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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
on Gelatinization of Barley Starch
Choi, Hee-Don ; Seog, Ho-Moon ; Kim, Sung-Ran ; Park, Yong-Kon ; Lee, Cherl-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 545~550
The effect of
on gelatinization of barley starch was studied. By the rapid visco-analyzer measurement, gelatinization of starch became rapid and viscosity increased largely on the RVA pattern by addition of
to starch. The results of differential scanning calorimeter showed that molecular structure of starch was getting stabilized through shifting up of gelatinization temperature and increase in enthalpy by addition of
-glucan. X-ray diffraction pattern also showed the same results as differential scanning calorimeter. But it was revealed that addition of
-glucan to starch didn't affect characteristics such as microscopic observation, solubility, swelling power, and iodine binding properties during gelatinization of starch.
Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Korean and Chinese Red Bean Starches
Kim, Choong-Ki ; Oh, Byung-Hyun ; Na, Jong-Min ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 551~555
The physicochemical properties of starches from Korean and Chinese red bean were investigated. Korean red bean starch (KRBS) contained lower water content, but higher crude fat and carbohydrate content than those of Chinese red bean starch (CRBS). The round shape of starch granules from Korean and Chinese red bean was observed. The granule size of KRBS was smaller than that of CRBS. The whiteness of KRBS (87.22%) was significantly higher than that (86.16%) of CBRS. X-ray diffraction patterns between KRBS and CRBS were not significantly different, resulting in showing C type. There was significant difference in amylose content between KRBS and CRBS. The blue value of KRBS was 1.02, which was higher than that of CRBS. Swelling power of KRBS was higher up to
than that of CRBS, but then decreased. Solubility showed the same pattern as the swelling power. Our findings suggest that Korean red bean has better quality than Chinese red bean in terms of the physicochemical properties.
Analysis of Genetically-Modified Soybean and Soybean Sprout by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
Kwak, Bo-Yeon ; Ko, Seung-Hee ; Shin, Won-Sun ; Shon, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 556~560
It was determined whether the sandwich ELISA using specific anti-CP4 EPSPS polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, developed in the previous study, could be applied to detect GM soybean or not. The soybeans (47 imported and 20 domestic soybeans) were analyzed by a sandwich ELISA. The results of imported soybeans were divided into two groups which were high contents
and low contents of CP4 EPSPS
. The ratio of GM in imported soybeans was about 70.2%. One the other hand, the contents of CP4 EPSPS in domestic soybeans was very low
which determined to be non-GM soybeans. In case of soybean sprouts, the contents of CP4 EPSPS in soybean sprouts were different between GM and non-GM soybean sprout. The CP4 EPSPS in cotyledon of GM soybeans sprout was higher than that in root hair. The contents of CP4 EPSPS in soybeans sprout of domestic soybeans were very low. Thus, it was possible to determine that the soybeans sprout was made of GM or non-GM soybeans. Also, PCR experiment showed that the sandwich ELISA was accurate to distinguish the soybeans to be GM or non-GM. These results showed the sandwich ELISA could determine the soybeans were GM or non-GM, rapidly and simply.
The Study on Heavy Metal Contents in Various Foods
Kim, Mee-Hye ; Kim, Jung-Soo ; Sho, You-Sub ; Chung, So-Young ; Lee, Jong-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 561~567
This study was conducted to estimate the heavy metal contents in various foods (n=696). The contents of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and tin (Sn) were determined using and ICP (inductively coupled plasma spectrometer). The content of mercury (Hg) was determined using a mercury analyzer. The values of heavy metals in canned foods were as follows [minimum-maximum (mean), mg/kg]; Pb 0.001
0.36 (0.10), Cd 0.001
0.10 (0.04), Sn 0.01
24.75 (2.60). The mean values of Pb and Cd in animal foods were 0.40 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg. Also, the mean values of heavy metals in vegetables and potatoes were 0.03 mg/kg for Pb, 0.02 mg/kg for Cd, 0.001 mg/kg for Hg, respectively. The mean values of Hg in fishes and canned fishes were 0.08 mg/kg and 0.04 mg/kg. Our results showed that heavy metal contents in various foods available on markets were similar to those reported in other countries.
Analysis of Isoflavones for 66 Varieties of Sprout Beans and Bean Sprouts
Kim, Youn-Hee ; Hwang, Young-Hyun ; Lee, Hye-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 568~575
Selection of high-quality varieties of sprout bean and bean sprout containing high levels of total isoflavones was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The range and mean of total isoflavone contents of sixty six varieties of sprout beans were
, respectively, with KLG10618, KLG11118, KLG10600, KLG10022, KLG1085 and sohokong containing the highest amounts of isoflavone among the samples. Medium-sized bean variety with green seed-coat color contained highest amount of total isoflavones among samples. The range and mean of total isoflavone contents of thirty varieties of bean sprouts were
, respectively, with soho bean sprout containing the highest total isoflavone content (3,343 mg/kg, dry basis). Total isoflavone contents of bean sprouts increased gradually during cultivation period, reaching maximum level on the 5th day of cultivation, and were the highest in the order of roots, cotyledon, and hypocotyl.
An Improved Method for Determination of Catechin and Its Derivatives in Extract and Oil of Grape Seeds
Moon, Sung-Ok ; Lee, Jun-Young ; Kim, Eun-Jung ; Choi, Sang-Won ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 576~585
An improved method in place of a conventional vanillin spectroscopic method (CVSM) was developed for determination of catechin and its derivatives in extract and oil of grape seeds. For the CVSM, grape seed extracts had relatively high catechin content in the range of
(g/100g of extract), while grape seed oils had relatively smaller catechin content in the range of
(mg/100g of oil). For the improved vanillin spectroscopic method (IVSM) using a polyamide cartridge, catechin content of grape seed extracts was in the range of
, while that of grape seed oils was below 5 ppm. Meanwhile, the quantities of catechin and its derivatives were determined by HPLC in the grape seed extracts and oils. Four major catechins [(+)-catechin, procyanidin B2, (-)-epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate] were detected from grape seed extracts, and the ranges of concentrations were as follows: (+)-catechin,
; (-)-epicatechin gallate,
. In contrast, four catechins were barely detectable in the grape seed oils. The reproducibility of four major catechins in grape seed extracts, given as coefficient of variation, was below 5%, and the recovery close to above 95%. The achieved detection level of four catechins was
. Additionally, the contents of catechin compositions in grape seed extract were also determined by HPLC in relation to different cultivars and producing areas. Thus, HPLC method and IVSM using polyamide cartridge can be used as alternative to CVSM for determination of catechin and its derivatives in extract and oil of grape seeds.
Removal Rate of Residual Pesticides in Perilla Leaves with Various Washing Methods
Lee, Jong-Mee ; Lee, Hye-Ran ; Nam, Sang-Min ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 586~590
Removal rates of residual organic phosphorous pesticides (chlorpyrifos-methyl and fenitrothion) in Perilla leaves by various washing methods were determined. The removal rates using stagnant tap water were 20.05 and 17.70% for chlorpyrifos-methyl and fenitrothion, whereas 44.28 and 39.10% using flowing tap water, and 19.14 and 15.43% using activated carbon-added stagnant tap water, respectively. Activated carbon-added flowing stagnant tap water removed 25.29 and 15.43% of chlorpyrifos-methyl and fenitrothion, and removal rates were 53.51 and 50.62% with alkaline solution and 30.25 and 28.09% with acidic solution, respectively. With neutral detergent solution, removal rates were 81.52 and 76.56% for chlorpyrifos-methyl and fenitrothion, respectively. Results revealed washing method using neutral detergent solution was most effective for removing residual pesticides.
Optimized Condition of Genomic DNA Extraction and PCR Methods for GMO Detection in Potato
Shin, Weon-Sun ; Kim, Myung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 591~597
To compare the quality of genomic DNA extracted from potato for PCR detection, four different methods, such as silica-based membrane method, silica-coated bead method, STE solution treatment, and CTAB-phenol/chloroform method, were evaluated. Also, to remove an excessive carbohydrate from the potato,
-amylase were used individually and in combination. When used both silica-based membrane method and silica-coated bead method combined with enzymes, the genomic DNAs were extracted from the raw potato with high purity for PCR. However, the silica-coated head method combined with enzyme treatment was the most efficient for extraction of the genomic DNA from the frozen fried potatoes. When applied with STE solution, the highly purified DNA was extracted from the raw potatoes without enzyme treatment in adequate yield for PCR. In cases of processed potatoes, such as frozen-fried potato and fabricated potato chips, CTAB-phenol/chloroform method is mostly feasible for DNA extraction and PCR efficacy at high sensitivity. As the results of PCR amplification, 216bp of PCR product was detected on 2% agarose gel electrophoresis, but any amplicons derived from New leaf and New leaf Y gene was not detected in any sample.
Effect of Dietary Fiber Purified from Cassia Tora on the Quality Characteristics of the Bread with Rice Flour
Ha, Tae-Youl ; Kim, Soo-Hyun ; Cho, Il-Jin ; Lee, Hyun-Yu ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 598~603
This study was accomplished to investigate the effect of dietary fiber purified from Cassia Tora on the quality characteristics of the bread compared to hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and xanthan gum (XG). The bread-making flour was prepared with wheat flour/rice flour (75/25) and added with 3% various dietary fibers. Dietary fiber of Cassia Tora (CT fiber) showed the highest volume expansion and the volume of bread with XG was the lowest. The values of lightness in both the crust and crumb color were the highest in the bread with XG. There was no significant difference in the score of sensory evaluation about color. As a result of texture measuring by Texture Analyzer, springiness and cohesiveness were not affected by the addition of CT fiber. However the significant decrease of gumminess, hardness and chewiness were observed from the bread containing CT fiber. Overall acceptance scores by sensory evaluation of baked bread with CT fiber were not significantly different from those of control.
Effects of Soaking Conditions on the Manufacture of Calcium Enriched Rice
Yang, Seung-Joon ; Min, Young-Kyoo ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Cho, Kyeong-Ju ; Park, Kwang-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 604~609
In order to investigate the transfer rate of calcium into rice and the effect of soaking conditions-temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and
), calcium concentration of soaking solution (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/L,
) and soaking time (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min,
), moisture absorption rate, hardness and calcium content of rice after soaking were analyzed. When the soaking temperature and time were increased the moisture absorption rate also increased (p<0.01). Quadratic and interaction effects on the moisture absorption rate among variables were highly significant, within 5%. The predictive model for moisture absorption rate
was as follows:
. Hardness was decreased as soaking time and temperature increased. Calcium contents of soaked rice increased as temperature, the calcium concentration of soaking solution and soaking time were increased (p<0.01). Also the interactive effect between soaking time and calcium concentration of soaking solution was high. The predictive model for calcium content
was as follows:
. From the results in this study, if adults and children take 400 g of calcium enriched rice with 600 mg/kg and
, respectively, they can expect to take more calcium than the recommended intake without other calcium reinforcing agents.
Contents with Different Particle Size and Varieties of Barley and Oats
Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Kang, Tae-Su ; Jung, Ick-Soo ; Park, Hee-Joeng ; Min, Young-Kyoo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 610~616
Five oats and 17 barley cultivars were ground, sieved (105, 210, 300, 425, 600
) and we have analyzed the
contents to obtain grain fractions. The milling yields ranged
for barley and
for oat cultivars. Total
contents of barley and oats become higher than those of the flour increasing the particle size. The soluble and insoluble
contents of them were especially higher in medium and coarse particle size fractions. The contents of total, soluble and insoluble
of barley were 1.5, 1.7 and 2.0 times higher than the whole flour before sieving and these content of oats were 2.1, 1.6 and 2.0 times, respectively. In this study, larger particle size would enrich the
and it is desirable to consider the best particle size range to enrich the
level, the water-solubility of the
as well as cereal varieties.
Analysis of Optimal Mixture Ratio for Extrudate of the Soymilk Residue and Corn Grits by Mixture Design
Han, Gyu-Hong ; Kim, Byung-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 617~622
Experimental designs were applied to optimize the mixture ratio for the extrudate made by soymilk residue and corn grits. Nine candidate points were examined for their significance on extrudate using the modified distance design. Bending force, expansion ratio, bulk density, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI) and color
were the significant factors improving the extruded cereal production, and these values were applied to the mathematical models. Results showed that bending force, expansion ratio WSI, WAI and color
increased with increasing the corn grits, whereas bulk density tended to decrease. The statistical study showed that the fitted models were adequate to describe the contour plot and all responses. Optimum mixture ratio allowing to maximize the two responses (expansion ratio and
) and minimize the response (WAI) were examined with a numerical optimization methods. The numerical optimization method was obtained as 53.18% : 46.19% (corn grits : soymilk residue).
Changes in Perceived Intensities of Pungency of Ramen Soup
Imm, Bue-Young ; Shon, Sang-Soo ; Kim, Kyung-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 623~627
The intensity of pungency of capsicum solutions (30 Scoville Unit and 50 Scoville Unit) was decreased when a pork extract paste was mixed with the capsicum solutions. Three types of flavor enhancers, 0.5% (w/w) monosodium glutamate, 0.5% (w/w) IG (IMP : GMP = 0.5 : 0.5) and 0.5% (w/w)
(yeast extract) decreased pungency of hot ramen soup including chilli pepper. 10% (w/w) sucrose decreased pungency of 0.66 ppm capsicum, and 0.66 ppm capsicum decreased sweetness of 10% (w/w) sucrose. Pungency of hot ramen soup was also affected by types of noodles which is boiled in the soup. The intensity of pungency of the ramen soup with fried noodles was lower than the soup with dried or fresh noodles.
Effects of Pasteurization and Storage Temperatures on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Kiwi Juice
Lee, Jin-Won ; Kim, In-Whan ; Lee, Kwang-Won ; Rhee, Chul ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 628~634
To investigate the effects of storage and pasteurization temperature on the quality of kiwi juice
, the Kiwi juice was pasteurized at 65, 75 and
for 15 sec. The microbial, physicochemical measurements and sensory evaluations were conducted at the same condition during storage at 4 and
for 30 days. Most of the vegetative bacteria cells in kiwi juice were destroyed by heat treatment over
, and they did not actively grow in kiwi juice after pasteurization. The D values of bacteria in kiwi juice by tubular type of heating exchange were 4.17, 1.47 and 0.81 sec at 65, 75 and
, respectively. The growth of microorganisms during storage were not detected in the most samples. The amounts of vitamin C decreased as the pasteurization-storage-temperature and storage time increased. While reducing sugar increased as the pasteurization-storage temperature-storage time increased, it decreased rapidly after 20 days of storage. Hunter's color values L, a and b of stored kiwi juice were decreased at all storage conditions, browning reaction rate increased as the pasteurization-storage-temperature was decreased.
Quality Changes and Pasteurization Effects of Citrus Fruit Juice by High Voltage Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) treatment
Kim, Kyung-Tack ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Hong, Hee-Do ; Ha, Sang-Do ; Lee, Young-Chun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 635~641
A non-thermal pasteurization technology, high Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) has been thought to be a new alternative processing technology instead of heating. The objective of this study was to examine and compare the effect of PEF and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) treatments on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of citrus juices. Total sugar and titratable acidity values of fresh citrus juice and two treatments were not significantly different each other at p<0.05. The concentration of vitamin C in fresh citrus juice
was not significantly different with the value of PEF treatment
but was significantly higher than the value of HTST treatment
. The color values (L, a, and b) in PEF treatment were significantly lower than the fresh citrus juice, but were higher than the values of HTST treatment. Both total bacterial cell counts
and yeast counts
in fresh citrus juice were significantly reduced by PEF
as well as HTST treatment (0, 0). PE activity of fresh citrus juice
was significantly reduced by PEF treatment
and was totally inactivated by HTST treatment. Sensory evaluation scores in flavor, taste and overall acceptability between the fresh and PEF treated citrus juices
were not significantly different but the values of HTST treatment
were lower than others. Consequently, PEF treatment is thought to be a good alternative pasteurization method for fresh citrus juice to HTST treatment due to its strong pasteurization effect, reduced destruction of nutrients and good sensory characteristics.
Monitoring on Fermentation of Persimmon Vinegar from Persimmon Peel
Kim, Suk-Kyung ; Lee, Gee-Dong ; Chung, Shin-Kyo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 642~647
In order to investigate utilization possibility of persimmon peel as a source of vinegar, we had been examined the alcohol and acetic acid fermentations of persimmon peel. In the first stage, alcohol fermentation, alcohol content was maximum value (8.22%) in 12.43 mL/g of added water,
of initial sugar content and 48.05 hr of fermentation time. Acidity was minimum value (0.30%) in 12.18 mL/g of added water,
of initial sugar content and 46.22 hr of fermentation time. In the second stage, acetic acid fermentation, acidity was maximum value (6.40%) in 2.02% of initial acidity, 67.98 rpm of agitation rate and 6.94 day of fermentation time. Browning color was minimum value in 1.50% of initial acidity, 150.0 rpm of agitation rate and 6.0 day of fermentation time. To manufacture persimmon vinegar using persimmon peel, in the first stage, optimal alcohol fermentation conditions was 12mL/g in added water,
in initial sugar concentration and 48 hr in fermentation time. In the second stage, optimal acetic acid fermentation conditions was 1.8% in initial acidity, 70 rpm in agitation rate and 6 day in fermentation time using Acetobacter sp. PA97.
The Identification of Blended Sesame Oils by Electronic Nose
Shin, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Ki-Teak ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 648~652
Precise and rapid method out for distinguishing blended sesame oils through the electronic nose analysis was developed. Sesame oil was blended with corn oil at the ratio of 95 : 5, 90: 10, and 80 : 20 (w/w), respectively. Samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography, SPME-GC/MS, and the electronic nose composed of 12 different metal oxide sensors. Sensitivities
of sensors from electronic nose were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Proportion of the first principal component was 98.76%.
Discriminating Domestic Soybeans from Imported Soybeans by 20 MHz Pulsed NMR
Rho, Jeong-Hae ; Lee, Sun-Min ; Kim, Young-Boong ; Lee, Taek-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 653~659
A 20 MHz pulsed NMR systems was employed to discriminate the geographical origin of soybeans and black beans (yak-kong) from Korea and foreign countries. Crude fat contents measured by soxhlet method were significantly (p<0.05) different between domestic and imported soybeans. Moisture and crude protein contents, measured by AOAC, were significantly different between domestic and imported black beans. In soybeans, values by solid fat content method and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method using 20 MHz pulsed NMR showed the significant difference among soybeans from various the geographical origins. In black beans (yak-kong), NMR values measured by NMR except
SR pulse sequence revealed the significant difference by the geographical origins. The habitat of soybeans and black beans could be identified by canonical discriminant analysis of chemical composition with
accuracy. Low field NMR data followed by discriminant analysis, however, granted the 100% of accuracy for classification of soybeans.
Effect of Freezing on Hydration Rate and Sprouting Characteristics of Soybeans
Rhim, Jong-Whan ; Oh, Bong-Yun ; Kim, Dong-Han ; Ham, Kyung-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 660~665
Effect of freezing on the hydration rate and growth characteristics of bean sprout of two domestic cultivars of soybean, Eunha beans and Taegwang beans, was investigated. Freezing of the soybeans at
affected characteristics of the hydration and growth of soybean sprout of the beans. Hydration rate of the frozen beans depended on the hydration temperature. It decreased up to 50% at lower than
of hydration temperature, but it did not decrease at higher than
. Activation energies of frozen Eunha and Taegwang beans were 39.79 and 39.25 kJ/mol, respectively. Kinetic compensation effect between activation energy values and the pre-exponential factor for the hydration of soybeans with or without freezing was observed. Germination rate and thickness of the bean sprout increased by freezing, however, yield and weight were not affected by freezing.
Isolation and Identification of Protease Producing Bacteria in Kimchi
Min, Sung-Gi ; Kim, Jung-Hee ; Kim, Tae-Woon ; Kim, Kyung-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 666~670
Strains producing the protease, which is essential for growth of lactic acid bacteria and fermented kimchi, were screened and identified. Among five types of selected pulmuone kimchis (Jeonlado kimchi, ripened kimchi, yeolmu kimchi, kakdugi, and baechu kimchi), nine strains of bacteria were screened and identified by whole cell protein pattern and API test. The nine strains consisted of one of Lactobacillus sp., one of Leuconostoc sp., six of Bacillus sp., and one of Brevibacillus sp. The protease activities of these strains were compared with known strains (Bac. subtilis KCCM 12248 and Bac. licheniformis KCCM 11851) producing protease. Among tested strains, K-2 (Brevibacillus sp.) showed the highest value (0.11 unit/mg) in protease activity.
Fermentation Characteristics of Kochujang Prepared with Various Salts
Kim, Dong-Han ; Yang, Sung-Eun ; Rhim, Jong-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 671~679
Effects of sun-dried, refined, seaweed, and bamboo salts on the quality of kochujang were studied by measuring enzymatic, microbial, and physicochemical characteristics of kochujang during 12 weeks of fermentation. Yeast count was low in the bamboo-salt kochujang, whereas that of aerobic bacteria was low in the seaweed-salt kochujang. Acid protease activity was high in the bamboo-salt kochujang, whereas amylase activity did not show any remarkable difference. Color change was lowest in the bamboo-salt kochujang. Water activities of all kochujangs decreased during fermentation with the lowest shown in the refined-salt kochujang. Consistency of seaweed-salt kochujang was the highest. Total sugar content was higher, whereas ORP was lower in the seaweed- and bamboo-salt kochujangs. Titratable acidity changed slightly in the bamboo-salt kochujang. Reducing sugar content was the lowest, whereas ethanol content was the highest in the refined-salt kochujang. Amino and ammonia nitrogen contents of kochujangs increased up to the middle of fermentation period then decreased with lower changes observed in the sun-dried and refined-salt kochujangs. Results of sensory evaluation indicated that the bamboo-salt kochujang was more acceptable than the sun-dried salt kochujang in taste, color, and overall acceptabilities.
A Caspase Inducing Inhibitor Isolated from Caesalpinia sappan
Son, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Jin-Hee ; Kim, Hyun-A ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ; Kho, Yung-Hee ; Kim, Mee-Ree ; Lee, Choong-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 680~683
Through the screening of caspase-3 inducing inhibitors in U937 human monocytic leukemia cell from natural sources, Caesalpiniae sappan, which showed a high level of inhibition, was selected. The inhibition compound was purified from methanol extract by silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. The inhibitor was identified as brazilin by spectroscopic methods of ESI-MS,
. Brazilin showed inhibitory activity of caspase-3 induction, a major protease of apoptosis cascade, with
after 7 hr of treatment in U937 cells.
Studies on Physiological Activity of Bacillus subtilis JM-3 Isolated from Anchovy Sauce
Lee, Sang-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Moo ; Shin, Il-Shik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 684~689
In previous paper, we isolated the bacteria, Bacillus subtilis JM-3, with proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity for candidate microorganisms that have rapid fermenting and physiological functions from anchovy sauce. This study was carried out to search physiological functions of Bacillus subtilis JM-3, such as antimicrobial, antioxidative, antimutagenic, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, and anticarcinogenic activity in vitro. The cell free culture of Bacillus subtilis JM-3 showed strong antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, antioxidative activity with 87% of inhibition rate against linoleic acid, 50% of antimutagenic activity against N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine, and 88.9% of growth inhibition rate against SNU-1 cell line (stomach cancer cell of human). However, Bacillus subtilis JM-3 did not show angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activity.
Physiological Activities of Phellinus ribis Extracts
Song, Jae-Hwan ; Lee, Hyun-Sook ; Hwang, Jin-Kook ; Chung, Tae-Young ; Hong, Sung-Ryul ; Park, Ki-Moon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 690~695
Physiological activities of 40% ethanol extracts of Phellinus ribis were studied by employing several biological and biochemical assays. The extracts of Phellinus ribis displayed nitrate-scavenging activities (NSA) at pH 1.2 as with 64% NSA with 1.0 mg/mL of the extracts. They also had 91% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities at the concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. Antioxidant activities of the extracts (at 0.5 mg/mL) on the autoxidation of linoleic acid (p<0.001) were also observed.. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on angiotensin converting enzyme was 11%. Cytotoxic effects of Phellinus ribis extracts against human cancer cell tines were also examined using MTT assay. The extracts (at 50 mg/mL) had severe growth inhibitory effects on A549, Hela, AGS, and SK-Hep-1, which were 8, 44, 76 and 42%, respectively. Ames test indicated that the extracts had no mutating effects on Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100.
Characterization of the Germinated Rices to Examine an Application Potentials as Functional Rice Processed Foods
Kang, Mi-Young ; Lee, Yeon-Ri ; Nam, Seok-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 696~701
Rice seeds of 4 cultivars including Whachung and Nampung, of the non-waxy rice cultivars, and Shinsunchalbyeo and Whachungchabyeo, of the waxy rice cultivars, were germinated at
for 3 days to compare the changes in some physico-chemical properties of the starch granules and the starch-hydrolysing enzyme activities during germination, respectively. With the starch granules, the amount of long glucose chains from amylose molecules were reduced in the non-waxy rices, while the chain length increased in the waxy rices. In the distribution profile of the glucose chain length from amylose molecules, we could observed that the chain length with DP (degree of polymerization) ranged 33 to 66 increased with the decreasing rate of the chain length with that above 130, regardless of the waxiness of rices. In addition, we observed that in contrast to a increase in chain length with DP ranged 14 to 33, the amount of short chains from A chain fraction decreased. Germination induced slight reduction in the polymerization rate of starch granules, and decrease in both initiation and termination temperatures for the gelatinization.
activity of rices germinated for 3 days found to he higher than that of malt. Especially, the activity of Shinsunchalbyeo was revealed to be highest, about two fold higher than that of malt. In contrast,
of the waxy rice found to be considerably less active than malt, although the waxy showed prevalent activity as compared to the non-waxy rices.
A Study on the Longitudinal Bone Growth of Growth-stimulating Material with Eleutherococcus senticosus
Yang, Dong-Sik ; Cha, Min-Ho ; Kang, Bong-Joo ; Oh, Se-Wook ; Kim, Young-Eon ; Yoon, Yoo-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 702~707
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a growth-stimulating material (GSM) containing Eleutherococcus senticosuson on the longitudinal bone growth. The effects of GSM on proliferation zone and IGF-1 mRNA expression in rat growth plate, IGF-1 mRNA expression in MG-63 osteoblast and Hep-G2 hepatocyte, and bone growth of mouse tibia were studied. GSM significantly increased the proliferation zone in growth plate of proximal tibia (P<0.001) and the IGF-1 mRNA expression in growth plate was also increased (P<0.01). Treatment of GSM to MG-63 osteoblast and Hep-G2 hepatocyte also increased IGF-1 mRNA expression more than twice. In addition, bone mineral density of mouse tibia was significantly increased by GSM (P<0.05). Therefore, it was shown that GSM has an activity of bone growth promotion by increasing the expression of IGF-1, a major bone growth factor.
Effects of Fermentation Conditions on Production of Erythritol by Candida magnoliae
Choi, Jung-Hyun ; Kim, Myoung-Dong ; Seo, Jin-Ho ; Ahn, Jang-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 708~712
This study was carried out to examine the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of erythritol by osmophilic yeast Candida magnoliae. It was found that sucrose was superior to glucose as carbon source and 109 g/L erythritol was produced from 400 g/L sucrose. When yeast extract was used as nitrogen source, maximum values of yield and productivity for erythritol were obtained at 15 and 20 g/L of yeast extract, respectively. A mixture of 15 g/L yeast extract and 3 g/L ammonium phosphate allowed more efficient utilization of sucrose and hence resulted in 149 g/L of erythritol, 0.37 g erythritol/g sucrose of erythritol yield and
of erythritol productivity. A batch fermentation supplemented with 40 g/L KCl resulted in an erythritol concentration of 167 g/L and an erythritol yield of 0.42 g erythritol/g sucrose.
Effects of Butanol Fraction of Alisma canaliculatum with Vitamin E on Plasma Levels of Glucose and Lipid in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Lim, Sook-Ja ; Park, Ji-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 713~719
The effects of butanol (BuOH) fraction of Alisma canaliculatum (Ac) with vitamin E in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were determined. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: normal, STZ-control, and 3 diabetic-experimental groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of STZ (45 mg/kg) into the tail vein. The BuOH fraction of Ac and vitamin E were administrated orally in experimental rats for 21 days: Ac group (400 mg/kg), Ac-VE group (Ac 400 mg/kg & vitamin E 10 mg/kg), and VE group (vitamin E 10 mg/kg). The body weight losses were seen in all groups except normal, and the decrements in experimental groups were less than that in diabetic-control group. The plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in Ac group compared to STZ-control group on 21 day (p<0.05). The plasma level of insulin was slightly higher in AC-VE group than other diabetic groups. The plasma cholesterol levels of diabetic-experimental groups were significantly lower than those of STZ-control group on 14 day (p<0.05). ALT and AST activities of diabetic-experimental groups were significantly lower than that of STZ-control group (p<0.05). The results suggested that the BuOH fraction of Ac might possess hypoglycemic properties in STZ-induced diabetic rats and no synergistic effect of vitamin E was seen during the experimental period.
Effect of Whole Powder and Extracts of Gastrodiae Rhizoma on Serum Lipids and Body Fat in Rats Fed High-Fat Diet
Kim, Kyung-Im ; Han, Chan-Kyu ; Seong, Ki-Seung ; Lee, Ok-Hwan ; Park, Jung-Min ; Lee, Boo-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 720~725
Effects of Gastrodiae Rhizoma on serum lipids and body fat in rats fed high-fat diet supplemented with 10% (w/w) lard during 11-week experimental period were investigated. Ninety-six male rats were randomly divided into eight groups: A, negative control (lard 10%); B, positive control (lard 10%+rat chow+5 brix water extract); C, lard 10%+1% G. Rhizoma powder; D, lard 10%+5% G. Rhizoma powder; E, lard 10%+2 brix 50% ethanol extract; F, lard 10%+10 brix 50% ethanol extract; G, lard 10%+2 brix water extract; H, lard 10%+10 brix water extract. Body weight gain, although slightly higher in groups A, B, and G, did not differ significantly among dietary groups. Weights of liver, spleen, kidney, and testis were significantly higher among dietary groups. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were markedly higher in both control groups than group H (p<0.05). Serum HDL concentration was significantly higher in group E, and lower in group A (p<0.05). Serum LDL+VLDL concentration was significantly lower in groups E, G, and H (p<0.05). Serum testosterone level was slightly higher in groups E, D, and H. Blood glucose level was significantly higher in groups B and G, whereas lower in group H (p<0.05). Epididymal fat pad (EFP) was markedly higher in control groups than G. Rhizoma diet-fed groups (p<0.05). The results indicated that decrease in serum lipids (TC, TG, LDL+VLDL) and body fat, and increase in serum HDL and testosterone levels were higher in groups E and H extracts than groups fed G. Rhizoma powder.
Isolation and Identification of Antioxidative Components from Bark of Rhus javanica Linne
Oh, Ji-Young ; Choi, Ung ; Kim, Yong-Suk ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 726~732
The crude extracts from Rhus javanica Linne showed comparatively strong antioxidative activity in test oils. Antioxidative components were isolated and identified by column chromatography, thin layer chromatography, UV, and NMR. These antioxidative components were added to several oils to compare antioxidative activity with several commercial antioxidants, such as BHA, BHT, and tocopherol. After the sixth column chromatography, one fraction (R-18-9-3-2-4-2) was separated from chloroform layer of Rhus javanica Linne. The R-18-9-3-2-4-2 fraction was identified as methyl gallate by
and confirmed with methyl gallate standard as authentic. The R18-9-3-2-4-2 fraction from chloroform layer of Rhus javanica Linne showed stronger activity than that of the
, BHT, and BHA at the same concentration.
Effect of Indian Millet Koji and Legumes on the Quality and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Korean Traditional Rice Wine
Kim, Jae-Ho ; Jeong, Seung-Chan ; Kim, Na-Mi ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 733~737
To develop a high-valuable Korean traditional rice wine having antihypertension, effects of some cereal kojis and legumes on alcohol fermentation and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of Korean traditional rice wine were investigated. Korean traditional rice wine brewed by addition of 10% Indian-millet koji into the mash showed the greatest ACE inhibitory activity of 43.0% and good ethanol productivity. The ACE inhibitory activity increased up to 69.2% by addition of 50% of mungbean powder and 1% of dandelion petal into the mash.
Dimensionless Henry's Constant and Liquid-Vapour Equilibrium of Rosemary Aroma Compounds
Yoon, Hyang-Sik ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Min, Young-Kyoo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 738~742
In order to estimate the mass transfer characteristics of absorption into alcohol solution of aroma compounds such as cineol, myrecene and pinene which are major aroma compounds of rosemary, dimensionless Henry's constant in 70% ethyl alcohol concentration and aroma concentration with different ethyl alcohol concentration were analyzed. From the results of measurement of vapor phase concentration of aroma compounds with different ethyl alcohol concentration, headspace concentrations of all of three aroma compounds were decreased as ethyl alcohol concentration increased. But those patterns were slightly different. Dimensionless Henry's constant equation (Hi) of cineol compound with ethyl alcohol concentration (x) was as follows:
. Dimensionless Henry's constants of cineol, myrecene and pinene in 1 atm,
and 70% ethyl alcohol concentration were 0.0058, 0.0182 and 0.0365, respectively.
Effect of Salt Type and Concentration on the Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi
Hahn, Young-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 743~747
Tests show that the growth of lactic bacteria in kimchi varies according to the type and concentration of salt used. Weissella confusa, the early stage bacteria in kimchi fermentation, increased sharply after 5 hr of induction with 3% light salt and refined salt. However, the induction period lengthened to 12 hr with 3% sea salt and bamboo salt. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ss lactis and L. pentosus which grow in the middle stage of fermentation, and L. hamsteri, which grows at the end stage of fermentation, were found after 12 hr of induction with 3% salt of all kinds. When 5% light salt was added to the culture medium, the induction period of bacteria other than W. confusa lengthens to 12 hr. The trend is similar for sea salt, bamboo salt, and refined salt, with a higher NaCl concentration resulting in less growth. W. confusa showed salt tolerance, but L. hamsteri was affected by the type and concentration of salt. With 5% sea salt, bamboo salt, and refined salt, the growth of bacteria was inhibited by up to 24 hr.
Preliminary Acrylamide Monitoring of Domestic Heat-Treated Food Products
Park, Jae-Young ; Kim, Hye-Young ; Lee, Jong-Ok ; Chung, So-Young ; So, Yu-Sub ; Kim, Chang-Min ; Oh, Sang-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 748~751
Acrylamide is considered as potential carcinogen and genotoxicant. Swedish National Food Administration reported that acrylamide was detected in heat treated starch rich food products. Acrylamide formation during food processing was confirmed by researchers of other countries including UK, Norway, Japan, Switzerland, and United States. It is noticed that the formation of acrylamide in potato products was greater than other food products. It may be due to high concentration of asparagine and glucose in potato products comparing to those of other food products. Interaction between asparagine and glucose during heat treatment resulted in acrylamide formation via Maillard reaction. Analytical method (LC-MS/MS) adopted by FDA was performed to monitor acrylamide concentrations in domestic food products. Acrylamide quantitation in several food categories, such as raw materials, boiled foods, fried foods, hardtacks, breads, breakfast cereals, potato chips, french fries, biscuits, and others, were carried out.
Antimicrobial Activity of Garlic Juice against Escherichia coli O157:H7
Kim, Myung-Hee ; Kim, So-Young ; Shin, Weon-Sun ; Lee, Jun-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 4, 2003, Pages 752~755
The antimicrobial activity of fresh garlic juice against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated. When E. coli O157:H7 was cultured for 18 hr in the trypticase soy broth containing 1%, 3%, and 5% garlic juice, viable cell number of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced to
at 5% from
at the non-treated culture, respectively. The inhibitory effects of the ground beef treated with 3%, 6%, and 10% garlic juice against E. coli O157:H7 was significantly enhanced with approximate 2 log-reduction compared to that of ground beef without garlic. There was no significant difference in the inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 among the groups with different amounts of garlic juice (p<0.05). These results suggest that garlic juice may function well as a natural preservative in food system.