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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
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Determination of Fructooligosaccharides and Raffinose in Infant Formula by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detector
Shin, Man-Sub ; Park, Jae-Woo ; Cho, Mi-Ran ; Song, Sung-Ok ; Kim, Chun-Sun ; Choi, Chun-Bae ; Lee, Seoung-Won ; Lee, Ki-Woong ; Chang, Chi-Hoon ; Kwak, Byung-Man ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 725~729
A method was developed for the determination of fructooligosaccharides and raffinose contents in infant formula. The samples were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography equipped with carbohydrate column and evaporative light scattering detector. The mobile phase used for the gradient mode was water-acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The method showed a mean recovery of 95-99%, the relative standard deviation obtained in the precision study was 0.774-8.982%, the quantification and detection limits were 25-50mg/L.
Evaluation of Biogenic Amines in Korean Commercial Fermented Foods
Han, Gyu-Hong ; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo ; Son, Yeong-Wook ; Jang, Mi-Ran ; Lee, Chang-Hee ; Kim, So-Hee ; Kim, Dae-Byoung ; Kim, Seon-Bong ; Cho, Tae-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 730~737
High performance liquid chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of 12 biogenic amines were developed and contents of biogenic amines in 23 varieties of Korean commercial fermented food were analyzed. Dansyl derivatives of biogenic amine were very stable and had good peak resolution. Except agmatine, the recovery of biogenic amines from soybean paste with extraction of 0.1 N HC1 added biogenic amines to soybean paste was greater 85%. The calibration curve showed good linearity over a concentration range up to 50
. In the determination of biogenic amine level in Korean commercial fermented foods, doenjang and chungkukjang (fermented soybean pastes), soy sauce, anchovy and pacific sand lance liquid jeotkal (fermented fish sauce products), and cabbage kimchi had high level biogenic amines. Especially, traditional doenjang had a histamine (HIS) level of 952.0 mg/kg, a tyramine (TYR) level of 1,430.7 mg/kg. Most cheese had low level of biogenic amines, but one Gouda cheese had a tyramine (TYR) level of 97.5 mg/kg. A low level of biogenic amines was detected in wines, beer, yoghurt, and sausage. Putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD), tryptamine (TRY), histamine (HIS), tyramine (TYR), and 2-phenylethylamine (PHE) were mainly formed in fermented foods by the action of microorganism, so their levels were high with a range. On the other hand, spermidine (SPD), spermine(SPM), serotonin (SER), noradrenaline (NOR), and dopamine (DOP) were formed originally via biosynthesis with consequent low level.
Volatile Flavor Compounds in Commercial Milk by Static Headspace, Purge and Trap, Solid-Phase Microextraction
Lee, Hong-Min ; Lee, Ki-Woong ; Chang, Chi-Hoon ; Kim, Sung-Han ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 738~741
Volatile flavor compounds in commercial sterilized milk were analyzed and identified by static headspace, purge-and-trap, and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods. About 20 volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS, and aldehydes and ketones were the most distinctive and abundant compounds. Static headspace analysis allowed the identification of only the most abundant compounds, such as acetone. Five ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone), four aldehydes (2-methylbutanal, pentanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde) and dimethyl sulfide, all of which were responsible for off-flavor in milk, were found by the purge-and-trap and SPME methods. The two methods differed little in their release of these compounds, but they yielded different amounts in the extraction.
Effect of Immersion Liquids on Quality Characteristics of Peeled Taro during Storage
Park, Kee-Jai ; Lee, Ho-Joon ; Kim, Jong-Hoon ; Kwon, Ki-Hyun ; Jeong, Jin-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 742~750
This study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of two kinds of electrolyzed water with added 0.5% (v/v) citron juice, SAEW-CJ[Strong Acidic Electrolyzed Water with added Citron Juice, pH 2.57, ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) 1,122 mV, HClO 23.05ppm] and LAEW-CJ (Low Alkaline Electrolyzed Water with added Citron Juice, pH 4.67, ORP 997mV, HClO 42.55mV) as storing liquid for peeled taro. During storage at
until 30 days, SAEW-CJ and LAEW-CJ inhibited the growth of microorganisms more effectively than 0.2% (w/v) APS (aluminium potassium sulfate) and 0.85% (w/v) NaCl did. Total phenolic contents, PRO (polyphenol oxidase) activity, color differences value (
) and vitamin C contents of peeled taro stored in SAEW-CJ and LAEW-CJ were lower than those stored in 0.2% APS and 0.85% NaCl. The hardness decrement of peeled taro stored in LAEW-CJ was lower than that of the others. In addition, the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude ash, total sugars, and reducing sugars were gradually decreased during storage. However, no difference by peeling methods or immersion liquid was found.
Physicochemical Properties of Black Rice Flours (BRFs) Affected by Milling Conditions
Choi, Bong-Kyu ; Kum, Jun-Seok ; Lee, Hyun-Yu ; Park, Jong-Dae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 751~755
Physicochemical properties of black rice flours (BRFs) produced under different milling conditions were investigated to explore their applications for various processed rice products. Moisture contents of BRFs after roll milling and subsequent hot-air drying or microwave drying were 10.3% and 14.4%, respectively. The BRFs with jet milling and subsequent hot-air drying or microwave drying showed moisture contents of 7.9% and 7.5%. Mean particle sizes of the BRFs obtained from roll milling, jet milling, and following air-classification were 150, 41.5, and 9.4
, respectively. Hunter L value and water soluble index (WSI) of BRFs increased with decreasing particle size, while Hunter a value decreased. Total polyphenol contents of 91.4-115.8 mg/100 g and total amino acids of 75.0-96.4 mg/100 g in three types of BRFs were higher as compared to those (6.3 mg/100 g and 30.5 mg/100 g) of polished rice flour (PRF). Physicochemical properties such as moisture content, color parameter, and WSI have close relationship with the particle size of BRFs prepared under different milling conditions.
Properties of Puffed Mulberry-Rice Snack, Ppeongtuigi by Pellet with Mulberry Leaf and Brown Rice Flour
Jang, Eun-Young ; Jin, Tie-Yan ; Eun, Jong-Bang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 756~761
The physical and sensory properties of puffed mulberry-rice snack (PMRS) by pellet with mulberry leaf and brown rice flour were evaluated at different temper moisture contents and at varying puffing temperatures. The mulberry pellets were prepared using a food extruder to extrude the dough made from mulberry leaf powder and brown rice flour. The mulberry pellets were tempered to 14, 16, and 18% moisture content and were puffed at 220, 230, and 240
for 4, 5, and 6 sec. The specific volume and breaking strength of PMRS increased with heating temperature and time; however, the breaking strength decreased as the moisture content increased. The Hunter L value decreased as the heating temperature and time increased, showing an especially large decrease with increased heating time. The a and b values increased with increasing heating temperature and time. These results indicated that PMRS, which has a distinctive flavor and color, could be effectively used as a functional food with the use of a puffing machine and that PMRS shows potential for use as new snack product.
Improvement of Water Resistant Properties of a Linerboard for Corrugated Fiberboard Box by Coating with Na-alginate
Kim, Eun-Jung ; Rhim, Jong-Whan ; Kim, Byung-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 762~766
To improve water resistance of paperboard used to manufacture the corrugated boxes, effect of surface coating of the liner- board with Na-alginate was investigated by determining the optimum processing conditions such as a optimum alginate concentration for surface coating, plasticizer content, concentration of divalent cations their immersion times, For the surface coating of the liner-board, 2.5% Na-alginate solution was found to be the optimum concentration, and the concentration of glycerol used as plasticizer was effective when 35% alginate concentration was use was Used Immersion of the alginate coated paperboard for 3 min in a
solution improved the water resistance properties. As a divalent cation for the insolubilization of the alginate films,
was found to be as effective as
. Among the platicizers tested, sorbitol was the most effective in reducing water vapor permeability and water solubility of alginate coated paperboard.
Optimization of Conditions for the Double Layer Microencapsulation of Lactic Acid Bacteria
Park, Byung-Gye ; Lee, Jong-Hyuk ; Shin, Hye-Kyoung ; Lee, Jae-Hwan ; Chang, Phan-Shik ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 767~772
In this study, we sought to produce a double layer microcapsule containing Lactobacillus sp. as the core material. The conditions for this microencapsulation process were optimized for the formation of a microcapsule with high storage stability. The effects of the ratio of[core material] to [wall material], the type and concentration of emulsifier used, the stirring rate(dispersibility) and the temperature of the dispersion fluid on the microencapsulation yield were studied. The optimal concentration and type of emulsifier required in order to allow for the stable formation of a W/O type emulsion (a primary process in double layer microencapsulation) were 1.00% (w/w) and polyglycerol polyricinileate (PGPR, HLB 0.6). However, the optimal concentration and type of emulsifier required to construct a W/O/W type emulsion (a secondary process in double layer microencapsulation), were 0.65% (w/w) and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (PSML, HLB 16.7). Finally, we obtained a maximum yield of microencapsulation with a dispersion fluid stirring rate of 270rpm and a dispersion fluid temperature of 10
after spraying a W/O/W type emulsion into the dispersion fluid.
Prevalence and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Isolated from Ground Beefs Distributed in Gyeong-In Region
Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Park, Yong-Chjun ; Cho, Joon-Il ; Lee, Jong-Ok ; Kim, Hee-Yun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 773~778
The objective of this study was to evaluate three verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) detection kits to detect the presence of VT genes: Doupath Verocytotoxin (GLISA) developed by MERCK, ProsPect Shiga Toxin E. coil (STEC) Microplate Assay (ELISA) developed by Remel, and a polymerase chain reaction method. Our laboratory verified artificially inoculated samples. All three methods could detect very low numbers of VTEC, but VT-PCR had the best sensitivity for VTEC detection. From April through September 2005, 257 ground-beefs from supermakets and traditional markets were examined for the presence of VTEC by polymerase chain reaction immediately after purchase and total viable counts (TVC) were determined. VTEC was isolated from 30 of 257 ground-beefs. A variety of serogroups was found, including 10 stains belonging to the virulence type EHEC, but major serogroups such as O157, O26 and O111 were nor found.
Effects of Functional Ingredients Addition on Quality Characteristics of Kochujang
Choi, Shin-Yang ; Cho, Gyeong-Hyeon ; Lim, Seong-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 779~784
To produce bio-active Kochujang, 1.2% of pomegranate powder, 1.0% of hawthorn berry extract powder, 0.01% of ginko biloba extract, 1.2% of red yeast rice powder, 1.2% of silk powder, 0.2% of garlic oil, 0.2% of chitosan, 1.2% of wax gourd extract powder, and 1.0% of pine mushroom were added individually with raw materials that are needed for Kochujang process. These Kochujangs were fermented for 45 days at
, and examined for changes in their physicochemical properties. There were no significant differences in pH, acidity, formol-N content, color and total cell count by plate count agar between Kochujangs fortified individually with functional ingredients and the control Kochujang. When 0.2% of garlic oil was added, antioxidant activity of its Kochujang product increased twice as much as that of the control Kochujang. Improved ACE inhibiting activities were observed in 1.2% of red yeast rice powder. When 1.2% of silk powder or 0.01% of ginko biloba extract were added, antithrombotic abilities were remarkably enhanced up to two times of the control Kochujang.
A Study on the Making of Sweet Persimmon (Diospyros kaki, T) Wine
Cho, Kye-Man ; Lee, Jung-Bock ; Kahng, Goon-Gjung ; Seo, Weon-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 785~792
The characteristics of alcohol fermentation using sweet persimmon juice were studied in static fermentation in an effort to develop new types of functional wine. The yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 12650 was selected for use in the fermentation of sweet persimmon juice. Attempts were made to modify the sweet persimmon juice in order to find suitable conditions for alcohol fermentation. The modified sweet persimmon juice (pH 4.0) that was most suitable for alcohol fermentation contained
of sugar supplemented with sucrose as a carbon source and 0.5 g/L of
as a nitrogen source. After 5 days of fermentation at
, 12.8% of alcohol was produced from the modified juice and its pH was slightly decreased to 3.9. Browning of the wine was observed during storage due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The initial browning of 0.08% at
after fermentation increased to 0.40 during storage for 11 weeks at room temperature. The addition of
was effective in delaying the browning of the wine. The browning of the wine decreased to 0.25 at
with the addition of 200 mg/L of
. The wine produced in this study contained some organic acids such as malic acid (6.82% g/L) and succinic acid (1.40 g/L), some minerals such as
(947.8 mg/L) and
(36.4 mg/L), as well as soluble phenolics (779 mg/L of gallic acid equivalent). Schisandra fruit was added to the sweet persimmon juice during alcohol fermentation in order to improve the sour taste and flavor. The best sensory quality (taste, flavor, and color) was obtained by adding 0.5% schisandra fruit.
Cytotoxicities of Hydrolyzed Crude Laminaran from Eisenia bicyclis on the SNU-1, HeLa and SW Cells
Do, Jeong-Ryong ; Kim, Dong-Soo ; Park, Jong-Hyuk ; Kim, Young-Myung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 793~798
We investigated the effects on the cytotoxicity against several cancer cells of the hydrolysis and molecular weight fractionation of crude laminaran from E. bicyclis, a brown seaweed collected from Uleung island in Korea, was extracted with boiling water and then crude laminaran was prepared by ethanol precipitation of extract obtained after elimination of calcium alginate by calcium chloride. Crude laminaran was hydrolyzed by enzyme (Econase CE), acid (0.1 N HCl) and autoclaving (
, 180 min), and the molecular weight fractions by ultrafiltration to generate molecular weight fractions. Total sugar and sulfate contents of hydrolyzed laminaran were 72.3 and 3.5% (enzyme hydrolysate), 68.5 and 3.0% (acid hydrolysate), 70.2 and 3.2% (autoclaved), and monosaccharides of which consisted of glucose (74.7-78.5%), mannose (9.9-11.5%), galactose (8.5-9.6%) and fucose (3.1-4.5%), respectively. When the cytotoxicity of hydrolyzed laminaran on SNU-1, HeLa and SW cells was evaluated by MTT assay, growth-inhibitory activity of the enzyme hydrolysate against cancer cells was higher than that of acid hydrolysate or autoclaved laminaran. Furthermore, the fraction at a molecular weight range of 10 to 50 kDa revealed higher anti-proliferative activities. The
values of 10-50 kDa fraction at a molecular weight range of 10 to 50 kDa revealed higher anti-proliferative activities. The
values of 10-50 kDa fractions on SNU-1, HeLa and SW cells were 60.4, 58.6 and 53.9
for enzymatic hydrolysate, 75.6, 73.5 and 77.4
for acid hydrolysate, and 61.7, 68.2 and 60.8
for autoclaved, respectively.
Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Activities of Pleurotus eryngii Extracts Prepared from Different Aerial Part
Kim, Hyun-Jeung ; Ahn, Myung-Soo ; Kim, Gum-Hee ; Kang, Myung-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 799~804
Antioxidative and antimicrobial activities were measured for the Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) solvent extracts in order to discover new functional activities. In P. eryngii, the powder moisture was 9.0%, and the carbohydrate, crude protein, crude ash and crude fat contents were 63.06, 20.70, 5.20 and 2.0%, respectively. Among the detected minerals, potassium (K) had the highest levels and manganese (Mn) the lowest. The amount of polyphenol in EtEx (Ethanol Extract) was 387 mg% for the whole body, 158 mg% for the stipe, and 593 mg% for the pileus. Higher levels of polyphenol in the entire body were found in the BuEx (Butanol Extract) (594 mg%) and WaEx (Water extract) (404 mg%) of the P. eryngii powder. BuEx had the highest level in the pileus, and EtEx and BuEx were higher than the other extracts in the stipe. The electron donating ability (EDA) of EtEx of the P. eryngii powder was the highest, at 91.12%, for the whole body, while it was the lowest, at 62.90%, in the stipe. In addition, the EDA of WaEx was 90.39% for the whole body. These EDA values were similar to those for tocopherol (93.93%) and BHT (96.72%), supporting the potential of these extracts to act as antioxidants. A number of the extracts were certified to have antimicrobial activities for small number of microorganisms, especially for gram-negative microorganisms. In other words, BuEx and EAEx in the pileus and WaEx in the stipe were found to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative). Additionally, EtEx and WaEx in all parts were shown to act as antimicrobial agents for Escherichia coli of gram negative.
Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity and Mutagenicity of Ozonized Olive Oil
Jang, Il-Woong ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Ahn, Jeung-Youb ; Miura, Toshiaki ; Jung, Mun-Yhung ; Choi, Dong-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 805~809
Ozonized olive oil was tested for its mutagenic potential in a Salmonella/microsome assay. Additionally, antimicrobial activity was tested against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pathogenic strains related to acne, using the paper disk and agar dilution method. Ozonized olive oil showed antimicrobial activities against all the strains tested, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values in a range of 2
10 mg/mL. Mutagenicity of ozonized olive oil was evaluated with Salmonells typhimurium TA98, TA100 and Ta1535, with and without addition of S9 mixture. No increase in the number of
revertants over the negative control (solvent and non-ozonized olive oil) values was observed with TA98 (1,000
), TA100 (1,500
) and TA1535 (1,500
) strains. The results from this study suggested that ozonized olive oil does not show any mutagenic potential.
Biological Activities of Oenothera laciniata Extracts (Onagraceae, Myrtales)
Lee, Jung-A ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Yoon, Weon-Jong ; Oh, Dae-Ju ; Jung, Yong-Hwan ; Lee, Wook-Jae ; Park, Soo-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 810~815
The biological activities of Oenothera laciniata extracts were measured, including antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effects. O. laciniata is an endemic species of Jeju Island, Korea with a seaside habitat. The concentration of total polyphenolic compounds from ethanol (EtOH), n-hexane, dichloromethane (
), ethylacetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH), and water fractions of O. laciniata was 63.96, 8.49, 28.11, 172.64, 114.56, and 34.91 mg/g, respectively. The EtOAc fraction contained the highest antioxidative activities (
), measured as follows: 16.19
in DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 220.37
in xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, 42.07
in superoxide radical scavenging capacity, and 421.33
in nitric oxide scavenging capacity. The cytotoxicity of O. laciniata extracts was examined through their effect on the growth of HL-60 cells. Incubation of HL-60 cells with the EtOAc fraction resulted in the greatest inhibition of cell growth; high DNA fragmentation and numerous sub-G1 hypodiploid cells were observed in HL-60 cell cultures treated with the EtOAc fraction. These results suggest that the EtOAc fraction of O. laciniata has potent apoptotic and antioxidative activities in vitro.
Antimicrobial Activity and Oxidative Stability of Bamboo Smoke Distillate on Soybean Oil during Storage
Lee, Fan-Zhu ; Lee, Byung-Doo ; Eun, Jong-Bang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 816~822
The antimicrobial and antioxidative effect of mechanical bamboo smoke distillate (MBSD) and traditional bamboo smoke distillate (TBSD) were investigated. Antimicrobial activity was demonstrated against all the microorganisms used in this experiment and was the higher in TBSD than in MBSD, with an activity concentration in the range 10-50
mm paper disc. At the same concentration the antimicrobial activities of TBSD and MBSD was Gram positive bacteria>gram negative bacteria>Lactotobacillus>yeast. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of BSC was 1.0-7.3
, and the maximum lethal concentration (MLC) was 26.7-116.7
. The soybean oil oxidative stability increased with increasing BSD concentration. The induction periods of oil oxidation were 3.75, 4.57 and 12.06 days for the samples with BSD added at 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0%, respectively. The RAE in soybean oil with 0.5% BSD was evaluated to be 168.45%, being similar to that of the sample with 0.02% BHT.
Establishment of Conditions for Hot Water Extraction of Camellia japonica leaves
Chung, Jin-Ho ; Lee, Hyoung-Jae ; Lee, Sook-Young ; Kim, Kwang-Sang ; Rim, Yo-Sup ; Shin, Soo-Cheol ; Jung, Kyoung-Hee ; Park, Keun-Hyung ; Moon, Jae-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 823~828
We established the optimal conditions for the hot water extraction of Camellia japonica compounds based on the yield, the stability (observed by peak changes on an HPLC chromatogram), and the 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity of the extracts. The extracts were prepared at
using six solution volumes (ranging from 100 mL to 600 mL), and four different extraction times (10, 30, 60, and 120 min). The results showed that increasing of the extraction volume elevated the radical-scavenging activity of the extracts; however, changes in volume had minimal affects on their yields and their stabilities. An increase in extraction time improved the compound yield; however, it reduced their stability and increased the deterioration of their radical-scavenging activity. Based on our results, we propose the following conditions to be optimal for the hot water extraction of dried C. japonica leaves: a water volume (mL) that is 60 times the weight (g) of the sample at a temperature of
for 30 min.
Pycnogenol, a Standardized Extract of French Maritime Pine Bark, Inhibited the Transcriptional Expression of Th2 Cytokines by Suppressing
Activation in Primary Splenocytes of C57BL/6 Mice with Murine AIDS
Lee, Jeong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 829~834
LP-BM5 murine leukemia retrovirus induces the immune dysfunction by imbalanced secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the murine AIDS model. In the present study, it was investigated whether pycnogenol (Pyc) administration could deactivate
to regulate the gene expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in C57BL/6 mice with murine AIDS. Treatment with Pyc for 12 weeks significantly inhibited the loss of body weight and enlargement of spleen and lymph node usually seen with AIDS. Moreover, Pyc increased the plasma level of Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and
, while reducing the plasma level of Th2 cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, and
. In primary culture of splenocytes, mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines was suppressed, but that of Th1 cytokines was not affected. The LP-BM5 retrovirus infection stimulated the cytoplasmic activation of
and nuclear translocation of
, whereas Pyc administration significantly reduced
degradation. These results suggested that the inhibitory effect of Pyc on Th2 cytokines in mice with murine AIDS was dependent on suppression of the
signaling pathway and was not dependent on
level, which regulates Th2 cytokines.
Discrimination of Geographical Origin of Mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) using Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Lee, Nam-Youn ; Bae, Hey-Ree ; Noh, Bong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 835~837
The geographical origin of Tricholoma matsutake mushrooms was studied using near-infrared spectroscopy. Modified partial least-square regression analyses were used to discriminate geographical origin. Two-hundred fifty-six of 259 actual domestic Tricholoma matsutake were classified as domestic produce, Sixty of 81 actual imported mushrooms were correctly classified as imported, while the other 21 imported from North Korea were not clearly classified. The accuracy of geographical origin discrimination was 92.94% The correlation coefficient, standard error of calibration, and standard error of prediction from modified partial least-square regression analysis were 0.84, 15.10% and 18.30% respectively.
The Retrogradation of Steamed Korean Rice Cake (Jeungpyun) with Addition of Gums
Kim, Dong-Ho ; Whang, Hea-Jeung ; Moon, Sung-Won ; Kang, Byung-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2006, Pages 838~842
Gum was added to Jeungpyun (steamed Korean rice cake) to extend the shelf life and prevent retrogradation. The hardness of Jeungpyun was analyzed and the type of retrogradation was calculated by the Avrami equation. Guar gum, xanthan gum and pullulan were added to the steamed Korean rice cake at contents of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w). The moisture contents of the steamed Korean rice cake stored at
remained unchanged over the three days. When the concentration of added gums was less than 0.1 %, the hardness was lower than that of the non-added gum. At a gum concentration of 0.5%, the hardness of Jeungpyun with added guar gum and xanthan gum was higher than that of pullulan and non-added Jeungpyun. The types of retrogradation varied according to the amount and the kind of the added gums. The type of retrogradation of pullulan-added rice cake was similar to that of xanthan-added rice cake. The Avrami exponent of pullulan-added and xanthan-added Jeungpyun was 1.4
1.49 and 1.25
1.43, respectively. As the concentrations of pullulan were increased from 0.05% to 0.5%, the time constant (1/k) increased from 5.37 to 15.65. Pullulan and xanthan gum were confirmed to be more effective than guar gum for preventing the retrogradation of the steamed Korean rice cake known as Jeungpyun.