamine-strong basic protein was prepared from salmon(chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta) sperm by several pretreatment method. And there were determined yield, amino acid composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of protamine on each pretreatment condition. The yield of protamine was different according to pretreatment, and ultrasonicating, homogenizing and microwaving pretreatment were about 16.0%, 15.5% and 10%, respectively. The main amino acid of P60(microwaving pretreatment for 10 min at
) and UU6(ultrasonicating pretreatment for 60 min at
) were arginine, proline and tryptophan, and arginine content of P60 and UU6 were 61%, 53%, respectively. On the other hand, main amino acid of M(homogenizing pretreatment by mixer) were methionine, proline and arginine, the content were 34%, 28% and 11%, respectively. Also MC(homogenizing pretreatment with
soln. by mixer) was very different with P60, UU6 and M, the content of MC were proline 44.8% and arginine 39.7%. Prepared protamines showed antimicrobial activity to several gram(+) and gram(-) strain. In particular, the UU6 and P60 protamine has strong antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, and the activity was increased with concentration increasing. Regardless of pretreatment method, all protamine showed antioxidant activity and the
of P60, UU6, M and MC were
Antioxidative Activity and Related Compounds of Apple Pomace
Lee, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Young-Chan ; Kim, Mi-Yeon ; Chung, Hun-Sik ; Chung, Shin-Kyo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 908~913
To enhance the utilization of apple pomace for the functional food resources, we analyzed the useful components and examined the antioxidant activity of apple pomace. The contents of total dietary fiber, total flavonoid, total phenolic acid and vitamine C were 55.56%, 458 mg%, 1048 mg% and 19.8 mg%, respectively. Protocatechuic acid, cinamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid and phydroxybenzoic acid were identified in the apple pomace extract by GC-MS. Phloridzin and quercetin-3-glucoside were identified in the apple pomace extract by HPLC. Ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidative ability by ferric thiocyanate method. Malondialdehyde(MDA) formation in normal rat liver tissue also showed the lowest in ethyl acetate fraction.
Effects of Extracts of Pueraria radix on Enzymes Activities of Serum and Lead Level of the Tissues of the Pb-administered Rats
Han, Sung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 914~919
This study was designed to investigate the effects of korean pueraria radix extract in Pb administered rats. Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing
were used for this experiment and divided into following 6 groups; control group, 3% pueraria radix group(3% pue.), 100 ppm and 200 ppm alone pb group, 100 ppm and 200 ppm alone pb group with 3% pue. Tissue weight of liver, lung, stomach, heart, kidney and spleen of pb exposed rats were reduced by 3% extracts of pueraria radix group. The Pb content in the rats tissue of pb alone administered group was lower than in the rats tissue of pb group with 3% pue. GPT and GOT were increased in pb-administered group and lower in the 3% extracts of pueraria radix group. LDH was lower in the 3% extracts of pueraria radix-pb group than in the pb group. ChEase was higher in the 3% extracts of pueraria radix group than in the pb alone administered group.
Effects of Salted-Fermented Fish Products and Their Alternatives on Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Kimchi During Fermentation
Park, Douck-Choun ; Park, Jae-Hong ; Gu, Yeun-Suk ; Han, Jin-Hee ; Byun, Dae-Seok ; Kim, Eun-Mi ; Kim, Young-Myung ; Kim, Seon-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 920~927
Angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE) inhibitory activity of Kimchi added with salted-fermented fish products(SFFP), such as salted-fermented anchovy(SFA), salted-fermented anchovy sauce(SFAS), low salt-fermented anchovy sauce(LSFAS), salted-fermented small shrimp(SFS), low salt-fermented sandlance sauce(LSFSS) and their alternatives, such as oyster hydrolysate(OH), Alaska pollack hydrolysate(APH) and sea-staghorn extract(SSE) were studied during fermentation at
. ACE inhibitory activities of Kimchi samples added with SFFP were increased until some fermentation period and then kept similarly constant levels at every fermentation temperature. Similar tendencies were occurred in amino nitrogen (AN) content. ACE inhibitory activities of Kimchi samples added with SFFP alternatives rapidly increased in 1st or 2nd day fermentation and then very slowly increased but AN contents showed roughly constant levels
in every fermentation temperature. Kimchi added with LSFAS had higher ACE inhibitory activity (>80%) with elevated level of AN (>600 mg/100 g) among the tested Kimchi samples. Kimchi samples added with SFFP alternatives also showed comparable activity to Kimchi added with SFFP This study shows that Kimchi added with SFFP and their alternatives is a good source as a functional food.
The Antioxidative, Antimicrobial and Nitrite Scavenging Effects of Schizandra chinensis RUPRECHT(Omija) Seed
Jung, Gi-Tai ; Ju, In-Ok ; Choi, Joung-Sik ; Hong, Jae-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 928~935
This study was carried out to examine the antioxidative, antimicrobial and nitrite scavenging effects of various solvent extracts and different solvent fractions from Schizandra chinensis RUPRECHT(Omija) seed. The results were as follows; The antioxidative activities using lard, soybean oil and linoleic acid were the highest in methanol, ethanol and methanol extract from omija seed, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity using DPPH method was the strongest in acetate fraction of methanol extract from seed. The methanol extract from omija seed had the strongest antimicrobial activities to L. plantarum, B. subtilis, E. coli and P. citrinum, while ethyl acetate extract had the strongest against S. aureus and S. typhimurium. The buthanol fraction from methanol extract had the highest antimicrobial activities, followed by B. subtilis, L. plantarum, E. coli, S. aureus and S. typhimurium. The nitrite scavenging ability was pH dependent, highest at pH 1.2 and lowest at pH 6.0. The buthanol fraction of methanol extract from omija seed had more effective nitrite scavenging ability than other fractions of extracts.
Biological Activities of Chungkugjang Prepared with Black Bean and Changes in Phytoestrogen Content during Fermentation
Shon, Mi-Yae ; Seo, Kwon-Il ; Lee, Sang-Won ; Choi, Seong-Hee ; Sung, Nak-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 936~941
To assess functional properties of chungkugjang (CK), a traditional Korean soyfood, fermented with black beans at
for 72 hrs, some biological activities of methanol extract of CK and the changes in phytoesterogen (daidzein, genistein) contents during fermentation were investigated. The methanol extract of CK (MEC) prepared with soybean had no or a little antibacterial activity. MEC prepared with black bean inhibited the growth of all bacteria tested, and MEC of small black bean was higher in antibacterial activity than that of large black bean. Hydrogen-donating activities of MEC of large and small black bean were 76.4 and 75.5%, respectively, which were higher than that of soybean being 67.3%. Nitrite-scavenging activity was found to be above 90% in all MECs tested as compared with control group. MEC showed strong antioxidant activities against both peroxidation of linoleic acid and
peroxidation of rat liver homogenate. The antioxidant activities were high in the order of small black bean, large black bean and soybean. Contents of genistein and daidzein were gradually increased during fermentation of CK. The isoflavones were higher in black bean CK than in soybean CK and higher in large black bean CK than in small black bean CK. In black beans genistein content was about twice as much of daidzein.
Effects of Salted-Fermented Fish Products and Their Alternatives on Nitrite Scavenging Activity of Kimchi During Fermentation
Park, Douck-Choun ; Park, Jae-Hong ; Gu, Yeun-Suk ; Han, Jin-Hee ; Byun, Dae-Seok ; Kim, Eun-Mi ; Kim, Young-Myung ; Kim, Seon-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 942~948
Nitrite scavenging activity of Kimchi added with salted-fermented fish products(SFFP), such as low salt-fermented anchovy sauce(LSFAS), salted-fermented anchovy sauce(SFAS), salted-fermented anchovy(SFA), salted-fermented small shrimp(SFS), low salt-fermented sandlance sauce(LSFSS) and their alternatives, such as oyster hydrolysate(OH), Alaska pollack hydrolysate(APH) and Sea-staghorn extract(SSE) were studied during fermentation at
. Nitrite contents of Kimchi samples added with SFFP were roughly decreased except Kimchi added with SFS and SFAS, which increased at the 2nd day of fermentation. Fermentation of Kimchi at
resulted a decrease in nitrite(<5 ppm). Nitrite contents of Kimchi samples added with SFFP alternatives rapidly decreased in the initial fermentation and then kept a low level (<2 ppm). Nitrite scavenging effects of Kimchi samples added with SFFP and their alternatives were steady during fermentation, showing a little variation in samples added with SFFP. Samples added with LSFAS and OH showed higher nitrite scavenging effects(90%) than others
Antimicrobial Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Korean and Indonesian Plants
Kim, Moo-Sung ; Lee, Dong-Cheol ; Hong, Jong-Eun ; Chang, Ih-Seop ; Cho, Hong-Yon ; Kwon, Yong-Kwan ; Kim, Hee-Yun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 949~958
Antimicrobial effects of 150 kinds of Korean and 82 kinds of Indonesian plants were investigated to develope natural food preservatives. Extracts of the plants with 70% ethanol were tested their antimicrobial effects against several food spoilage microorganisms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Seventeen kinds of Korean and eighteen kinds of Indonesian plants were found relatively effective, of which Myristica fragrans and Melaleuca leucadendra were the most effective, respectively. The major fractions of the two plant extracts showing antimicrobial activity were further purified by solvent fractionation, silicagel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The purified substances were identified as limonene and caprylic acid in M. fragrans, and
in M. leucadendra, respectively.
Allergenicity Change of Soybean Proteins by Thermal Treatment
Son, Dae-Yeul ; Lee, Bo-Ryun ; Shon, Dong-Wha ; Lee, Kwang-Shin ; Ahn, Kang-Mo ; Nam, Sung-Yeon ; Lee, Sang-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 959~963
Soy bean is one of the most common food material to cause food hypersensitivity reactions in Korea. In this study we have investigated the effect of heating on antigenicity and allergenicity change of soybeans by using immunoblotting and ELISA methods with serum of soybean allergic patients and polyclonal antibody against soybean proteins. Soybean proteins were extracted by one-hour heating in boiling waterbath and separated by SDS-PAGE. After heat treatment, no significant changes of soy protein patterns were observed in SDS-PAGE analysis. Furthermore, the heat treatment had no effect on the results in immunoblotting with polyclonal antibody as well as in ELISA with soybean allergic patients' serum. With these results it may be concluded that allergenicity and antigenicity of soybeans do not reduce by thermal treatment.
Study on the Estrogenic Activity of Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Adipate in E-Screen Assay and Uterotrophic Assay
Han, Soon-Young ; Kim, Hyung-Sik ; Han, Sang-Kook ; Lee, Rhee-Da ; Yang, Kyu-Whan ; Park, Kui-Lea ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 964~969
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate(DEHA) has been used extensively as a plasticizer in the manufacture of plastic products such as PVC films. Though, phthalate esters plasticizers have been known to induce endocrine system-mediated responses, few studies have been conducted for the screening of estrogenic activity of DEHA, an adipate plasticizer. This study was initiated to evaluate the estrogenic activity of DEHA by in vitro E-screen assay and in vivo uterotrophic assay. MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were treated with
, for 144 hr, and cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B(SRB) assay. DEHA dissolved in corn oil was administered subcutaneously to ovariectomized(OVX) female Sprague-Dawley rats at dosage levels of 0, 2, 20 and 200 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed 24 hr after final treatment and vagina and uterus(wet and blotted) weights were obtained. E-screen assayed DEHA did not generate cell proliferation at treated concentrations
, whereas 17
(E2), the positive control, induced cell proliferation at low concentrations
. In the uterotrophic assay, DEHA did not change vagina and uterus(wet and blotted) weights at dosage levels up to 200 mg/kg/day treatment. These results demonstrated that DEHA did not exhibit the estrogenic activity as determined by in vitro E-screen assay and in vivo uterotrophic assay.
Investigation on Contents of Heavy Metals and Parasites of the Dropwort(Oenanthe javanica) cultivated in Chollanamdo
Heo, Nam-Chil ; Kim, Choong-Mo ; Park, Sook ; Na, Hwan-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 970~973
Heavy metal contents and parasite egg examination for the safety evaluation of dropwort(Oenanthe javanica) from the inside of Chonnam province(5 regions) and suburbs of Kwang-ju(1 region) were investigated. The contents of heavy metals(Hg, Pb, As, Cd, Mn, Zn, Cu) were determined by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and parasite eggs were examined to various internalparasites(F. hepatica, C. sinesis, G. lamblia, Cryptosporidium, A. lumbricoides and A. duodenale). First, Hg and As were detected in trace level and
. Pb was not detected in all samples and Cd contents of dropworts were detected
. The contents of 4 kinds of heavy metals(Hg, As, Pb and Cd) in dropworts cultivated in various regions(6 regions) were not detected or trace levels. Therefore, dropworts cultivated in Chonnam province and suburbs of Kwang-ju were free from contamination of heavy metals. Moreover, the result of parasite egg examination(Trematoda, Protozoa and Nematoda) was not detected in all samples.
Yield Stress of Kochujang with Vane Method
Chang, Yoon-Hyuk ; Yoo, Byoung-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 32, issue 4, 2000, Pages 974~978
The vane method was used to measure yield stresses of five commercial kochujang samples under a controlled shear-rate operating condition. Magnitudes of vane yield stress were higher than those of yield stress using Casson model with a concentric cylinder viscometer. Magnitudes of vane yield stresses showed great differences between the static
and dynamic yield stresses
of kochujang samples with undisturbed structure (UDS) and with broken down structure (BDS). A dimensionless yield number
was determined from the ratio of
in order to describe the existence of temporary structure of kochujang.