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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Tar Colors in Foods Distributed throughout the Gyeong-In Region;Monitoring Favorite Food Items of Children Near Elementary Schools
Kim, Hee-Yun ; Nam, Hye-Seon ; Jung, Yong-Hyun ; Lee, Jin-Ha ; Ha, Sang-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 243~250
In Korean, nine tar colors are permitted in foods. This study assessed these compounds in the favorite food items of children found near elementary schools. A total of 439 items categorized under six food types were included in the analysis. The most frequently detected tar colors were tartrazine (Y4), Brilliant Blue FCF (Y5), Allura Red, and Sunset Yellow FCF, respectively. One or a mixture of two tar colors were commonly found in products such as gums, ice bars, soft drinks, and cereals. However, most often, combinations of two or three tar colors were detected. The levels of tar colors in candies, chocolates, gums, ice bars, cereals, and soft drinks were 0.11-1169.58 mg/kg, 0.73-468.02 mg/kg, 0.10-602.46 mg/kg, 0.25-162.32 mg/kg, 0.11-753.68 mg/kg, and 0.21-69.45 mg/kg, respectively. Tar color levels were higher in chocolates and gums than in soft drinks and ice bars. And Y4 and Y5 were detected at the highest levels. For ages 7-12, the total estimated daily intake (
) of each tar color ranged from 0.004 to 1.017 mg/day/person. These values were 0.02-5.98% of the FAO/WHO's acceptable daily intake (ADI).
Changes in Enzymatic Activities during Eoyukjang Fermentation
Ham, Soo-Nam ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Lee, Jae Hwan ; Chang, Pahn-Shick ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 251~256
Eoyukjang is a traditional sauce-type of Korean food that is similar to a soybean sauce made from fermented soybeans, and it is produced from a fermented mixture of sea foods, meats, and meju (soybean paste). This study examined periodical changes in the enzymatic activities of
-glucosidase, protease, lipase, and lipoxygenase within the culture broth and solids of eoyukjang during 1 year of fermentation. The eoyukjang solids had 234-532% higher protein content than the culture broth. The specific activities of
-glucosidase, and protease increased in both the culture broth and solids. Particularly, in the culture broth,
-glucosidase, and protease activities rapidly increased (3- to 8-fold) until 10 months of fermentation, and then drastically decreased. However, the activities of lipase and lipoxygenase in both the culture broth and solids were less than 0.05 unit/mg of protein, respectively, throughout fermentation; thus, their activity levels were low and changed little over the 12 months. Overall, while the solids had higher protein content than the culture broth, the broth had greater enzyme activity levels during eoyukjang preparation.
Antioxidant Activity and Nitrite Scavenging Ability of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea L.) Fractions
Choi, Nam-Young ; Lee, Jae-Hwan ; Shin, Han-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 257~264
In this study, the antioxidant activities and nitrite scavenging abilities of olive leaf fractions acquired from plants cultivated in Australia (Olea europaea L. var. Picual) and Spain (Olea europaea L. var. Hojiblanca) were evaluated. Oleuropein was found to be the major phenolic compound in the leaves, with the butanol fractions presenting the highest contents. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and the inhibitory effect on the auto-oxidation rate of linoleic acid. The SOD-like activities of the olive leaf extracts ranged from 0 to 36.8%. DPPH radical scavenging activity was highest in the ethanol extract of the Australian cultivated olive leaves. Finally, the chloroform fractions of the extracts showed inhibitory effects on the auto-oxidation rate of linoleic acid as well as nitrite scavenging ability.
Effects of Ozonated Water Treatment on Pesticide Residues and Catechin Content in Green Tea Leaves
Jung, Kyung-Hee ; Seo, Il-Won ; Nam, He-Jung ; Shin, Han-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 265~270
This study examined the effects of treating green tea leaves with ozonated water by evaluating pesticide residue levels and catechin content. The pesticide residue levels of tea leaves treated with carbendazim, captain, diazinon, fenthim, dichlorvos, and chlorpyrifos ranged from 43.2 to 48.2 ppm. For leaves treated by soaking or watering with tap water, or with 0.25 ppm of ozone water for 30 min. Pesticide residue levels were reduced by 24.0-30.2%, 30.3-33.6%, 52.4-70.5%, and 65.5-80.2%, respectively. No major differences in catechin content were observed in the leaves according to the soaking and rinsing treatments using ozonated or tap water.
Thermal Changes of Aroma Components in Soybean Pastes (Doenjang)
Lee, Seung-Joo ; Ahn, Bo-Mi ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 271~276
In this study, volatile compounds were isolated from traditional and commercial fermented soybean pastes according to different heating temperatures (room temperature,
) using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The compounds were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 51 volatile components, including 18 esters, 3 alcohols, 6 acids, 8 pyrazines, 5 volatile phenols, 6 aldehydes, and 5 miscellaneous compounds, were identified. Esters and acids such as ethyl hexadecanoate, acetic acid, and 2/3-methyl butanoic acid were the largest groups among the quantified volatiles. By applying principal component analyses to the GCMS data sets, differences were observed in the volatile components of the soybean pastes as to the different heating temperatures. A large variation was shown between the volatile components of the traditional and commercial soybean pastes by increasing the heating temperature. Commercial samples had significantly higher levels of longer chain ethyl esters, aldehydes, and thermal degradation products such as maltol and 2-acetyl pyrrole, while traditional samples showed higher concentrations of acids and pyrazines.
Analysis of Phytochemicals in Popular Medicinal Herbs by HPLC and GC-MS
Cho, Hyun-Jung ; Yoo, Dong-Chan ; Cho, Hyun-Nam ; Fan, Lu-An ; Kim, Hee-Joon ; Khang, Kong-Won ; Jeong, Ho-Soon ; Yang, Seun-Ah ; Lee, In-Seon ; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 277~282
Oriental herbs are reported as having potent functions for preventing many types of diseases. They also appear to have positive effects and potential capabilities for skin care. Among the many oriental herbs that are available, we chose to analyze four medicinal herbs, Korean red ginseng, Artemisia capillaries Thunb, Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq, and Foeniculum vulgare Mill, because all are popular and considered as favorite medicinal plants in Korea. Extracts of the herbs were obtained by various methods such as using distilled water, ethyl ether, methanol, ethanol, benzene, 1-butanol, and chloroform. Nine phytochemicals were detected in the extracts: maltol, adenosine, b-pinene, menthone, pulegone, limonene, anethole, estragole, and fenchone, which reportedly have multi-functionalities. All phytochemicals were analyzed quantitatively by various chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and gas chromatography-mass (GC-MS) spectrometry. This article also presents the optimum conditions for extracting these 9 targeted phytochemical compounds that were derived from 4 popular oriental herbs, which could be useful for the efficient preparation of each phytochemical.
Hot Water Extraction Optimization of Dandelion Leaves to Increase Antioxidant Activity
Koh, Yoon-Jeoung ; Cha, Dong-Su ; Choi, Hee-Don ; Park, Yong-Kon ; Choi, In-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 283~289
This study used response surface methodology (RSM) in an effort to optimize the hot water extraction conditions of dandelion leaves in order to increase antioxidant activity in the extract. A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of independent variables, which included the ratio of solvent to sample (
), extraction temperature (
), and extraction time (
), on dependent variables of the extracts, including soluble solid (
), total polyphenols (
), total flavonoid (
), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability (
), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability (
), and superoxide radical scavenging ability (
). The estimated optimal conditions were as follows:
of the extraction temperature,
of solvent per sample, and
hr of extraction time. At the optimal conditions, the predicted characteristic values were: a yield of 38.98%, a total polyphenol level of
, a total flavonoid level of
, a DPPH radical scavenging ability (
) of 0.14 mg/mL, a ABTS radical scavenging ability (
) of 3.24 mg/mL, and a superoxide radical scavenging ability (
) of 2.49 mg/mL.
Physicochemical Properties of Cross-linked and Partially Enzymatically Hydrolyzed (CLE) Waxy Rice Starch
Yu, Chul ; Kim, Sung-Woo ; Kim, Chong-Tai ; Choi, Sung-Won ; Kim, Byung-Yong ; Baik, Moo-Yeol ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 290~296
This study examined the physicochemical properties of chemically and enzymatically cross-modified waxy rice starches. The waxy rice starch was cross-linked using phosphorous oxychloride, and then partially hydrolyzed with four commercial
-amylases (Fungamyl, Termamyl, Liquozyme, Kleistase). Swelling power and the moisture sorption isotherm did not change with cross-modification. Two cross-modified waxy rice starches (hydrolyzed with Termamyl and Liquozyme) showed higher solubilities than native starch and the two other cross-modified starches (hydrolyzed with Fungamyl and Kleistase). In terms of RVA characteristics, the two cross-modified waxy rice starches hydrolyzed with Termamyl and Liquozyme, respectively, had lower peak viscosity, holding strength, and final viscosity than the native starch. However, the two starches hydrolyzed with Fungamyl and Kleistase, respectively, revealed higher peak viscosity, holding strength, and final viscosity than the native starch. No differences were displayed in the X-ray diffraction patterns and DSC thermal characteristics of the cross-modified waxy rice starch as compared to both the native and cross-linked starches, indicating that cross-linking and enzymatic hydrolysis occurred in the amorphous region and did not alter the crystalline region.
Physicochemical Characteristics of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Tea According to Different Pan-firing Times
Yu, Jung-Sik ; Hwang, In-Guk ; Woo, Koan-Sik ; Chang, Young-Deug ; Lee, Chul-Hee ; Jeong, Jeong-Hag ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 297~302
In this study, Chrysanthemum indicum L. flower tea was prepared according to different pan-firing times (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 min) and its quality characteristics were investigated. Total nitrogen and tannin contents increased with increasing pan-firing time, whereas chlorophyll and total amino acid (AA) contents decreased. The total AA contents of the samples ranged from 6,399 to 7,068 mg%, and the highest content (7,068 mg%) was found with the 10 min panfiring treatment. The AAs occurring in the C. indicum L. flower tea included glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which are desirable flavor components. As the pan-firing time increased, antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased. The highest total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were found in the 15 min treatment at levels of 13.85 mg tannic acid equiv./g and 9.77 mg catechin equiv./g, respectively. The 15 min pan-firing treatment also had the highest total antioxidant activity at 19.33 mg ascorbic acid equiv. eg/100 g. Finally, based on sensory evaluations, the 10 min pan-fired C. indicum L. flower tea had the best overall quality.
Encapsulation of Avocado Oil Using Spray Drying
Bae, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Gun-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 303~310
This study was performed to verify the effects of encapsulation against oil oxidation. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of samples were compared during storage at
, indicating that the encapsulated avocado oil had lower TBA values than the free avocado oil. Microcapsules consisting of a whey protein isolate (WPI)-only wall system had slightly improved oxidative stability; however, spray-dried particles containing a high proportion of maltodextrin (MD) clearly offered better protection from oxidation than the other forms of encapsulation. The chlorophyll (Chl) content of the encapsulated avocado oil was higher than that of the free oil sample. When compared to the control, all wall systems protected the change of the chlorophyll content storage. No large differences were observed between the encapsulated powders according to the various wall materials. The color of the encapsulated oil changed from green to yellowish-green, indicating the formation of pheophytin from chlorophyll. The yellowish color of the oil correlated with a reduced total Chl content. In conclusion, encapsulation with spray drying for avocado oil could lead to improved stability during storage with respect to oxidation and the preservation of chlorophyll.
Comparison of the Quality Characteristics of Sikhye Made with
-Circulated Low-temperature Dry Malt and Commercial Malts
Ryu, Bog-Mi ; Kim, Jung-Suk ; Kim, Mi-Jeong ; Lee, Young-Soon ; Moon, Gap-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 311~315
This study compared the quality characteristics of sikhye (a traditional Korean sweet rice drink) samples prepared with
-circulated low-temperature dry malt (RM) and commercial malts. The amylase activities of the malts and the physiochemical (brix, reducing sugar, turbidity, color) and sensory qualities of the sikhye samples were examined. The results showed that RM had higher
-amylase activities than the commercial malts. And the sikhye made with RM had higher sugar and reducing sugar contents as compared to the samples made with commercial malts. There were no significant differences in L-values between the groups; however, the RM sikhye showed lower a- and b-values. Finally, the sensory evaluation results indicated that RM sikhye received higher sweetness, color, flavor, and overall acceptability scores than the samples made with commercial malts.
Phytoestrogenic Effects of Combined Plant Extracts on the Change of Bone Metabolism of OVX Rats
Kim, Soo-Nam ; Li, Yong-Chun ; Xu, Hong-De ; Yi, Dong-Geun ; Kim, Min-Seop ; Lee, Sung-Pyo ; Yi, Kwon-Taek ; Lee, Jae-Kyoung ; Kim, Jae-Soo ; Kwon, Myung-Sang ; Chang, Pahn-Shick ; Kwak, Bo-Yeon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 316~320
This study examined the combined plant extracts (FGF271) of Estromon in ovariectomized (OVX) rats to determine whether Estromon's significant clinical improvement effects on menopausal symptoms are predominantly due to the phytoestrogenic action of the combined extracts. The results showed that all three FGF271-treated groups had significantly improved serum osteocalcin levels as compared to the control group (p<0.05). In addition, all FGF271- and Estromon-treated groups had increases in femoral bone mineral density (FBMD) (p<0.05), and the increase in the FGF271 group was dose-dependent. A pairwise comparison of the FGF271- and Estromon-treated groups receiving the same dosage of FGF271 indicated that there was no significant difference between the groups. Therefore, the FBMD increases that occurred in the Estromon groups were solely attributable to the phytoestrogenic effects of FGF271. It was conclude that the phytoestrogenic effects of Estromon, as shown in clinical studies, are predominantly caused by FGF271, the mixed extracts of Cynanchum wilfordii, Phlomis umbrosa, and Angelica gigas.
Effects of Wheat Flour Ferment Cultured by Lactobacillus acidophilus on the Physical Properties of Cooked Noodles
Cha, Wook-Jin ; Lee, Si-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 321~325
This study was carried out to examine the effects of wheat flour ferment cultured by Lactobacillus acidophilus on the physical characteristics of cooked noodle. Different scanning calorimeter(DSC) analysis results for noodle gelatinization showed that the noodles containing flour ferment had higher enthalphy values than the control noodle. And based on the degree of retrogradation for the noodles containing the flour ferment, enthalpy decreased as the amount of the ferment increased, resulting in the delay effect on the retrogradation. According to textural property evaluations over a storage period, the noodles containing the flour ferment had increases in hardness and cohesiveness, and the springiness of the control group was higher than that of the noodles containing the flour ferment; however, this difference between groups gradually disappeared with increasing storage time. Finally, the noodles containing 10% flour ferment had a higher overall preference score than the control group, indicating that the addition of the flour ferment during noodle production can have a beneficial effect on the preference.
Effects of Slander Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Extract on Improvements in Bowel Function and Constipation Relief
Cho, Young-Sim ; ; Han, Young-Sil ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 326~331
This study investigated the effects of dietary slander glasswort extract on improvements in bowel function and constipation relief. Balb/C mice were used to measure transit movement of a charcoal meal after slander glasswort extract was added to their drinking water at 0.36, 0.72, and 1.5 mg/mL concentrations. The extract's constipation relief effects were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats with loperamide-induced constipation by adding 2, 3, and 4 mg/mL of the extract to their drinking water, and by feeding yogurt containing 0.0, 0.25, and 0.50% slander glasswort extract mixed into a 10-fold amount of water. The mice receiving the extract at 1.5 mg/mL via drinking water had a 16.4% increase in the rate of transit as compared to the controls. In addition, the rats receiving the extract via drinking water and yogurt had increased in constipation relief from 128 to 156% and from 107 to 150%, respectively, as compared to the controls. Based on the results, slander glasswort is considered to have effects on improving bowel function and relieving constipation.
Suppression of the Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 Induced by Toll-like Receptor 2, 3, and 4 Agonists by 6-Shogaol
Kim, Jeom-Ji ; An, Sang-Il ; Lee, Jeon-Su ; Yun, Sae-Mi ; Lee, Mi-Yeong ; Yun, Hyeong-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 332~336
Ginger is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine. Both ginger and its extracts have been used to treat many chronic inflammatory conditions via the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-
) activation, which results in the suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. However, the mechanisms as to how ginger extracts mediate their health effects are largely unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger anti-microbial innate immune responses, recognizing conserved microbial structural molecules that are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. All TLR signaling pathways culminate in the activation of NF-
. The activation of NF-
leads to the induction of inflammatory gene products, including cytokines and COX-2. This study reports the biochemical evidence that 6-shogaol, an active compound in ginger, inhibits NF-
activation and COX-2 expression induced by TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists. Furthermore, 6-shogaol inhibited NF-
activation induced by the following downstream signaling components of the TLRs: MyD88,
, and p65. These results imply that ginger can modulate immune responses that could potentially modify the risk of many chronic inflammatory diseases.
Monitoring of Total Sugar Contents in Processed Foods and Noncommercial Foodservice Foods
Choi, Mi-Hee ; Kwon, Kwang-Il ; Kim, Jee-Young ; Lee, Jee-Sun ; Kim, Jong-Wook ; Park, Hye-Kyung ; Kim, Myung-Chul ; Kim, Gun-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 337~342
In this study, HPLC was used to determine the total sugar contents of processed foods as well as main and side dishes that were acquired from noncommercial foodservices. The total sugar content was identified as the total amount of both mono- and di-saccharides according to the nutritional information standard defined by the Korea Food and Drug Administration. The results for the processed foods were as follows:
for processed chocolate products,
for fruit juice,
for carbonated beverages,
for ice cream,
for ice milk, and
for stirred yogurt. Overall, candy items had relatively higher total sugar contents (
) than any other items. Foods in the school zone had
total sugars. The noncommercial foodservice foods were classified into 5 main dish categories and 12 side dish categories. The total sugar contents of the main dishes were
for cooked rice with seasoning, and
for spaghetti. Among the side dishes, hard boiled foods and stir-fried foods contained the highest amounts of sugar, which were dependent on the main ingredients in the foods. Other side dishes with high sugar contents included seasoned vegetables/dried fish/seaweed (
), salads (
), and kimchies (
). The total sugar contents of the side dishes ranged widely, and were significantly different according to main ingredients, cooking method, and amount of spice.
The Allergenicity of Ovomucoid in Treated Egg Whites to Human IgE Antibody from Egg-Allergic Patients
Ryu, Ju-Hyeon ; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong ; An, Gang-Mo ; Lee, Sang-Il ; Son, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 343~348
The ovomucoid (OM) of egg whites is recognized as a major allergen. Here, the allergenicity of OM in egg whites (EW) treated by chemical, enzymatic, and physiological methods were investigated by competitive inhibitory ELISA using human IgE antibody acquired from egg-allergic patients. Enzymatic hydrolysis, irradiation, and succinic anhydride treatments did not reduce the allergenicity of the OM effectively. Allergenicity was reduced to only 1/20 by deglycosylation with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMS). Heat treatment of the OM at
for 10 min reduced allergenicity to 1/100. Furthermore, NaOH (over 3%) treatment reduced allergenicity to 1/10,000, and the combinatory treatment of NaOH (over 0.3%) and heat (
, 15 min) reduced it to less than 1/10,000, which was the most effective method. In this study, which analyzed treated EW using ELISA and patient-derived IgE, the OM allergenicity was nearly the same as its antigenicity according to ELISA using rabbit IgG. However, in the case of the TFMS-treated EW, the antigenicity was much lower than the allergenicity. These results suggest that the allergenicity of OM is slightly different from its antigenicity.
Adherence Rates of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella spp. in Pork Meat Contaminated during Processing
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Bahk, Gyung-Jin ; Ding, Tian ; Kim, Tae-Woong ; Oh, Deog-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 349~353
This study was performed to determine the adherence rates of standard type Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) and wild type Salmonella spp.(WT) in pork after the following contact types and times at
: pork meat (2, 6, 24 hr), conveyer belt (2, 6 hr), stainless steel (2, 6 hr), and cutting board (2, 6 hr). After 6 hr of pork meat to meat fat contact, the adherence rates for ST and WT were approximately 4.21 and 26.87%, respectively, and after 6 hrs of pork meat to red meat contact they were 16.40 and 27.48%, respectively. However, after 24 hr of both types of contact, ST and WT showed 100% adherence rates. The adherence rates for ST after 2 hr and 6 hr of pork meat to conveyer belt contact were 1.34 and 0.60%, respectively, while the adherence rate for WT was 5.14% after 6 hr of contact. After pork meat to stainless steel contact, ST showed adherence rates of zero and 1.59% after 6 and 24 hr of contact, respectively, while the adherence rates for WT ranged from 0.17% after 2 hr to 5.01% after 6 hr. On the other hand, neither ST nor WT offered adherence data following pork meat to cutting board contact. These results suggest that the adherence rates of ST and WT after pork meat to pork meat contact or pork meat to processing surface contact were significantly affected by the contact time and WT presented much higher adherence rates for both types of transmission than ST.
A Survey of Zearalenone in Beans Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detector (HPLC-FLD) and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
Jang, Mi-Ran ; Lee, Chang-Hui ; Lee, Hyo-Jeong ; Kim, Ji-Yeon ; Son, Sang-Hyeok ; Sin, Chun-Sik ; Kim, So-Hui ; Kim, Dae-Byeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 354~359
A survey for zearalenone contamination was conducted on 27 soy bean samples, 27 red bean samples, 16 black bean samples, 19 seoritae samples, 14 seomoktae samples, for a total of 127 commercial Korean samples. Zearalenone was quantified by the immunoaffinity column clean-up method with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD), and was confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS). The limits of detection and quantification were
, respectively. The recovery in the beans ranged from 82.2 to 98.4%. According to HPLC-FLD, zearalenone was detected in 13 samples (10.2% incidence), including 1 soybean and 12 red bean samples. The zearalenone contamination levels were in the range of 8.01
. Finally, LC-MS/MS analysis was conducted in the contaminated samples to verify the results of HPLC-FLD. The LC-MS/MS results confirmed the presence of zearalenone in all 13 samples. The contamination level was lower than that of EU, which is below
for raw grains.
Effects of Malt Modification on
-Glucan Solubility and Beer Viscosity
Lee, Young-Tack ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 40, issue 3, 2008, Pages 360~363
Two barley malt samples were selected at two different stages of germination, a well-modified malt germinated for 96 hr and a poorly-modified malt for 60 hr, and were analyzed for total, insoluble, and soluble
-glucan contents. The total
-glucan content in raw barley was 3.96%, and the content was reduced during malting. The total
-glucan contents of the poorly- and well-modified malts were 1.02% and 0.18%, respectively. After 4 days of germination, approximately 95% of the
-glucan present in the barley was degraded. A significantly higher proportion of water-soluble
-glucan was found in the well-modified malt, suggesting that
-glucan solubility was dependent on cell wall modifications in the malt (
-glucan breakdown). The proportion of water-soluble
-glucan was also affected by the extraction temperature. The two differently modified malts were mashed isothermally at 45, 55, 65, and 75oC for 2 hr. An increasing mashing temperature resulted in increased viscosity for the wort and the resulting beer. The viscosity of the wort from the well-modified malt was significantly low, due to its low initial malt
-glucan with increased solubility as well as a presumably sufficient
-glucanase activity during mashing.