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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 41, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
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Arsenic Speciation and Risk Assesment of Hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme) by HPLC-ICP-MS
Ryu, Keun-Young ; Shim, Sung-Lye ; Hwang, In-Min ; Jung, Min-Seok ; Jun, Sam-Nyeo ; Seo, Hye-Young ; Park, Jong-Seok ; Kim, Hee-Yeon ; Om, Ae-Sun ; Park, Kyung-Su ; Kim, Kyong-Su ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~6
This study investigated arsenic speciation and risk assesment in 30 samples of hijiki purchased from local market in 10 Korean cities. The mean arsenic concentration of the hijiki samples was 45.65 mg/kg (dryness; moisture content of 91.1
1.6%), and the major arsenic compound was arsenate [As(V)]. The concentrations of As(V) and As(III), as inorganic arsenic compounds, were detected to be 40.36 mg/kg and 0.37 mg/kg, respectively, and made up 88.6% (40.46 mg/kg) of the arsenic in the hijiki. Among the samples, the highest inorganic arsenic concentration was identified at 9.19 mg/kg (wet), and for an adult with a body weight of 60 kg was within an acceptable level as 0.7% (6.43 mg/60 kg/week) when compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) (900 mg/60 kg/week), and would be considered safe with respect to health-hazardous effects.
Analysis of Flumeqnine in Meats
Kuk, Ju-Hee ; Ko, Yong-Seok ; Kim, Yong-Hoon ; Yoon, Chang-Yong ; Sun, Nam-Kyu ; Kim, Eun-Jung ; Seo, Jee-Woo ; Park, Ji-Won ; Kang, Kil-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 7~10
An analytical method for the determination of flumequine in meats was developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The samples were mixed with sodium sulfate and extracted with ethyl acetate. After clean-up, the residues were dissolved in mobile phase. The calibration curves showed high linearity (
=0.9979) within the concentration range of 0.1-1.0 mg/kg. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were validated at 0.005 and 0.017 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries in fortified meats ranged from 90.8 to 101.1%. The method was then validated in correspondence with the CODEX guidelines for flumequine residue in meats. Herein we monitored 150 samples of meats that were purchased in Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju). Among the tested samples, flumequine was detected in 1 of beef and 1 of pork at levels in the range of 0.048-0.080 mg/kg. Overall, the flumequine residues in the tested samples were within the Maximun residue limit.
Effects of Vacuum Container on the Storability of Leftover Tofu
Lee, Ji-Youn ; Jang, Si-Hun ; Lee, Youn-Suk ; Park, Su-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 11~15
Commercial tofu was cut and re-packed in a vacuum container, an airtight container and an open tofu tray in an effort to assess the effects of vacuum containers on the shelf life of leftover tofu. The re-packed tofu were stored at
for the enumeration of total bacteria and coliforms. We also measured changes in color, pH, and opacity. The vacuum retarded the bacterial growth under
CFU/mL for up to 12 days at
. The color of the tofu was unaffected by the container type at both storage temperatures, whereas the pH and opacity of the immersion solution were altered less profoundly by storage in the vacuum container at
. However, we noted no significant differences in bacterial growths, pH, and opacity among container types at
. The results of this study showed that the usage of vacuum containers may be a favorable method for the preservation of tofu under refrigerated conditions.
Properties of Rice Flours Prepared from Domestic High Amylose Rices
Choi, Sin-Young ; Shin, Mal-Shick ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 16~20
To develop health functional foods using high amylose rice flours, the properties of flours prepared from domestic high amylose rice varieties, Goamy2 and Goamy, and imported rice from Thailand were investigated. After soaking the rice grains and drying, the dry-milled rice flours were passed through a 120-mesh sieve. The protein and total starch contents of the Goamy2 rice flour were lowest, but its crude lipid and ash contents were highest among the flours. In addition, apparent amylose content, water binding capacity, and total dietary fiber were highest in the Goamy2 flour (36.2, 255.0, and 9.2%, respectively). The Thai rice flour had the highest swelling power, whereas the Goamy2 flour had the lowest swelling power and solubility. By Rapid visco-analysis, the Thai flour showed the highest peak and total setback viscosities and lowest breakdown viscosity. The pasting pattern of the Goamy2 flour was different from that of the other flour, where low viscosity was maintained during heating and cooling. Goamy and Thai rice flours showed an A type crystallinity, but Goamy2 flour showed a B type crystallinity similar to high amylose maize starch. The Goamy2 flour presented a dull and yellowish color, and the lowest lightness (L) value and the highest yellowness (+b) value.
Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sesame Oils Derived from Sesame Seeds of Different Places of Origins
Seo, Il-Won ; Nam, He-Jung ; Shin, Han-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 21~26
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH) contents were evaluated in sesame oils from sesame seeds of different origins and in commercial samples using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The sesame seeds, which had been harvested from India, China, and Korea, were roasted at
for 25 min, and the commercial sesame oils were purchased from a local market. The recoveries for eight PAHs spiked into the sesame oils ranged from 80.2 to 99.2%. The mean levels of total PAHs in the sesame oils harvested from China, Korea, and India were 3.97, 1.57, and 1.20
/kg, respectively. The PAH contents in the commercial sesame oils ranged from 0.79 to 2.15
Low-Temperature Microencapsulation of Sesame Oil Using Fluidized Bed Granulation
Jeong, Chan-Min ; Lee, Min-Kyung ; Lee, Hyun-Ah ; Park, Ji-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 27~31
Top spray-drying method is frequently utilized for flavor encapsulation, but the top spray-dried products frequently suffer from high losses of volatile flavor as the result of a high processing temperature (150-
). In an effort to solve these problems, a low-temperature fluidized-bed granulating method was utilized to encapsulate the flavor. For the encapsulation of sesame oil, oil-in-water emulsions of sesame oil and a mixture of maltodextrin, modified starch, gum arabic, and gellan gum were bottom-sprayed at milder temperatures (70-
) using a fluidized-bed granulator. Sesame oil extracts from microcapsules were obtained via a simultaneous distillation/extraction technique, and the retention of volatile flavor compounds was analyzed via a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The retention of volatile flavors of sesame oil per se, spray-dried and fluidized-bed granulated microcapsules after 3-day-storage at
were 0.8%, 37.2%, and 42.0%, respectively. In addition, the low-temperature fluidized-bed granulation showed higher encapsulation yield and sensory preferences for the application of commercial products (beef rice porridge), as compared to spray drying.
Physical Properties of Freeze-Dried Powder of Aloe Vera Gel with Respect to the Concentrating Degree as Pre-Treatment
Lee, Nam-Jae ; Lee, Seung-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 32~36
The physical properties of freeze-dried Aloe vera gel powders were examined according to the influence of the concentration degrees of the gel solutions as raw materials during freeze-drying. As a pre-treatment prior to freeze-drying, the gel solutions were vacuum-concentrated at three concentration levels (g water/g solids): high (H), 76; medium (M), 119; and low (L), 159. The water contents of the three powder samples were almost the same. For their viscosity measurements, non-Newtonian fluid behavior with shear thinning was observed in samples H and M, whereas Newtonian liquid behavior was found in sample L. In electrical conductivity measurements, sample H showed the highest conductivity upon dissolving the powder in water. For their water sorption isotherms, sample H was analyzed to have the least amount of bound water. Finally, it was determined that the degree of concentration caused only slight differences in the physical properties of freeze-dried Aloe gel powders.
Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Tocotrienol from Grape Seed
Kim, Kyeong-Mi ; Woo, Koan Sik ; Hwang, In-Guk ; Lee, Youn-Ri ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 37~41
In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) was utilized for the extraction of tocotrienol from grape seeds. The optimal conditions for vitamin E and tocotrienol extraction were determined via response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design was utilized to assess the effects of oven temperature (30-
, X1), operating pressure (17-25 MPa, X2), and extraction time (1-5 hr, X3) of supercritical fluid extraction. Vitamin E and tocotrienol contents were 8.65 mg/100 g and 7.88 mg/100 g at
, 20MPa and 5 hr, respectively. The predicted extraction condition was validated via actual experimentation. The predicted extraction conditions were
, 3.8 hr, and 20.7MPa. The vitamin E and tocotrienol contents under these conditions were 8.20 mg/100 g and 7.42 mg/100 g, respectively. The vitamin E and tocotrienol contents of solvent extraction with hexane were 8.18 mg/100 g and 7.24 mg/100 g, respectively.
Quality Characteristics of Cultured Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Fed with Extruded Pellets; I. Comparison of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Contents
Jang, Mi-Soon ; Kang, Yong-Jin ; Kim, Kang-Woong ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; MoonLee, Hae-Young ; Heo, Saet-Byeol ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 42~49
This study analyzed the fatty acid and amino acid compositions of dorsal and fin muscles collected from olive flounder cultured using a formula feed(extruded pellets, EP) and compared them to those of fish cultured with a raw fish moist pellet(MP) feed as a control. The olive flounder in this study were cultured for 10 months with either the formulated extruded pellets(FEP), commercial extruded pellets(CEP), or the MP feed, and their average weight was 1.15 kg. The proximate compositions of the dorsal muscle were not different among the groups, whereas in the fin muscles of the fish fed with the MP diet, moisture content was higher and crude lipid content was lower. The major fatty acids in the dorsal and fin muscles of the fish fed with the MP, CEP, and FEP diets were palmitic acid and oleic acid. Finally, no significant differences were observed among the diet groups in the results for amino acid content or the sensory and textural properties of the muscle.
Effects of Heat and pH Treatments on Antioxidant Properties of Ishige okamurai Extract
Kim, Mi-Jung ; Choi, Jung-Soo ; Song, Eu-Jin ; Lee, So-Young ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Lee, So-Jeong ; Kim, Seo-Jin ; Yoon, So-Young ; Jeon, You-Jin ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 50~56
This study was carried out to determine the optimum extraction conditions for Ishige okamurai by comparing the yields, total phenolic compound content (TPC), and antioxidant properties of its 95%, 70%, 50% fermented ethyl alcohol and water extracts. Additionally, the effects of heat and pH treatments on the antioxidant properties of the extracts were evaluated by their TPC and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging capabilities. The yields of the extracts were greatest in the order of water > 50% > 70% > 95% fermented ethyl alcohol, and the TPC of the 70% (26.18%) and 50% fermented ethyl alcohol (27.56%) extracts were higher than those of the others. However, in terms of DPPH radical scavenging and ferrous-reducing power, the 70% fermented ethyl alcohol extract of Ishige okamurai showed the highest antioxidant effects. Additionally, in the results for the heat and pH treatments, the antioxidant properties of the 70% fermented ethyl alcohol extract were not influenced by the treatment conditions except at pH 10.
Antioxidant Activities of Seasoning Sauces Prepared with Geranium thunbergii sieb. et Zucc. and Crataegi fructus and the Quality Changes of Seasoned Pork during Storage
Lee, Shin-Ho ; Jeong, Eun-Ju ; Jung, Tae-Sung ; Park, La-Young ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 57~63
In this study, seasoning sauces were prepared with Geranium thunbergii sieb. et Zucc. (1%, PGT), Crataegi fructus (1%, PCF) and their combination (0.5% PGT + 0.5% PCF, bPMGC) and then the quality characteristics of the sauces and seasoned pork were investigated. The lightness, redness and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of the sauces were increased by the addition of Crataegi fructus. Sensory qualities such as taste, color and overall acceptability were scored higher in the sauce prepared with Crataegi fructus than the control. The viable cell counts of pork seasoned with the various sauces were 5.04 CFU/g (control), 4.59 CFU/g (PGT), 3.88 CFU/g (PCF) and 4.38 CFU/g (PMGC) after storage for 15 days at
, respectively. The coliform count of the control pork was below 1.0 CFU/g after storage for 25 days and coliform were not detected in PGT, PCF and PMGC after storage for 10 days at
. The thiobarbitunc acid reaotive substance values of PGT, PCF and PMGC were significantly lower than that of control, but volatile basic nitrogen contents were not significantly different between the treated and untreated pork samples during storage. Cooking loss increased in all treatments during storage for 25 days and their water holding capacity increased during storage for 10 days and decreased thereafter. The lightness, redness and yellowness values of PCF were higher than those of the control. The sensory qualities of PCF, including taste, color and overall acceptability, were significantly improved compared to the control. Finally, the pork seasoned with the sauce containing 1% Crataegi fructus extract had significantly improved shelflife, water holding capacity, inhibition of rancidity, color and sensory quality.
Physicochemical and Organoleptic Qualities of Sliced-dried Persimmons as Affected by Drying Methods
Kim, Yeon-Joo ; Lee, Su-Jin ; Kim, Mi-Yeung ; Kim, Gui-Ran ; Chung, Hun-Sik ; Park, Hyun-Ju ; Kim, Mi-Ok ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 64~68
The effects of drying methods (hot air, cold air, vacuum, and infrared drying) on physicochemical and organoleptic qualities of sliced-dried persimmons (Diospyros kaki Thumb. cv. Cheungdobansi) were investigated. The weight of the sliceddried persimmons ranged from 9.30 to 12.01 g, the length from 3.55 to 4.06 cm, the width and thickness were from 3.17 to 3.73 cm and 1.82 to 2.04 cm, respectively. Hot air drying resulted in the highest hardness value as well as Hunter's L, a, and b values. Infrared drying showed the lowest L value and vacuum drying revealed the lowest a and b values. Moisture contents of the sliced-dried persimmons ranged from 38.04 to 46.41%, and soluble solid contents were 42.96-
. The phenolic compounds and DPPH radical scavenging activity were high for infrared and vacuum drying methods, and all the sliced-dried persimmons showed relatively high antioxidant activities. The sensory evaluation results indicated that the organoleptic scores for the overall preference were high in the order of vacuum > infrared > hot air > cold air drying. These results suggest that the drying methods affected the qualities of the sliced-dried persimmons, showing that vacuum drying is the mast effective among the methods tested for manufacturing the high-quality sliced-dried persimmons.
Physical and Sensory Properties of Chiffon Cake Made with Rice Flour
Kim, Ji-Na ; Shin, Weon-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 69~76
This study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of chiffon cakes made with rice flour ranging from 20-100% in place of wheat flour. The water binding capacity of the rice flour was greater than that of the wheat flour and its fat binding capacity was lower than that of the wheat flour. The batter stability data indicated that the 100% treatment was better than the control, and specific gravity values and specific loaf volumes were lower in the samples with added rice flour. Texture analysis found no significant differences in hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness between the control and the 100% treatment. In the case of crust color, the rice flour-added chiffon cakes did not show any significant differences for their 'a' values. In addition, their crumb color was not significantly different in terms of both their 'L' and 'a' values. According to the sensory evaluation, there was no significant difference in overall acceptability between the control and the rice flour-added chiffon cakes. The highest sensory scores were obtained by the 100% treatment for overall acceptance and moistness. However, flavor, cohesiveness, and brittleness were not significantly different. These study results show that wheat flour could be replaced by rice flour up to 100% in chiffon cake.
Effects of Black Ginseng (9 Times-Steaming Ginseng) on Hypoglycemic Action and Changes in the Composition of Ginsenosides on the Steaming Process
Kim, Suong-Nuen ; Kang, Shin-Jyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 77~81
This study examined the effects of black ginseng (9 times-steamed ginseng) on hypoglycemic action in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats as well as changes in ginsenoside composition by the steaming process. As the number of steaming cycles increased, the amounts of crude saponin and most ginsenoside contents decreased, while the amount of ginsenoside- Rg3 and the ratio of PD/PT (=[
) increased. This ginsenoside composition is a unique characteristic compared to other types of ginseng products. In order to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of the black ginseng extract, in vivo studies were performed in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The studies showed that the administration of the black ginseng extract decreased high blood glucose levels (more than 300 mg/dL) to a normal level (102 mg/dL). These results suggest that this black ginseng extract has a significant hypoglycemic effect and can be used as an anti-diabetic substance for dietary supplements or new drugs.
Comparative Analysis of Catechins and Antioxidant Capacity in Various Grades of Organic Green Teas Grown in Boseong, Korea
Park, Kyung-Ryun ; Lee, Sang-Gil ; Nam, Tae-Gyu ; Kim, Young-Jun ; Kim, Young-Rok ; Kim, Dae-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 82~86
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various solvents on extraction of bioactive phenolics and to analyze the antioxidant capacity and contents of individual catechins in various grades of green teas organically grown in Boseong, Korea. The organic green teas, based on their harvest seasons, were categorized into five grades such as Woo-Jeon, Se-Jak, Jung-Jak, Dae-Jak, and coarse tea. Solvents used to extract phenolics from these teas included water at
as well as 80% (v/v) aqueous methanol and ethanol. In general, aqueous organic solvents of methanol and ethanol led to higher extraction yields of phenolics than water at
. Total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of the teas extracted with the aqueous organic solvents were approximately 1.5 to 3.2 and 1.8 to 3.8 times higher than those with water at
, respectively. Coarse tea, the lowest grade of green tea, showed approximately 30-60% lower total phenolics and antioxidant capacity compared with the higher grade ones. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis was performed quantitatively to identify individual catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine in teas extracted with 80% (v/v) aqueous methanol. Based on their dry weights, the organic green teas contained about 1.7 to 2.9% of caffeine. Content (mg/g dry weight) of tea catechins decreased in the following order: Woo-Jeon (155.4) > Se-Jak (147.7) > Jung-Jak (143.2) > coarse tea (135.1) > Dae-Jak (130.5). (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate was the most abundant among the catechins analyzed. The highest grade of green tea, Woo-Jeon, had the highest amount of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate at 77.4 mg/g dry weight. Overall, the higher grade of organic green teas tended to have the higher level of antioxidant capacity and catechins.
Antioxidant Properties and Protective Effects of Inula britannica var. chinensis Regel on Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Cell Damage
Lee, Na-Hyun ; Hong, Jung-Il ; Kim, Jin-Yung ; Chiang, Mae-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 87~92
The antioxidant properties and protective effects of Inula britannica on
-induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell damage were investigated. A series of solvent fractions, including hexane(Fr.H), petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate(Fr.EA), and water fraction(Fr.W), were prepared from the 70% methanol extracts of Inula britannica. Fr.W had the highest total contents of phenolics and flavonoids, followed by Fr.EA. The antioxidant properties of the fractions were also evaluated by analyzing their scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radicals, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and nitric oxide. Fr.W showed the strongest activities in all assays. The concentrations of Fr.W that resulted in 50% reductions of the DPPH and ABTS radicals were 20.7
/mL and 39.4
/mL, respectively. Fr.W showed the weakest cytotoxic activities on the SH-SY5Y cells, whereas it effectively protected
-induced cell death, increasing cell survival by 35.0-77.0% at a concentration range of 62.5-250
/mL. In this range, Fr.W also significantly decreased intracellular ROS levels by 34-39%. Overall, the antioxidant properties of Inula britannica can contribute to rescuring neuronal cells from oxidative stress-induced cell injury.
Protective Effect of Glycoprotein Isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata on Liver in
-treated A/J Mice
Joo, Heon-Yeong ; Lim, Kye-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 93~99
This study aimed to determine whether or not glycoprotein isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau fruit(CTB glycoprotein) exerts a hepatoprotective effect on liver injury induced by the administration of carbon tetrachloride(
, 1.0mL/kg) to A/J mice. Following the administration of CTB glycoprotein(0-20mg/kg), the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and glutathione peroxidase(GPx)), and the quantities of measured thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), and nitric oxide(NO) were evaluated from the murine liver tissues and plasma. Additionally, the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-
) was assessed after pretreatment with
. When the mice were treated with
alone, the activities of antioxidative enzymes reduced but amounts of TBARS, LDH, and NO increased. However, the results of treatment with CTB glycoprotein(10 and 20 mg/kg) revealed significantly increased activities of antioxidant enzymes(SOD, CAT, and GPx), as compared with
alone. On the other hand, the result showed significant diminutions of the quantities of TBARS, LDH, and NO after treatment with CTB glycoprotein(10 and 20 mg/kg), as compared to
alone. The activity of NF-
also declined after pretreatment with CTB glycoprotein, as compared with
treatment alone. Thus, it is suggested that the CTB glycoprotein exerts a protective effect against
-induced liver injury in A/J mice.
Physiological Characteristics of Medicinal Plant Extracts for Use as Functional Materials in Seasoning Sauce for Pork Meat
Lee, Shin-Ho ; Kang, Kyung-Myung ; Park, Hyo-Jin ; Baek, Lag-Min ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 100~105
This study investigated the physiological characteristics of various medicinal plant extracts including Crataegi Fructus (CF), Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo (PF), Geranium thunbergii sieb. et Zucc. (GT) and Polygonum multiflorum Thunberg (PM) for use in extending the shelf-life and improving the functional properties of seasoned pork. CF and GT showed a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities against 5 kinds of Gram (+) bacteria and 5 kinds of Gram (-) bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts decreased as the heat treatment temperature increased between 60 and
, but their activities remained relatively high following heat treatment. The total phenolic compound contents of the CF, PF, GT, PM extracts were 66.2, 29.0, 96.6 and 13.3 mg/g, respectively. The order of their DPPH radical scavenging activity was GT > CF > PF > PF. The nitrite scavenging activities of the CF, PF and GT extracts at 0.1% concentration were 10.5, 1.6 and 3.8%, respectively. The GT extract (99.7%) showed the highest degree of lipid rancidity inhibition compared to CF (90.3%), PF (88.9%) and PM (41.2%). After heat treatment for 15 min at
, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of CF decreased but it increased in GT and PM. The nitrite scavenging activities of CF and GT decreased after heat treatment for 15 min at
but remained at relatively high levels. Also, degrees of lipid rancidity inhibition remained relatively high in PF (86.3%) and GT (99.8%) after heat treatment for 15 min at
. These results suggest that CF and GT extracts could be used as ingredients in seasoning sauce to improve the shelf-life and functional properties of seasoned pork.
Sensory Evaluation and Bioavailability of Red Ginseng Extract(Rg1, Rb1) by Complexation with
Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Park, Ji-Ho ; Cho, Nam-Suk ; Yu, Heui-Jong ; You, Sung-Kyun ; Cho, Cheong-Weon ; Kim, Dong-Chool ; Kim, Young-Heui ; Kim, Ki-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 106~110
In order to reduce the bitter taste and improve the bioavailability of red ginseng extract(RGE), inclusion complexes (RGE-CD) of the extract with
-cyclodextrin were prepared and studied for their sensory quality and bioavailability compared to RGE. By complexation, the bitter taste-reducing efficacies of
-CD were much lower than that of
-CD. In comparative sensory analysis for the bitter taste, RGE-
-CD10, prepared using 10%(w/w) of
-CD, showed a score of 1.93(decreased by about 78%) compared to RGE as the control. In addition, in sensory analysis for flavor, RGE-
-CD10showed a score of 5.60. Upon increasing the amount of
-CD to 15%(w/w) and 20%(w/w), respectively, the bitter taste of RGE-
-CD was removed and the flavor of RGE disappeared(scores of 2.67 and 1.67, respectively). Therefore RGE-
-CD10 was chosen as an optimum. The same dosages of RGE and RGE-
-CD10 were orally administered to SD(Sprague-Dawley) rats on a saponin basis, and the plasma concentrations of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 were measured over time to estimate the average AUC(area under the plasma concentration versus time curve) of the ginsenosides. After the oral administration, there were no significant differences in the AUC values of the RGE and RGE-
-CD 10 groups for ginsenoside Rg1. However, AUC values for ginsenoside Rb1 were
in the RGE group and
in the RGE-
-CD 10 group, respectively. Therefore, the bioavailability of ginsenoside Rb1 in the RGE-
-CD 10 group was significantly higher by up to 315% compared with that in the RGE group(p = 0.0029). These results show that the bitter taste of RGE can be simultaneously removed by the complexation of RGE and
-CD) along with increased bioavailability.
Detection of Peanuts in Commercially Processed Foods by an Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Immunoassay
Kim, Mi-Hye ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Shon, Dong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 1, 2009, Pages 111~115
In this study we analysed for peanuts in processed foods using an enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (ELFA), and compared the results with labeled ingredients. Crude peanut protein (CPP) was immunized into rabbits to produce specific antibodies(Ab). A sandwich ELFA was established using anti-CPP Ab and Ab-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate. The cross-reactivities of the Ab toward CPP, peanuts, almonds, soybeans, and walnuts were 100, 9.8,
, and 0%, respectively. The samples included 19 items consisting of biscuits, snacks, chocolates, and so on. The results from the sandwich ELFA showed that peanuts were contained in 7 of the processed food items, among which, 5 items were labeled as having peanuts present but 2 items were not. One of the 2 items that was peanut-detected but unlabeled was a biscuit labeled to contain almonds and assayed to contain
peanuts, which might have been due to the weak cross-reactivity of the Ab toward almonds. The other item was a snack labeled to contain soybeans and assayed to contain 0.098% peanuts, which might have been due to peanut cross-contamination during processing, since the crossreactivity of the Ab toward soybeans was very weak. These results suggest that ELFA is a good tool to detect peanuts in processed foods, and allergens in certain processed foods should be labeled correctly.