Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 39, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Changes of Isoflavone Distribution in Soybeans Using Almond Powder
Yang, Seung-Ok ; Chang, Pahn-Shick ; Baek, Bong-Kwon ; Hong, Sung-Dae ; Lee, Jae-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 231~236
The isoflavone distributions of soy samples treated with soaking, oven-drying, and almond additions were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Oven-drying was performed to increase the amount of
isoflavones, and almonds were added to convert the
into their corresponding aglycones. Oven-drying at
for 4 hr significantly increased
levels and decreased
, while almond additions of 2.5% and 5.0% (w/w) significantly increased aglycone contents (p<0.05) for samples with 12 hr of drying. The rate of increase for genistein from genistin was faster than that of daidzein from daidzin with almond additions. The
activity in the 5.0% added almond soybean samples was significantly higher than in the samples without added almond (p<0.05). The aglycone content increased from 1.62% in the raw soybeans to 61.55% in the 2.5% added almond soybean samples for 12 hr of incubation. The information from this study could be used to increase the isoflavone aglycone contents of soybeans by using natural products such as almonds, without organic solvent additions or microorganism fermentation.
Monitoring of Residual Pesticides in Commercial Agricultural Products in Korea
Kim, Hee-Yeon ; Park, Hyoung-Joon ; Lee, Jin-Ha ; Gwak, In-Shin ; Moon, Hyung-Sil ; Song, Mi-Hye ; Jang, Young-Mi ; Lee, Myoung-Sook ; Park, Jong-Seok ; Lee, Kwang-Ho ; Yoon, Sang-Hyeon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 237~245
We tested for residual pesticide levels in agricultural products purchased from 5 provinces within the middle region of Korea during 2006. A Total of 488 samples of 23 different types of agricultural products were analyzed by GC/MS, GC-NPD, and LC/MS/MS. We used multi-analysis methods to analyze for 231 different pesticide types; a single residual pesticides were detected in 92 samples (18.9%), of which 9 samples (1.9%) exceeded the Korea Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). we detected pesticide residue in more than 50% of the pepper leaf and welsh onion samples. For the welsh onions, 16 among the 30 analyzed samples contained pesticide residue, and 4 samples exceeded the Korea MRLs. Among the 234 kinds of pesticides we tested for, 42 were detected, and 21 of them were detected more than twice. Six pesticide residue types, including cypermethrin, iprodione, fludioxonil, ethoprophos, flutolanil, and lufenuron, exceeded the MRLs. No residual pesticides were detected in 396 of the samples (81.1%), and the residual pesticide levels in 83 samples (17.0%) were lower than the Korea MRLs, indicating that 98.1% of the samples were relatively safe.
Changes in Volatile Compounds of Green Tea during Growing Season at Different Culture Areas
Lee, Joo-Yeon ; Wang, Li-Fei ; Baik, Joo-Hyun ; Park, Seung-Kook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 246~254
Fresh tea leaves grown in Jeju Island and Jeonnam Province of South Korea were plucked and processed. Volatile compounds (VCs) were analyzed and identified with SPME-GC/GC-MS/GC-O. The VCs of green teas were classified into two major categories based on their aroma characteristics: the Greenish (Group I), and Floral (Group II) odorants. It was found that the VCs were decreased significantly in fresh tea leaves as they were plucked at the later stages of cultivation. The ratio of VCs responsible for Group I and Group II compounds was well-balanced in tea leaves plucked in May, but the balances were changed when the fresh leaves were processed. The major VCs of fresh tea leaves in Jeju and Jeonnam were n-hexanal, E-2-hexenal, Z-3-hexenal, myrcene, benzyl alcohol, linalool, and phenyl alcohol. Also, Jeju and Jeonnam tea leaves had different aroma composition. n-Heptanol,
, benzaldehyde, and ethyl salicylate were found in Jeju fresh tea leaves, and Z-3-hexenol, E-2-hexenol, and methyl n-heptanoate were detected in Jeju dry tea leaves. On the other hand, Z-linalool oxide and myrcene were found in Jeonnam dry tea leaves. The SPME-GC method showed high reproducibility (RSD, 7.4%) with no-artifact formation. In this study, optimum plucking period of tea leaves could be determined for production of high quality green tea with a well-balanced aroma and characteristic VCs in green tea according to growing areas.
Chemical Characteristics and Enzyme Activities of Icheon Ge-Geol Radish, Gangwha Turnip, and Korean Radish
Kim, Haeng-Ran ; Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Yang-Suk ; Kim, Kyung-Mi ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 255~259
For this investigation, we analyzed the chemical characteristics and enzyme activities of Icheon Ge-Geol radish, Gangwha turnip, and Korean radish. Regarding their proximate compositions, the water contents of the Icheon Ge-Geol radish, Gangwha turnip, and Korean radish were 87.78, 92.73, and 91.45%, respectively. The crude protein, crude fiber, and ash contents of the Icheon Ge-Geol radish were 1.35, 1.11, and 1.55%, respectively, which were much higher than the contents of the other samples; however, total dietary fiber was significantly lower. For mineral content, the magnesium, potassium, and calcium levels of the Icheon Ge-Geol radish were higher than the other samples. With regards to the enzyme activities of the samples, the protease and myrosinase activities of the Icheon Ge-Geol radish were higher than in the other samples. For
activity, the Korean radish showed the strongest activity (18.99 units/g of sample), followed by the Gangwha turnip and Icheon Ge-Geol radish.
Quality Characteristics of Retort Tteok (Korean Rice Cake) Prepared with Various Dextrinization Time
Yoon, Sook-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 260~265
In this study, the quality characteristics of retort Tteok (Korean rice cake) prepared with various dextrinization times were investigated during storage. The moisture content of the retort Tteok made with dextrinized rice was 43.19-43.34% at 0 day and there were no differences in the samples during storage. As dextrinization time increased, the L value of the retort Tteok decreased, and the a and b values increased. Again there were no differences in the samples during storage. In the texture profiles, the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the retort Tteok increased with increasing dextrinization time for all the samples, except the ones that were dextrinized for 32 minutes. The adhesiveness of the retort Tteok increased with decreasing dextrinization time, and springiness and cohesiveness did not differ among the samples. Also, the quality characteristics showed no differences after 15 days of storage. In the sensory evaluation, color, smell and delicate taste were significantly different between the retort Tteok made with rice dextrinized over 16 minutes and that made with no dextrinized rice. The retort Tteok with rice dextrinized for 16 minutes showed the highest score in the softness. Storage times up to 120 days made no differences in the sensory evaluation measurements. These results indicate that a dextrinization time of 16 minutes seems to give the best quality to retort Tteok made with dextrinized rice.
pH, Acidity, Color, Reducing Sugar, Total Sugar, Alcohol and Organoleptic Characteristics of Puffed Rice Powder Added Takju during Fermentation
Kim, Ji-Young ; Sung, Ki-Wook ; Bae, Hyun-Wung ; Yi, Young-Hyoun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 266~271
The pH, acidity, color, reducing sugar, total sugar, alcohol, and organoletic characteristics of Takju containing puffed rice powder (0, 25, 50 and 75%) were investigated during fermentation for 10 days. After drastic decrease at Day 1, the pH increased gradually until Day 5 and then tended to decrease after Day 6. A lower concentration of puffed rice powder resulted in a greater pH reduction (p<0.05). Acidity increased quickly with days, especially for the 0% after Day 6 (p<0.05). After a sudden rise at Day 1, the Hunter ‘L’ value tended to decrease with days of fermentation. At the same day, the 75% showed the lowest Hunter ‘L’ value, however, it had the highest Hunter ‘a’ value except on Days 0, 3 and 10 (p<0.05). After a rapid reduction in reducing sugar on Day 3, no differences were observed in the samples (p<0.05). The 75% tended to be higher in reducing sugar. Total sugar decreased rapidly at Day 2, and then either remained unchanged or decreased after Day 3. With the exception of Day 4, the 75% had higher amounts of total sugar than the others at the same day (p<0.05). The Highest alcohol contents [13.0-16.4% (v/v)] occurred on Day 6. Higher alcohol concentrations were observed with higher puffed rice powder (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, no differences were detected between the 0% and those with puffed rice powder added (p<0.05).
Quality Characteristics of Muffin Added Red Yeast Rice Flour
Park, Sung-Hee ; Lim, Seong-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 272~275
Red yeast rice flour, which is a natural functional material, was used in muffin production at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 10%. The initial pasting temperature was not affected by the addition of red yeast rice flour, whereas peak viscosity and final viscosity decreased with increasing concentrations. The lightness value of the muffins decreased, however, the redness value increased with increasing amounts of red yeast rice flour. The bulk of the muffins was generally reduced by the addition of red yeast rice flour. At the 10% concentration, hardness and viscosity were similar to the control, and there were no changes in springiness or cohesiveness. For the sensory evaluation, parameters such as appearance, color, texture, taste, and overall acceptability increased significantly from the control at the 3% concentration of red yeast rice flour, but flavor decreased with increasing amounts of red yeast rice flour. Based on these results and the sensory evaluation specifically, the optimal amount of red yeast rice flour added to the muffins was the 3% concentration.
Effects of Enzyme Treatments on Yield and Flavor Compounds of Garlic Extracts
Shin, Dong-Bin ; Hawer, Woo-Derck ; Lee, Young-Chun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 276~282
In this study, attempts were made to develop a garlic juice extraction method that would result in minimum changes in quality. Protopectinase and a mutienzyme containing cellulase, pectinesterase,
, etc. were applied to garlic residue after first extraction, and the yields of garlic juice and the flavor component changes of the juices were investigated. Enzyme concentrations of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12% which were based on pulp weight before extraction were added and allowed to hydrolyze for 30, 60, 90 and 120 min,. respectively. Increase in the garlic juice yield was observed according to the amount of enzyme added and the reaction time until reaching a maximum point. When 0.12% protopectinase was applied to the garlic residue for 90 min, the yield increased by 13.8%. Under the same conditions, when multienzyme was applied to the garlic residue, the yield increased by 14.5%, which was considered the maximum. The flavor compounds decreased when compared with the total GC peak area of garlic juice prepared without enzymes(control). The volatile flavor compounds in garlic juice prepared with 0.12% protopectinase for 60 min decreased by 6%. The free sugars profile of the garlic juice prepared with 0.12% protopectinase for 60 min was similar to that of the control. The type of enzyme used did not affect the free amino acid profile of the garlic juice. These results indicate that the optimum conditions for extraction of garlic juice are hydrolyzing the residue with 0.12% protopectinase for 60 min, extracting garlic juice from the hydrolyzed reside, and then combining the extracted juice with the first extraction.
Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Wet Noodles Prepared by Adding Ge-Geol Radish Powder
Kim, Haeng-Ran ; Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Yang-Suk ; Kim, Kyung-Mi ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 283~288
The effects of Ge-Geol radish powder on the physical and sensory properties of wet noodles were investigated by adding 4-16% Ge-Geol radish powder based on the flour source. The Ge-Geol radish powder additions significantly increased the redness of the uncooked and cooked noodles. For the texture profile analysis (TPA) of the wet noodles with added Ge-Geol radish powder, hardness, adhesiveness and resilience decreased, whereas chewiness increased. Changes in the volume and weight of the cooked noodles were not significantly different according to Ge-Geol radish powder concentration, but the turbidities of the soup increased. In sensory test, overall acceptability was significantly higher for the noodles with added Ge-Geol radish powder of concentrations between 4-8%. These samples had similar sensory texture properties as the control and had peculiar hot and cool tastes of the radish. Therefore, adding Ge-Geol radish powder at concentrations below 8% was good for making noodles that maintained a natural texture, and also gave an characteristic radish-like flavor to the noodles.
Quality Characteristics of Rehmannia radix Preparata with Pre-soaking Solvents
Woo, Koan-Sik ; Song, Dae-Sik ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Lee, Hee-Bong ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 289~294
This study was performed to investigate the effects of pre-soaking methods on the preparation of Rehmannia radix Preparata (R.P). The R. radix L (R.L) was soaked in distilled water and traditional Korean wine for 24 hr, then the soaked R.L was treated with a traditional nine-time steaming process. Next, catalpol, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF), polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, and ACE inhibition activity were analyzed for the R.P produced by the different methods. The catalpol content of the R.L was 631.4 ppm, but the content decreased as steaming increased to 8-9 times. The 5-HMF, polyphenol, and flavonoid contents of the R.L were 0.12 mg/g, 5.09 mg/g, and 0.83 mg/g, respectively, and these increased gradually with increasing steaming times. As the steaming times of the distilled soaking water increased, the antioxidant activities of 1 mg/mL increased from 19.44% to 75.60% at 14 times of steaming. The ACE inhibition activities of 1 mg/mL of the distilled soaking water increased from 28.70% to 94.78% at 10 times of steaming, but decreased afterward.
Effect of Drying Methods of Rice Flour on Growth Properties of Bacillus cereus and Enterobacter sakazakii
Choi, Bong-Kyu ; Park, Shin-Young ; Ha, Sang-Do ; Kum, Jun-Seok ; Lee, Hyun-Yu ; Park, Jong-Dae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 295~298
In order to sterilize Bacillus cereus and Enterobacter sakazakii in rice flour, hot-air drying (
/15 min, HT) and microwave drying (700 watt/30 sec, MT) treatments were evaluated and a storage study performed. Color changes (
) appeared to be less in the MT rice flour than in HT treated rice flour. The effectiveness of the MT treatment showed reduced growth rates for B. cereus (0.54 log CFU/g) and E. sakazakii (1.45 log CFU/g). The populations of B. cereus in the control (NT) rice flour greatly increased during storage at 4, 10 and
as storage times increased. However, the growth of B. cereus was minimized in the MT rice flour. In conclusion, MT treatment is considered to be a good drying method when substituted for HT treatment to assure microbial safety in rice flour.
Development of Immunochromatography for the Rapid Detection of Listeria monocytogenes
Choi, Jin-Gil ; Shim, Won-Bo ; Je, Jung-Hyun ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Lee, Kyu-Ho ; Kim, Min-Gon ; Ha, Sang-Do ; Kim, Keun-Sung ; Kim, Kwang-Yup ; Kim, Cheol-Ho ; Chung, Duck-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 299~303
The objective of this study was the development of immunochromatography (ICG) for the rapid and accurate detection of Listeria monocytogenes. Here, monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were conjugated with 40 nm colloidal gold particles, where the conjugate was used as the detection reagent in the ICG. The ICG was composed of three pads (sample, conjugate, and absorbance pads) and one nitrocellulose membrane. The colloidal gold-MAb conjugate was applied to the conjugate pad, and the test line and control line on the membrane were treated with MAb (FKLM-3BI2-37) and anti-mouse IgG, respectively. The detection limit of the ICG was
cell/mL and it showed no cross-reaction to food borne pathogens. We inoculated meat and lettuce samples with various counts of L. monocytogenes, and analyzed them by ICG. All the inoculated meat samples gave positive results after enrichment for 24 h in LEB. These results indicate that ICG was able to serve as a primary screening tool for L. monocytogenes in various foods and agricultural products within 20 min after enrichment.
Changes in Quality Characteristics of Meju Made with Germinated Soybean during Fermentation
Choi, Ung-Kyu ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ; Lee, Nan-Hee ; Jeong, Yeon-Shin ; Hwang, Young-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 304~308
This research was conducted to investigate the changes in quality characteristics of meju made with 24-hour germinated soybeans according to fermentation time. The study confirmed that the amino nitrogen content immediately after soaking was 15.5 mg%, and the content rapidly increased in the beginning of the germination process and continued to increase to 312.9 mg% by 48 hours of fermentation. The number of fungi in the whole soybean meju made with 24-hour germinated soybeans was higher than the numbers of bacteria and yeast since the Aspergillus oryzae was inoculated artificially. The content of organic acids, in which the amount of citric acid was highest followed by tartaric acid and malic acid, increased with the fermentation process. The level of free amino acids in the whole soybean meju made from the 24-hour germinated soybeans increased rapidly with fermentation. The free amino acid content after 48 hours of fermentation (2,513.5 mg%) was 5.7 times higher than the content of the soaked germinated soybeans. The content of glutamic acid was highest followed by aspartic acid, lysine, leucine, and proline. The ratio of glutamic acid to the total free amino acids at 48 hours fermentation was 21.2% for the whole soybean meju. It was confirmed that the total isoflavone content, in which the content of genistein was highest followed by daidzein and glycitein, increased at the beginning of the fermentation process, but did not change thereafter.
Changes in Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Rice Wine, Yakju Prepared with Different Amount of Red Yeast Rice
Jin, Tie-Yan ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Eun, Jong-Bang ; Wang, Seung-Jin ; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 309~314
The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of rice wine, Yakju, made with different additions of red yeast rice (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%) were investigated. The pH of the rice wine decreased and the total acidity increased with greater additions of red yeast rice. Furthermore, the total sugar content increased and the alcohol content decreased with increasing amounts of red yeast rice. The color L-value diminished and the color a- and b-values increased with increasing amounts of red yeast rice. Among the volatile flavor compounds, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, and acids were the most important aroma-active compounds identified in the rice wine. The sample with the 10% red yeast rice addition had the highest ester content, which is a primary component in fruit fragrance. The highest overall acceptability values in the sensory test for color, flavor, taste, and overall favorite were 5.10, 5.75, 5.15, 4.65, and 4.50, respectively, with the addition of 10% red yeast rice.
Fibrinolytic, Immunostimulating, and Cytotoxic Activities of Microbial Strains Isolated from Kochujang
Seo, Mi-Young ; Kim, Seung-Ho ; Lee, Cheol-Ho ; Cha, Seong-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 315~322
This study was carried out to investigate the functional activities of microorganisms isolated from kochujang, such as fibrinolytic, immunostimulating, and cytotoxical activities, and to apply these microorganisms to kochujang products. Ninety-one microbial strains with proteolytic activity were selected from 294 strains isolated from traditional and commercial kochujang. Three strains (TPP 0014, TPP 6013, and TPP 6015) with high fibrinolytic activity were tested for their immunostimulating and cytotoxical activities. For the assessment of macrophage activation, cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor,
and nitrogen oxide were measured with the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. In addition, the cytotoxical activities of the three strains were examined by MTT assay on the colon cancer cell line SNU-C4 and normal cell line CHO-K1. Using an API identifying kit, two of the microbial strains (TPP 0014 and TPP 6015) were identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus and the other strain (TPP 6013) was identified as B. amyloliquefacience.
Effects of Fermented Milk with Hot Water Extract from Acanthopanax senticosus and Codonopsis lanceolata on the Immune Status of Mouse
Lim, Sang-Dong ; Seong, Ki-Seung ; Kim, Kee-Sung ; Han, Dong-Un ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 323~329
We investigated the immunomodulatory actions of water extract from Acanthopanax senticosus in male ICR mice. The mice were treated with fermented milk containing three added doses of freeze dried extract: 3 mg/kg (A), 9 mg/kg (B), and 27 mg/kg (C) of body weight with Acanthopanax senticosus: Codonopsis lanceolata (8:2) for 7 and 10 weeks, respectively. Organ weights, plaque-forming cell tests, agglutination tests, IgG tests, differential white cell counts, and histological tests were performed at the 7th and 10th weeks of dietary treatment. There were no significant differences in body weight and organ weight. The spleen indices of group B at 7 weeks and group C at 10 weeks were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). For the plaque-forming cell test, groups B and C at 7 weeks, and group C at 10 weeks, showed significant increases over the control group (p<0.05). The agglutination test decreased with an extended experimental period. Groups A, B, and C at 7 weeks, and groups B and C at 10 weeks, had greater antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) than the control group. The IgG antibody production of group C at 7 weeks and groups B and C at 10 weeks were significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). In groups B and C, lymphocyte percentage was higher than the control group, and their spleen and thymus tissues showed active immune reactions.
Anti-diabetic Effect of Crude Polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa in
Diabetic Mouse and 3T3-L1 Adipocyte
Park, Kum-Ju ; Oh, Young-Joo ; Lee, Sang-Yun ; Kim, Hyun-Su ; Ha, Hyo-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 330~335
This study was performed to investigate the anti-diabetic mechanism of crude polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa. We treated 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells to observe whether the crude polysaccharides isolated from Grifola frondosa would stimulate insulin sensitivity. Significant insulin sensitizing activity was observed in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and giving the crude polysaccharide of Grifola frondosa with 1 nM of insulin caused glucose uptake to increase to a similar level as giving 50 nM of insulin alone. To confirm the mechanism for the anti-diabetic effect of the crude polysaccharides, we performed further examinations within
mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The crude polysaccharides reduced blood glucose levels in the
mice for 2 weeks after feeding, and also significantly lowered plasma insulin levels. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic mechanism of the crude polysaccharide of Grifola frondosa is related to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity.
Anticariogenic Activity and Glucosyltransferase Inhibitory Effects of Extracts from Pine Needle and Twig
Choi, Hee-Don ; Koh, Yoon-Jeoung ; Choi, In-Wook ; Kim, Yun-Sook ; Park, Yong-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 336~341
To investigate anticariogenic effects of extracts from pine needles and twigs, we measured the extracts' antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, their glucosyltransferase (GTase) inhibitory effects and their stabilities under various conditions of heat and pH. The 70% ethanol extracts of pine needles and twigs showed greater antimicrobial activities against S. mutans than the hot water extracts, and the pine twig extracts showed greater antimicrobial activity than the pine needle extracts. More specifically, the n-hexane fractions of the pine needles and twigs had the greatest effects against S. mutans, and their minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) was 0.6 mg/mL. The results of the extracts' GTase inhibitory effects indicated that the 70% ethanol extracts had greater effects than hot water extracts, and the pine twig extracts showed greater effects than the pine needle extracts. The antimicrobial activity against S. mutans for the pine needle n-hexane traction was greatly reduced as temperature increased, and was also largely affected by changes in pH. These results suggest that extracts from pine needles and twigs have anticariogenic effects and could be used as anticariogenic food additives.
Comparison of the Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Extracts from Rubus coreanus and Rubus occidentalis
Yang, Hyun-Mo ; Lim, Soon-Sung ; Lee, Yeon-Sil ; Shin, Hyun-Kyung ; Oh, Yang-Seok ; Kim, Jin-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 342~347
The dried fruit of the Rubus coreanus, which is well-known in Korea and referred to as 'Bokbunja,' has been employed as a traditional medicine for centuries. This crude drug has been utilized in Korea for the management of impotence, spermatorrhea, enuresis, asthma, and allergic diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of R. coreanus have anti-inflammatory effects. The principal objective of the present study was to conduct a comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extracts of R. coreanus and R. occidentalis; here, we tested the unripe (URCE), half-ripened (HRCE), and ripened fruits (RCE) of R. coreanus, and the unripe (UROE), half-ripened (HROE), and ripened fruits (ROE) of R. occidentalis. We found that URCE, UROE, HRCE, and HROE reduced the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin
as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Interestingly, the R. coreanus extracts showed stronger inhibitory effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators than the R. occidentalis extracts.
Inhibitory Effects on the Enzymes Involved in the Inflammation by the Ethanol Extracts of Plant Foodstuffs
Kwon, Eun-Sook ; Kim, Il-Rang ; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 39, issue 3, 2007, Pages 348~352
Inflammation is a complex process resulting from a variety of mechanisms. Combined inhibition of the activities of enzymes involved in the process may therefore be considered more important in anti-inflammatory property of plant extracts than any single contribution. In this study, the inhibitory effects of the ethanol extracts of thirty plant foods on the activities of secretory phospholipase
), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) were examined. Several legumes, mungbean sprout and some leaf vegetables inhibited the activity of
, upstream enzyme of inflammation pathway. Only soybean sprout and mungbean sprout significantly inhibited 12-LOX activity. Although most of extracts inhibited the activities of both COX-1 and COX-2, water dropwort and amaranth showed selectivity for the inhibition of COX-2 over COX-1. Especially, mungbean showed anti-inflammatory property at both upstream and downstream of inflammation pathway with relatively low
and COX-2 enzymes. Mungbean sprout exhibited inhibitory effects on all enzymes related to early and late inflammation and soybean sprout suppressed 12-LOX and COX-2 simultaneously, although the activities of these plants were showed at relatively high concentration. Therefore, mungbean, mungbean sprout, and soybean sprout appear to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects by combined inhibition of inflammatory enzymes.