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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Novel Functional Sugar L-Arabinose: Its Functionality, Uses and Production Methods
Yoon, Hyang-Sik ; Kim, Chung-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Jip ; Keum, In-Kyung ; Han, Nam-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 757~763
L-Arabinose inhibits intestinal sucrase in an uncompetitive manner and, consequently, inhibits the absorption of sucrose from the small intestine. The addition of
L-arabinose to sucrose causes about a 60% reduction in the digestion of sucrose in the small intestine. In addition, it reduces the increase of the levels of blood sugar, insulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol caused by the ingestion of sucrose. The taste of L-arabinose is quite similar to that of sucrose, with approximately 50% the sweetness of sucrose. Naturally occurring arabinose is an L-form and a noncaloric sugar that is not metabolized in animals. L-Arabinose is a common component of plant cell walls and is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. It is the main component of cereal hemicellulose, such as corn, wheat, and rice, pectic substances of beet, apple pulps, and some plant gums. L-Arabinose can be produced by either the acid hydrolysis or the enzymatic hydrolysis of some plant gums, corn fiber, and beet pulps. This novel sugar has a potential to be used as a food additive for improving obesity and maintaining good health.
Analysis of trans-Resveratrol Contents of Grape and Grape Products Consumed in Korea
Kim, Dae-Jung ; Kim, Sang-Kyun ; Kim, Myung-Hee ; Lee, Hee-Bong ; Lee, Jun-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 764~768
Resveratrol is natually occurring phytoalexin compounds produced by grape berries, peanuts, and their products in response to stress such as fungal infection, heavy metal ions or UV irradiation. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of trans-resveratrol in grape and its products. The trans-resveratrol was separated isocratically on Nucleosil 100-5 C18 column, using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile : water (40 : 60, v/v), detected by UV detector at 306 nm and the flow rate was 0.3 mL/min. Under this analytical condition, the recoveries of trans-resveratrol in grape, wine, and grape juice were 92.35, 104.72, and 91.08, respectively. Limit of detection in grape, wine, and grape juice were 14.5 ng/g, 3.62 ng/mL, and 4.02 ng/mL. Also, limit of quantitation in grape, wine, and grape juice were 14.8 ng/g, 3.69 ng/mL, and 4.10 ng/mL. Assay values of 32 grape varieties, 9 wines, and 9 grape juices were ranged from trace amount to
, from 5.4 to
, and from 63.3 to
The Contents of Organic Acids, Nucleotides and Their Related Compounds in Kimchi Prepared with Salted-Fermented Fish Products and Their Alternatives
Park, Douck-Choun ; Kim, Eun-Mi ; Kim, Eun-Jin ; Kim, Young-Myung ; Kim, Seon-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 769~776
Organic acids, nucleotides and their related compounds (NRCs) of kimchi prepared with salted-fermented fish products (SFFPs) and their alternatives were analyzed at each optimal fermentation (pH
) during fermentation at 20, 10 and
, respectively. The pH and acidity levels of kimchi sharply decreased and increased, respectively until each optimal fermentation period. The levels of organic acids and NRCs in SFFP kimchi were affected by fermentation temperature and the type of additive. Compared with the control, organic acid levels were slightly higher in kimchi with alternative additives, as were NRC rates in kimchi with hydrolysates of oyster and Alaska pollack. Moreover, slightly higher levels of NRC were observed in kimchi with alternative additives than in kimchi with SFFPs. Consequently, these results show that fermentation temperature and the type of additive (SFFPs and their alternatives) affect not only fermentation, but the levels of organic acids and NRCs in kimchi.
Optimization of Extraction Conditions from Hericium erinaceus by Response Surface Methodology
Choi, Mi-Ae ; Park, Nan-Young ; Woo, Seung-Mi ; Jeong, Yong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 777~782
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to monitor the characteristics of ethanol extracts from Hericium erinaceus. A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of independent variables, ethanol concentration
, and sample ratio
on dependent variables, soluble solid
, total phenols
, crude protein
, electron donating ability
, and browning color
of the extracts. As the sample ratio increased, the soluble solid content increased. Ethanol concentration played a minor role. Total phenols and crude protein increased with sample ratio. Sample ratio had a greater effect than alcohol concentration in the extraction of soluble solid, total phenols, crude protein, and browning color, with an exception of electron donating ability. The optimum ranges at 2 hr extraction was
in sample ratio and
in ethanol concentration. Predicted values at the optimized conditions were acceptable when compared to experimental values.
Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Methyl Bromide Fumigation on Quarantine Pest and Physical Quality of Apples
Kang, Ho-Jin ; Kwon, Yong-Jung ; Byun, Myung-Woo ; Kim, Hyun-Ku ; Chung, Hun-Sik ; Choi, Jong-Uook ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 783~790
Tetranychus urticae Koch and Panonychus ulmi Koch were identified as quarantine pests in apple samples and were controlled soon after the commercial treatment of methyl bromide (MeBr) and with irradiation doses
after irradiation. The physical qualities of apples, such as rotting, withering, weight changes, hardness, and color, were apparently affected by MeBr. Furthermore, more than 2 kGy irradiation resulted from the lapse of storage time. Associated with the physical qualities of stored apples, irradiation and fumigation for quarantine purposes were more adequate after 40 days of storage at
immediately following harvest, rather than soon after harvest. Less than 1 kGy irradiation, based on its accumulated control effect on pests, can potentially be applied as a quarantine procedure without causing significant changes in the physical qualities of fresh apples, in contrast to MeBr.
Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Lotus Root (Nelumbo nucifera G.)
Moon, Sang-Mi ; Kim, Hyun-Jin ; Ham, Kyung-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 791~796
Polyphenol oxidase isoforms were purified from the lotus roots using 50% acetone precipitation, conventional chromatographies of Q-Sepharose and hydrophobic interaction, and high performance liquid chromatographies of Mono-Q and Superdex 75 gel-filtration. Molecular mass of a purified PPO isoform (LPIII-2) was determined to be 56 kDa using gel-filtration chromatography. The active form of LPIII-2 appeared to bea heterodimer, as purified LPIII-2 on SDS-PAGE gel showed two bands that were determined to be 28 kDa and 26 kDa. To further characterize PPO, partially purified PPO isoforms (LP-II, LP-III) were obtained from Q-Sepharose anion-exchange chromatography. In substrate specificity, the partially purified PPO isoform LP-II showed a high affinity to catechol, while LP-III showed a high affinity to pyrogallol. The optimum pH of LP-II and LP-III was pH 7.0. Interestingly, the partially purified PPO isoforms showed high activities at low temperatures
, and as temperatures rose, the activities decreased. Both PPO isoforms were stable at
and were inactivated by incubation at
for 40 min.
Synthesis of Structured Lipids from Corn Oil and Conjugated Linoleic Acid with Immobilized Lipase-Catalyzed Reaction
Cho, Eun-Jin ; Lee, Ki-Teak ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 797~802
Structured lipids (SL) were synthesized by esterification of corn oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a continuous packed-bed column reactor. The effects of flow rate, reaction temperature, and substrate molar ratios were studied. The reaction was catalyzed by TL IM (immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa). Results of triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis by GC showed that the incorporated CLA isomers were mainly cis9, trans11- and trans 10, cis12-CLA. Slower flow rates yielded higher incorporation, and maximum incorporation of CLA was obtained with a molar ratio of 1:3 (corn oil: CLA) at a temperature of
. The obtained SLs had iodine values ranging from 120 to 128. The SLs were composed of TAG
, 1,2- and 1,3-diacylglycerol (
), and a small amount of monoacylglycerol.
Physicochemical Properties of Yellow Pigments in Domestic and Imported Yellow Croakers and Their Changes During Distribution and Storage
Kim, Hee-Yun ; Kwon, Yong-Kwan ; Hong, Young-Pyo ; An, Young-Sun ; Kim, Tae-Un ; Park, Hee-Ok ; Chin, Myung-Shik ; Chang, Hae-Choon ; Lee, Myung-Yul ; Shin, Il-Shik ; Jo, Jae-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 803~811
This study compared the physicochemical characteristics of yellow pigments in domestic and imported yellow croakers during distribution and storage. The croaker is generally adulterated by mixed color product of red and yellow pigment. This study found that the yellow pigment was stable during pH and temperature changes, but the red pigment was less stable than the yellow pigment. As for the light effect on the yellow pigment and the red pigment, there was no change in the remaining rate of the pigment stored in a dark place. The moisture content decreased according to the storage period, and the width of changes was large in the order of croaker stored at
, croaker stored at
and dried croakers. The yellowness value of the abdomen of the adulterated white croaker did not show any large difference at the initial stage and for a storage period of 10 days at
. However, the yellow croakers showed a decreasing trend according to the storage period at
. The croaker can be generally adulterated by a mixed color of red and yellow pigment. For the texture change in accordance with the storage condition of the croakers, both the yellow and white croakers showed a gradually increasing trend of hardness when stored at
Trace Metal Contents in Tea Products and Their Safety Evaluations
Chung, So-Young ; Kim, Jung-Soo ; Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Park, Sung-Kug ; Kim, Mee-Hye ; Hong, Moo-Ki ; Kim, Myung-Chul ; Lee, Jong-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 812~817
This study was conducted to estimate the contents of heavy metals in tea products (n=200) and to provide a scientific basis for standardization of heavy metals in the Korea Food Code. The contents of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and aluminium (Al) were determined using a mercury analyzer, an AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometer), and ICP (inductively coupled plasma spectrometer). The values of heavy metals in tea products were [minimum-maximum (mean), mg/kg] Hg:
(85.53). These results showed that metal contents in tea products in our markets were similar to those reported in other countries. The average weekly intakes of lead, cadmium, and mercury from tea products were
of PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake) that the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) has set to evaluate their safeties.
Discrimination of Geographical Origin for Astragalus Root (Astragalus membranaceus) by Capillary Electrophoresis and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Kim, Eun-Young ; Kim, Jung-Hyun ; Lee, Nam-Yun ; Kim, Soo-Jeong ; Rhyu, Mee-Ra ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 818~824
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were performed to discriminate astragalus roots (Astragalus membranaceus) according to geographical origin (domestic or foreign). Two-hundred-and-four astragalus roots were extracted with 30% methanol in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) and separated in a uncoated fused-silica
capillary. Conditions for optimal analysis included: temperature
, voltage -14 kV, and pressure injection time -8 sec. The optimal separation buffer was 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) containing 40 mM hexane sulfonic acid with 20% 2-methoxy ethanol. Raw NIR spectra were obtained using NIRS, and modified partial least square regression was used to develop the prediction model. The correlation coefficient and standard error of prediction were 0.915 and 14.3%, respectively. Under the optimal conditions established for CE and NIRS, the geographical origins of the astragalus roots were correctly identified in 80 and 97%, respectively. Astragalus roots that were not discriminated by NIRS were correctly discriminated by CE. Hence, CE and NIRS are potential methods for discriminating the geographical origins of astragalus roots that complement one another.
Aroma Analysis by the Electronic Nose on Red Ginseng Powder Treated with Gamma Radiation, Methyl Bromide and Phosphine
Shin, Jung-Ah ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ; Lee, Ki-Teak ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 825~829
An electronic nose was applied to analyze the aroma patterns of powdered red ginseng that had been treated with different preservative methods, such as gamma radiation at 5kGy, commercial methyl bromide (MeBr) and phosphine fumigations. Aroma patterns of phosphine or MeBr, fumigated samples were well separated according to storage temperature and period. However, 5kGy-irradiated samples (stored for 1 and 2 months) were hardly discriminated by the different storage temperatures (
). After 5 months at
, non-treated and phosphine fumigated samples showed similar aroma patterns.
The Optimal Condition for the Production and Extraction of Monacolin K from Red-Koji
Kwak, Eun-Jung ; Cha, Seong-Kwan ; Lim, Seong-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 830~834
The optimal condition for the production and extraction of monacolin K was reported. HPLC was used to determine monacolin K a kind of metabolite of Monascus from red-koji made of Monascus purpureus CBS 281.34. After culturing Monascus in solid and liquid media at
for 10 days, each of these were inoculated with soybean, wheat, barley, waxy rice, and rice and cultivated at
for 11 days. The production of monacolin K was the highest(0.35g/100g) when cultured with rice. The yield of monacolin K in red-koji increased with drying temperature and time according to the removal of water. Considering monacolin K content and the degree of death of Monascus, red-koji was dried at
for 60 min. Although monacolin K in red-koji was mostly extracted by 80% ethanol, there was no difference in monacolin K between shaking for 1 min and extraction for
hr after sonication for 7 min. The extracted yield of monacolin K was the highest when the ratio of red-koji and 80% ethanol was 1:9. Moreover, the production of monacolin K appeared to be parallel with that of the pigment.
Formation of Micron-sized Alginate Microparticles Using Reverse Micelles
Imm, Jee-Young ; Cho, Young-Hee ; Han, Dae-Seok ; Kim, Seok-Joong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 835~840
Micron-sized alginate microparticles were formed in the water pools of reverse micelles (RM) composed of hexane/aerosol OT(AOT)/water through the gelation process between sodium alginate and
. The size of microparticles formed increased as Wo (the molar ratio of water to surfactant) increased from 5 to 10. The microparticles became aggregated at Wo of 15, and stable RM no longer existed at Wo of 20. The characteristics of microparticles prepared at Wo of 5 and 10 showed significant differences in area, maximum diameter, minimum diameter, mean diameter, and perimeter of microparticles (p<0.05). However, there was no difference in appearance and roundness between the microparticles These results indicate that the size of microparticles are affected by Wo, whereas the overall shape of microparticles are not substantially influenced within Wo values used for stable RM formation. The mean diameter of microparticles was about
and much smaller
than the reported sue of alginate microparticles formed in an aqueous medium.
A Study on the Sensory Characteristics of Korean Red Wine
Lee, Jang-Eun ; Hong, Hee-Do ; Choi, Hee-Don ; Shin, Yong-Sub ; Won, Yoo-Dong ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Koh, Kyung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 841~848
The sensory characteristics of red wine Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong ＋ Moru (70 : 30, GM), Gerbong + Campbell (70 : 30, GC) and French wine (F, Carbernet Sauvignon, 1998) were evaluated. The preferences of color, flavor, taste and total evaluation were determined by a ranking test, and the organoleptic characteristics were evaluated by a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method. The mean color scores of C, GM, F, GC, M and G were 4.74, 3.94, 4.67, 3.70, 2.65 and 1.47, respectively (p<0.001). The order for the mean score for flavor was GM (4.12) = M (3.94) = C (3.76) = F (3.76)
GC (3.12)>G (2.29) (p<0.01), and the order for taste was F (4.75)
GM (3.37) = GC (3.50)
G (2.75) = M (2.37) (p<0.001). The total evaluation of mean scores showed G, M, C, GM, GC and F were 237, 2.44, 4.06, 3.87, 3.64 and 4.81, respectively (p<0.001). Influences of sensory characteristics on the total evaluation, in percentages, were 69.3% for taste, 3.7% for color, and 1.5% for flavor. The influences of taste, color, and flavor in red wine were 17% for sweet, acid, bitter and salty taste, 28.9% for purple and red color, and 14.4% for grape flavor. The attributes of the purple and red colors showed a positive correlation with grape flavor, oak flavor, grape taste, and floral tastes, but a negative correlation with
, flavor. The attribute of sweet taste showed a positive correlation with grape flavorand floral flavor, but a negative correlation with bitter and astringency tastes, according to Pearsons correlation analysis (p<0.01).
Solubilization of Whole Grains by Extrusion and Enzyme Treatment
Shin, Hae-Hun ; Lee, Sun-Hee ; Park, Bo-Sun ; Rhim, Tae-Soo ; Hwang, Jae-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 849~855
The extrusion effects on solubilization of brown rice, glutinous rice, barley and job's tear were investigated in comparison with raw and roasted whole grains. Whole grains were extruded under 13 different operating conditions, where the process variables were controlled in the following ranges: screw speed,
. Solubilization effects of whole grains by extrusion were characterized in terms of water solubility index (WSI), viscosity, dispersibility and dietary fiber in comparison with those of raw and roasted grains. WSI of whole grains significantly increased by extrusion, especially WSI of glutinous rice containing abundant amylopectin increased twice than WSI of brown rice. The content of soluble dietary fiber was increased due to extrusion treatment, while insoluble dietary fiber decreased concomitantly and the content of total dietary fiber was not nearly changed. Extrusion improved the dispersibility and swelling effects in comparison with that of raw and roasting grains.
Effects of Ratio and Temperature of Soybean Oil or Butter on the Quality of Sponge Cake
Yang, Hae-Young ; Cho, Young-Ju ; Oh, Sang-Suk ; Park, Ki-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 856~864
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality variations of cake and cake batter when either butter or soybean oil was added in plain sponge cake batter. Soybean oil or butter was added to the batter at ratios of 20, 40, and 60% at 20, 35, 60, and
. The physico-chemical properties of cake batter and cake were measured to evaluate the effects of ratio and temperature of butter and soybean oil. At higher ratios of butter or soybean oil and lower temperatures, the specific gravity of the cake batter increased while the interrelations among weight, volume, and specific loaf volume decreased. L- and b- values were the same, but a-value increased remarkably with higher ratios of butter. The effect of adding butter or soybean oil on hardness was shown to be lowest at 40% and
. Baking loss in the baking process with soybean oil decreased with increasing oil quantity and temperature. Moisture content did not change with temperature, but did decline with increasing amounts of butter or soybean oil. These results show that the optimum condition for sponge cake would be 40% soybean oil at
Changes in Physicochemical and Organoleptic Qualities of 'Niitaka' Pears during Controlled Atmosphere Storage
Chung, Hun-Sik ; Kim, Sung-Hwan ; Chang, Eun-Ha ; Youn, Kwang-Sup ; Seong, Jong-Hwan ; Choi, Jong-Uck ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 865~870
The effects of storage atmosphere on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of Asian pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Niitaka) were investigated. The pears were stored at
for up to 8 months under CA conditions (3 kPa
, 1 kPa
, 1 kPa
) controlled by a static system or air (21 kPa
). CA conditions retarded the loss of weight, flesh firmness, organoleptic properties (appearance, aroma, sweetness, texture), and the development of injuries in the fruits during storage. Low
conditions maintained the highest flesh firmness. In addition, low
reduced injuries more than the other conditions. Skin color (lightness, chroma, hue), soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and vitamin C were unaffected by storage atmosphere.
Effects of Mulberry Leaves Powders on the Quality Characteristics of Yellow Layer Cakes
Kim, Yeoung-Ae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 871~876
Yellow layer cakes were prepared with flour that was partially substituted with mulberry leaf powder (at the levels of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20%). Batter viscosity increased with increasing substitution levels while specific gravity decreased. The specific volume of the cake increased as batter viscosity increased, except at 20% substitution. Substituting mulberry leaf powder for flour also resulted in decreased lightness and yellowness and increased redness of the cake crumbs. The volume index and uniformity index were not influenced by the addition of mulberry leaf powder, while the symmetry indexes of cakes with 16% and 20% powder were lower than the control. The hardness of cakes substituted with mulberry leaf powder was lower than that of the control during 10 days of storage. Sensory characteristics, including cell size and cell uniformity, were adversely affected with substitution levels of 16% and 20%. The addition of mulberry leaf powder did not influence softness, but affected moistness significantly.
Manufacturing Multi-degradable Food Packaging Films and Their Degradibility
Chung, Myong-Soo ; Lee, Wang-Hyun ; You, Young-Sun ; Kim, Hye-Young ; Park, Ki-Moon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 877~883
Multi-degradable master hatch (M/B) was prepared and 0.05 mm polyethylene (PP) food packaging films containing 0, 10, and 20% M/B were manufactured by inflation film processing. The films were exposed to UV radiation, fungi, and heat in order to observe their photolysis, biodegradability, and thermal degradability, respectively. While pure PP film maintained more than 70% of its original elongation after 8 weeks of UV radiation, an almost perfect loss in the elongation of PP film containing 20% M/B was observed. Significant decreases in elongation of PP films by heat treatment
were also found in samples containing the multi-degradable M/B. By observing changes in film surface after the inoculation of fungi using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the biodegradability of plastic film could be accelerated with the addition of multi-degradable M/B. The results of the mulching test in yard showed that adding multi-degradable M/B can effectively degrade plastic films in natural environmental conditions without interrupting the growth of plants.
Optimal Condition for Manufacturing Water Extract from Mandarin Orange Peel for Colored Rice by Coating
Seo, Sung-Soo ; Youn, Kwang-Sup ; Shin, Seung-Ryeul ; Kim, Soon-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 884~892
This study was conducted to optimize the water homogenization process of mandarin orange peel for colored rice. Four variables were used to determine the optimum conditions for homogenization speed, time, temperature, and water volume with a five level central composite design and response surface methodology. The process was optimized using the combination of EI and b values of rice coated with water extract of the mandarin orange peel. The effect of water volume was the most significant compared to the other variables on the quality of water homogenate. The regression polynomial model was a suitable (p>0.05) model by lack-of-fit analysis showing high significance. To optimize the process, based on surface response and contour plots, individual contour plots for the response variables were superimposed. The optimum conditions for manufacturing water extract from mandarin orange was with 8,500 rpm homogenization speed, 2.8 min time,
temperature, and 42 mL water volume with the maximum of restricted variables of EI above 400 and h value above 24.
Antimicrobial Activity of Prunus mume and Schizandra chinenis H-20 Extracts and Their Effects on Quality of Functional Kochujang
Kim, Young-Sook ; Park, Young-Sun ; Lim, Mu-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 893~897
Prunus mume and Schizandra chinenis H-20 were found to have antibacterial properties against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli KCCM 11591, and P. aeruginosa KCTC 1750. Prunus mume and S. chinenis H-20 showed clear zones of
for the microbes used, while jujube, Lycii fructus and pine needle showed clear zones of
. In the experiment on DNA action, S. chinenis H-20 completely inhibited the growth of B. subtilis, S. aureus, and E. coli KCCM 11591 in the beginning of cultivation and even when added 5 hr after initiating cultivation. Moreover, as the microbes of about
cfu were shown by this test to have strong antibacterial power, they will most likely have an effect in vivo. Prunus mume and S. chinenis H-20 extracts were added to kochujang and fermented at
for 35 days. Prunus mume kochujang showed a sensory score of 4.29 (somewhat good), suggesting that Prunus mume can he utilized as a functional food ingredient.
Effects of Various Sugars Including Tagatose and Their Molar Concentrations on the Maillard Browning Reaction
Ryu, So-Young ; Roh, Hoe-Jin ; Noh, Bong-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Yong ; Oh, Deok-Kun ; Lee, Won-Jong ; Yoon, Jung-Ro ; Kim, Suk-Shin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 898~904
This study was conducted to observe the effect of various kinds of sugars and their molar concentrations on the Maillard browning reaction. To observe the effects of various kinds of sugar, glucose, fructose, tagatose, xylose, and sucrose were employed. A model solution consisting of 0.2 M sugar and 0.2 M glycine was prepared and heated at
for 5 hr. The model solution with adjusted concentrations of either tagatose or glycine was also heated at
for 5 hr. Tagatose showed the fastest Maillard reaction, followed by xylose, fructose, glucose, and sucrose. After glycine concentration of the model solution was fixed, the model solution showed more browning with an increase in tagatose concentration. When the tagatose concentration of the model solution was fixed, the model solution showed more browning with an increase in glycine concentration. The model solution with a fixed concentration of glycine showed more more browning than that with a fixed concentration of tagatose, since the former had higher amounts of the reactant.
Effect of Roasting Condition on the Physicochemical Properties of Rice Flour and the Quality Characteristics of Tarakjuk
Lee, Gui-Chu ; Kim, So-Jung ; Koh, Bong-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 905~913
The physicochemical properties of rice flour roasted at various temperatures and times were analyzed, and the quality characteristics of tarakjuk made from these roasted rice flours were investigated. As roasting temperature and time increased, rice flour showed decreasing moisture, protein content, and glucose the major reducing sugar of rice flour. Total amino acid content did not show any significant changes, but the amount of free amino acids and individual amino acids, such as lysine, tryptophane, and tyrosine, decreased. A decrease in L value and increases in a and b values from both roasted rice flour and tarakjuk was observed. Reduced crystallinity and gelatinization temperatures of roasted rice flour were investigated with X-ray diffractogram and DSC, respectively. The thermal transitions between
of tarakjuk by DSC are considered to be due to the melting of amylose-lipid complex. As the roasting temperature and time of rice flours increased, tarakjuk showed lower viscosity and higher spreadability. Sensory characteristics, such as nutty flavor, color intensity, and gritty texture increased significantly. Tarakjuk made from rice flour roasted at
for 25min showed the highest score on overall preference. From the above results, roasted rice flour produced more preferable tarakjuk than nonroasted flour in terms of sensory quality.
Optimization of Maillard Reactions of Tagatose and Glycine Model Solution by Appyling Response Surface Methodology
Ryu, So-Young ; Roh, Hoe-Jin ; Noh, Bong-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Yong ; Oh, Deok-Kun ; Lee, Won-Jong ; Yoon, Jung-Ro ; Kim, Suk-Shin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 914~917
This study was undertaken to find the optimum condition for the Maillard browning reaction of tagatose and glycine model solution by applying the response surface methodology. Independent variables were pH (3, 5, 7), temperature (70, 85,
), and time (60, 180, 300 min), while the dependent variables were absorbance, yellowness, color difference, and organoleptic score. The quadratic models with the cross-product proved to be suitable, due to the high coefficients of determination and the lack of fit results. Since all the dependent variables had saddle points, the optimal points were determined through ridge analysis. For absorbance, yellowness, and color difference, the optimal points were the lowest values; in contrast, the optimal point of organoleptic score was the highest value.
Effects of Waxy and Normal Hull-less Barley Flours on Bread-making Properties
Lee, Young-Tack ; Chang, Hak-Gil ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 918~923
Replacement of wheat flour by 10, 20 30% waxy and normal (non-waxy) hull-less barley flour was tested for the effects on bread-making properties. The addition of waxy hull-less barley flour resulted in lower amylograph pasting temperature, peak, and set back viscosities and in higher water absorption, compared with normal hull-less barley flour. Increasing proportions of hull-less barley flour significantly decreased the loaf volume and had deleterious effects on subjective bread scoring. Replacement of 10% of wheat flour by both waxy and normal hull-less barley flour did not significantly affect bread characteristics. However, significant differences in bread quality were observed between the control bread and bread containing more than 20% barley flour, with the normal barley flour showing slightly better scores in organoleptical preference. Textural measurements of crumb firmness showed that the bread containing 20% waxy hull-less barley flour hardened slower during 5-day storage at
than bread containing normal hull-lee barley flour.
Characterization of Functional Kimchi Using Bifidobacterium lactis
Kim, Tae-Woon ; Park, Ae-Kyung ; Kim, Gum-Ran ; Lee, Jung-Min ; Chung, Dae-Kyun ; Kim, Hae-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 924~927
This study was conducted to investigate the application of bifidobacteria on kimchi. Among several Bifidobacterium species, we selected Bifidobacterium lactis (DSM 10140), which is resistant to oxygen, acid and salt. Bifidobacterium lactis was cultured in a supplemented deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe (SMRS) medium under aerobic conditions. Its acid-tolerance and salt-tolerance were pH 3.0 and 3.5% (NaCl), respectively. The viability of Bifidobacterium lactis added to kimchi was confirmed by PCR, using specific primers on Bifidobacterium lactis. In sensory evaluation, kimchi containing Bifidobacterium lactis showed similar scores in overall acceptability with the control kimchi. Consequently, these results showed that it would be possible to prepare functional kimchi using Bifidobacterium.
Predicting the Contamination of Listeria Monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in Pork Production Using Monte Carlo Simulation
Rho, Min-Jeong ; Chung, Myung-Sub ; Park, Ji-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 928~936
Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in final pork products. Mean values of the estimated log contaminated levels of L. monocytogenes on carcasses, cut meats, and cut meats after storage were -4.59, -4.46 and -4.45
respectively. The mean values of estimated log contaminated levels of Y. enterocolitica on carcasses, cut meats, and cut meats after storage were -3.44, -4.00 and -3.97
, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in pork was most sensitive to the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in the equipment used.
Quality Characteristics of Kimchi Prepared with Chinese Radish and Its Quality Change by Freeze-Drying
Ko, Young-Tae ; Lee, Ju-Youn ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 937~942
Kimchi was prepared with 5, 10 or 20%(w/v) Chinese radish and ripened at
for 3 days. Acid production and growth of lactic acid bacteria, sensory properties, and several volatile odor components in kimchi were examined. The effects of freeze-drying on the quality of kimchi were also studied. The pH of the control (kimchi prepared without Chinese radish) was 4.31 and gradually decreased as the amount of Chinese radish increased. The acidity of the control was 0.673% and gradually increased as the amount of Chinese radish increased. Viable counts of lactic acid bacteria in the samples did not differ significantly from the control. The pH of freeze-dried/rehydrated kimchi slightly decreased as the amount of Chinese radish increased while its acidity gradually increased. The viable count of lactic acid bacteria of freeze-dried/rehydrated kimchi did not differ significantly as the amount of Chinese radish increased. Overall acceptability and taste of kimchi and freeze-dried/rehydrated kimchi generally improved by the addition of 10% or 20% Chinese radish. Six volatile odor components including ethanol and five sulfur-containing components (SCC) were identified from unripened kimchi, and the level of two SCCs increased as the amount of Chinese radish increased. Eight volatile odor components, ethanol and seven SCCs, were identified from ripened kimchi and the level of five SCCs increased as the amount of Chinese radish increased. Diallyl sulfide and methyl trisulfide were newly detected from the ripened samples, but not from the unripened kimchi. Freeze-drying substantially reduced all of the volatile odor components from kimchi. Five volatile odor components including ethanol and four SCCs were identified from the freeze-dried/dehydrated samples.
Brewing and Functional Characteristics of Hongkuk Ju Prepared with Various Hongkuks
Park, In-Bae ; Park, Bae-Sun ; Jung, Soon-Teck ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 943~950
To identify the functional properties of Hongkuk ju and to improve its brewing process, Hongkuk ju was brewed using different hongkuks (Monascus red koji) made by Monascus purpureus, Monascus anka, Monascus aruneosus, and nuruk. Hongkuk using M. purpureus showed the highest enzyme activity. Hongkuk ju prepared with the M. purpureus hongkuk was fermented most efficiently, and showed the highest Hunter value. Hongkuk ju showed significant levels of phenolic compounds, electron donating ability, nitrate-scavenging activity, and ACE inhibition activity. In particular, Hongkuk ju made with M. purpureus showed the highest value among the wines of this study.
Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Activity of Solvent-Fractionated Layers of Colored Rice Bran
Kang, Mi-Young ; Shin, Soo-Young ; Nam, Seok-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 951~958
Twenty-four cultivars of colored rice seeds were collected inside and outside Korea, and the antioxidant and antimutagenic activity was determined for the solvent-fractionated layers of their bran parts lipid soluble fraction, pigment containing fraction, and pigment component per se. As the serial organic solvent extraction proceeded, the overall tendency of antioxidant activities declined with increased chemical homogeneity of each fraction. This markedly showed the low antioxidativities of the pigment components from LK 1-3-6-12-1-1 and Gillimhukmi. Even all the colored rice cultivars, with considerable antimutagenic activity in 70% ethanolic extract, exhibited mutagenicity when measured with its pigment containing fraction (wx 124-163-45-7-1-1-1 and LKlB-2-1-1 being the strongest). The pigment content in each colored rice seeds decreased in the order of IR 17491-5-4-3-3>LK 1-3-6-12-1-1>LK 1D-2-12-1>RGS No.336, Elwee. In addition, a substantial difference in both chemical composition of the constituents and its amount could be found between the colored rice and cooking rice cultivars. This revealed that, compared to cooking rice, major components of organic solvent fractions from colored rice probably have long hydrocarbon chain moieties.
Chemical Structure of Polyphenol Isolated from Korean Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)
Zhang, Yun-Bin ; Choi, Hee-Jin ; Han, Ho-Suk ; Park, Jung-Hye ; Son, Jun-Ho ; Bae, Jong-Ho ; Seung, Tae-Su ; An, Bong-Jeun ; Kim, Hyun-Gu ; Choi, Cheong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 959~967
The polyphenol compounds of Korean pears were extracted with 60% acetone for 4 days at room temperature and purified using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, MCI gel column chromatography, Bondapak
column chromatography, TLC, and HPLC. As a result, three compounds were isolated. The chemical structures of each compound were determined and identified using NMR, FAM-mass, and FT-IR. The compounds were confirmed as (+)-catechin (compound A), (+)-gallocatechin (compound B), (-)-epigallocatechin (compound C), and procyanidin B-3-3-o-gallate (compound D).
Correlation of Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Activity with Content of Pigments and Phenolic Compounds of Colored Rice Seeds
Kang, Mi-Young ; Shin, Soo-Young ; Nam, Seok-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 968~974
Twenty-three cultivars of colored rice were collected from inside and outside Korea to determine the contents of pigments and phenolic compounds, and also to compare their correlations with antioxidativity and antimutagenicity. The pigment content decreased in the order of LK 1-3-6-12-1-1>LK 1D 2-7-12-1-1>Elwee>Mutumanikam>IR 1544-38-2-2-1-2-2>wx 124-163-45-7-1-1-1, LK 1A-2-12-1-1. Polyphenolic content was the greatest in IR 17491-5-4-3-3 with a ratio of 0.244 g per 100 g brown rice, followed by LK 1-3-6-12-1-1>LK 1D2-12-1>Elwee>Mutumanikam 7 IR 1544-38-2-2-1-2-2, LK 1A-2-12-1-1. The pigment contents for each colored rice cultivar showed a highly positive correlation with polyphenolics in colored rice seeds. For chromaticity, a positive correlation was exhibited between the lightness and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In contrast, a negative correlation was observed between the redness and the inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation.
Physiological Functionality in Geumsan Perilla Leaves from Greenhouse and Field Cultivation
Hyun, Kwang-Wook ; Kim, Jae-Ho ; Song, Ki-Jin ; Lee, Jong-Bok ; Jang, Jung-Ho ; Kim, Young-Sun ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 975~979
Perilla leaves cultivated in greenhouses (Jan., May) and in the fields (Aug.) of Geumsan province were investigated for their extract yields and physiological functionalities. The yield was highest in 30% ethanol extracts of the August perilla leaves. The highest fibrinolytic activity (8.2 U) was observed in 30% ethanol extracts of the May perilla leaves, while the HMG-CoA reductase inhibition level, which is related to the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis, was 83% in water extracts of the August perilla leaves. Anti-hypertensive ACE inhibitory activity was 64.5% in the water extracts of the January perilla leaves, and antioxidative electron donating ability was the highest (69%) in 30% ethanol extracts of the August perilla leaves. Elastase inhibitory activity, which is related to the inhibition of skin aging, was highest (47.5%) in 30% ethanol extracts of the May perilla leaves. However, SOD-like activity, nitrite scavenging activity, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity were not detected were very weak in all samples.
Detoxicating Effects of Oriental Herb Extract Mixtures on Nicotine and Dioxin
Park, Ki-Moon ; Hwang, Jin-Kook ; Shin, Kyoung-Min ; Kim, Hyun-Suck ; Song, Jae-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 980~987
In this report, we investigated the detoxication effects of Saururus chinenis, Geranium nepalense, Lonicera japonica, Cassia obtusifolia, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, or their mixtures by employing acute toxicity tests for nicotine and dioxin. When fatal doses
of nicotine were injected into the abdominal cavities of ICR mice, those treated with OHEM showed delayed paralysis, half the duration of hyperactivity, and a 73 % survival rate. The results revealed the strong detoxicating effects of the mixtures. We also measured the amount of the degradation product of nicotine and cotinine in humans. Consumption of OHEM promoted (he more specific) the metabolic pathways of nicotine, increasing continine excretion by 1.5 times. As a result the amount of cotinine in urine was reduced to less than 5% after treatment with OHEM. In order to test the toxicity of dioxin, we used TcnN(SD)BR rats exposed to TCDD. While TCDD treatment reduced the blood levels of hemoglobin and platelet, OHEM consumption relieved these effects and, furthermore, helped to recover the number of platelet to the normal level (p<0.05). Moreover, neutrophils (%) and monocytes (%), which were reduced by the injection of TCDD, recovered to normal levels upon treatment with OHEM. The amount albumin reduced by TCDD (p<0.05) normalized, while the activities of GOT and GTP increased by TCDD were reduced. Increases in total cholesterol and neutral fatty acids induced by TCDD were also reduced by OHEM injection (p<0.05). In the kidney, TCDD-induced rises in creatinine were suppressed by OHEM treatment, while decreases in iron levels from TCDD were raised to normal. The treatment of TCDD had more toxic effects in the blood and pancreas than on the liver, kidney and heart. On the other hand, the detoxication of OHEM had significant effects on the liver and pancreas. The normalization by OHEM of various clinical abnormalities induced by TCDD demonstrates the detoxicating effect of OHEM that ameliorates systemic metabolism not properly functioning.
Identification of Antioxidative Substances in Allium fistulosum L. by GC-MS
Seo, Gee-Woo ; Cho, Jeong-Yong ; Kuk, Ju-Hee ; Wee, Ji-Hyang ; Moon, Jae-Hak ; Kim, Sung-Ho ; Park, Keun-Hyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 988~993
The ethyl acetate-soluble acidic fraction of juice, hot water, and MeOH extract of Allium fistulosum L. showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Each fraction was purified through silica gel adsorption column chromatography, and the active substances in the juice and hot water extract were identified as succinic acid, fumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid. For the MeOH extract, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnmic acid were identified as the active substances by GC-MS. The contents of these compounds were determined by GC analysis, and their anti-oxidative activities were measured using the DPPH radical-scavenging assay. The results obtained showed that 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid was the dominant antioxidant in Allium fistulosum L.
Pattern Analysis of Volatile Components for Domestic and Imported Cnidium officinale Using GC Based on SAW Sensor
Oh, Se-Yeon ; Noh, Bong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 994~997
Domestic and imported Cnidium officinale were investigated using GC based on a SAW sensor. Volatile components from the herb were detected by GC with a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensor without any pretreatment. This system produced a frequency proportional to the amount of column effluent deposited on the SAW sensor. It could discriminate between domestic and imported Cnidium officinales. This was achieved by using a pattern recognition and a visual pattern called a
, derived from the frequency and chromatogram of the GC-SAW sensor. The origins of Cnidium officinale was well discriminated with the direct use of
Growth Inhibition Effects of Ethanol and Sodium Chloride on Bacillus cereus
Jang, Ji-Hyun ; Jang, Jung-Soon ; Lee, Sang-Yun ; Kim, Hyun-Su ; Kang, Sang-Mo ; Park, Jong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 998~1002
Agricultural foodstuffs, usually consumed without sterilization, are frequently contaminated with foodborne pathogen B. cereus. Ethanol and sodium chloride were used to inhibit this pathogen for its effective control. Though five minutes of exposure to 20% ethanol did not inhibit the growth of B. cereus, inhibition was detected to 30% ethanol solution. As exposed longer, B. cereus was more effectively inhibited than E. coli and S. typhimurium. B. cereus, E. coli and S. typhimurium were not inhibited when exposed in a 10% sodium chloride solution for five minutes. However, these bacteria were inhibited with a combination of 10% sodium chloride and 20% ethanol solution for five minutes. Much synergistic growth inhibition on B. cereus was found at the treatment. Its viable count was reduced from
after five minutes and showed no count after ten minutes. This trend was also confirmed for the wild types of B. cereus. This method may be applied for the effective pre-treatment of many agricultural foodstuffs, especially uncooked foodstuffs, without the hazards that accompany special sanitizers and the nutritional loss from harsh sterilization.
A Survey on the Quality Characteristics of Dried Ginseng Products
Gil, Bog-Im ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 5, 2003, Pages 1003~1006
The quality of dried ginseng products (white ginseng, red ginseng, and taeguk ginseng) was investigated according to the National Standards. All the dried ginseng products met the general quality standard established: moisture content of 14.0% or less, ash content of 5.0% or less, and water-saturated n-butanol extracts of 2.0% or more. Ginsenoside
, Rf, and
, the effective components of Korean ginseng were detected by HPLC analysis. However, uniformity of individual products within a package was not kept for almost all of the products except for red ginseng products.