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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 41, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Development and Characterization of Trans Free Margarine Stock from Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification of Avocado and Palm Oils
Lee, Yun-Jeung ; Lee, Ki-Teak ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 231~237
Trans free margarine stock (TFMS) was produced by lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO), avocado oil (AO) and palm oil (PO). A blend of FHSBO, AO, and PO with a 1:5:4 (30:150:120 g, respectively) ratio was interesterified with lipozyme RM IM(from Rhizomucor miehei) in a 1 L-batch type reactor at 65 for 12 hr, and the physicochemical and melting properties of TFMS were compared with commercial margarine. The solid fat content (%) of the TFMS was analyzed at 25, 30, and
, respectively, while its melting point was
. The trans fatty acid content of the TFMS was below 0.1%. It also had acid, saponification, and iodine values of 0.4, 173.9, and 58.6, respectively. In HPLC chromatograms of the TFMS, newly synthesized peaks of triacylglycerol molecules were observed by using reverse-phase HPLC with evaporative light-scattering detection. Normal-phase HPLC with UV detection was used to quantify tocopherols in the TFMS, indicating that its
-tocopherol contents were 5.7, 2.1, and 1.7 mg/100 g, respectively.
Survey of Heavy Metal Contents of Circulating Agricultural Products in Korea
Kim, Hee-Yun ; Kim, Jae-In ; Kim, Jin-Chul ; Park, Ji-Eun ; Lee, Kyung-Jin ; Kim, Sung-Il ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Jang, Young-Mi ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 238~244
This survey was conducted as a surveillance program following the establishment of safety guidelines for agricultural products in Korea. Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in 421 samples using a mercury analyzer or ICP-MS. The average levels of Pb in mg/kg were 0.021 for rice, 0.020 for corn, 0.028 for soybeans, 0.034 for red beans, 0.025 for sweet potatoes, 0.021 for potatoes, 0.019 for Chinese cabbage, 0.031 for spinach, 0.021 for Welsh onions, and 0.011 for radishes. The average levels of Cd in mg/kg were 0.021 for rice, 0.002 for corn, 0.020 for soybeans, 0.006 for red beans, 0.008 for sweet potatoes, 0.011 for potatoes, 0.007 for Chinese cabbage, 0.035 for spinach, 0.006 for Welsh onions, and, 0.006 for radishes. The average levels of As in mg/kg were 0.103 for rice, 0.005 for corn, 0.007 for soybeans, 0.005 for red beans, 0.005 for sweet potatoes, 0.004 for potatoes, 0.007 for Chinese cabbage, 0.015 for spinach, 0.009 for Welsh onions and, 0.006 for radishes. Finally, the average levels of Hg in
were 2.3 for rice, 0.2 for corn, 0.6 for soybeans, 1.4 for red beans, 0.1 for sweet potatoes, 0.3 for potatoes, 0.5 Chinese cabbage, 2.1 for spinach, 0.5 for Welsh onions, and 0.2 for radishes. Based on the Korean public nutrition report 2005, these levels (or amounts) are calculated only at 2.6% for Pb, 8.7% for Cd, 1.2% for Hg of those presented in provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) which has been established by FAO/WHO. Therefore, the levels presented here are presumed to be adequately safe.
Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Polyphenolic Compounds from Apple Pomace by Response Surface Methodology
Kim, Yoon-Sook ; Kim, Ro-Sa ; Moon, Ji-Hye ; Ji, Joong-Ryong ; Choi, Hee-Don ; Park, Yong-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 245~250
This study examined the optimization of alcohol extraction conditions for maximizing the total polyphenols derived from apple pomace, by response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of four independent variables, including
(ratio of solvent to sample content),
(extraction time), and
(extraction temperature), were investigated at five levels using central composite design (CCD).
(total polyphenols) were chosen as dependent variables. The coefficients of determination,
, were greater than 0.900 (0.9042 and 0.9555). The results showed that the model fit was very significant (p<0.001). The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: 13.00 mL/g for the ratio of solvent to sample content, 89.02 min for dipping time, 180 min for extraction time, and
for extraction temperature. At these conditions, the predicted total polyphenol content was 29.68 mg catechin equiv./g.
Changes in Quality of Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) during Storage at Different Temperatures
Youn, Aye-Ree ; Kwon, Ki-Hyun ; Kim, Byeong-Sam ; Kim, Sang-Hee ; Noh, Bong-Soo ; Cha, Hwan-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 251~257
The effects of temperature variations during storage on the quality characteristics of muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.) were investigated. In samples stored at
, weight losses were almost 2.9- and 3.4-fold higher, respectively, compared to samples stored at
. Soluble solids slightly increased except in the samples stored at
, but acidity decreased over the entire storage period. Firmness decreased with storage time, but the samples stored at
had a lesser decrease in firmness than the samples stored at other temperatures. Water loss from the muskmelon stalk was most inhibited, and vitamin C content was maintained for the longest period, with storage at
. Mineral contents (Ca, Na, Fe, Mg, K) were best maintained in muskmelon samples stored at
for 15 days, but levels had decreased by 30 days. Microbiological quality was not appreciably different at any storage temperature at 18 days; however, samples stored at
had deteriorated by 25 days. The results of sensory evaluations indicated that taste was best retained in samples stored at
for 15 days, although changes in taste were evident at all storage temperatures. When the samples were stored over 22 days at
, retention of texture and overall acceptability were more inferior compared to samples stored at
. These results suggest that storage at
can be used to reduce deterioration in muskmelons without significant loss of their quality attributes.
Estimation of Measurement Uncertainty for the HPLC Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat
Ok, Hyun-Ee ; Chang, Hyun-Joo ; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk ; Cho, Jae-Young ; Chun, Hyang-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 258~264
The principal objective of this study was to estimate the measurement uncertainty associated with determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin generated by Fusarium strain, in food. In service of this goal, wheat as a food matrix was analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection using an immunoaffinity column for clean-up. The uncertainty sources in the measurement process were identified by sample weight, final volume, and sample concentration in extraction volume with components including standard stock solution, working standard solution, 5 standard solutions, calibration curve, matrix, and instrument. The expanded uncertainty for DON at a concentration of 300
was estimated as 71.62
using a coverage factor of two, which provides a confidence level of approximately 95%. The most influential component in the uncertainty sources was the recovery of the wheat matrix, followed by the calibration curve. These results indicate that all efforts may be directed toward reducing the uncertainties of the recovery of the wheat matrix and the calibration curve to obtain a reliable HPLC-UV method for DON analysis in wheat.
Quality Attributes of Bread Made of Frozen Dough Added with Milk Protein-Polysaccharide Mixtures
Shon, Jin-Han ; Jeung, Jeung-Il ; Jung, Dong-Sik ; Lee, Hong-Yeol ; Eun, Jong-Bang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 265~271
The quality attributes of bread made with milk protein (casein, C; whey protein, W) and polysaccharide (sodium alginate, A;
-carrageenan, K) mixtures were investigated to study the method to suppressing quality deterioration during storage. Bread prepared with the CA mixture had a higher specific loaf volume compared to the control. And bread made with the WA mixture had reduced moisture loss during storage compared to the control. The hardness of control and breads containing protein-polysaccharide mixtures increased during storage, but hardness increased more in the control than the treatments. In terms of crumb color, the breads containing protein-polysaccharide mixtures had higher
values, but lower
values than the control. Finally, there were no significant differences in sensory quality among the control and treatment breads. Overall, data indicate that the addition of CA and WA improved the baking quality of bread and retarded staling.
Three Dimensional Mathematical Simulation for Predicting the Shelf Life of Tofu Packaged in a Semi-rigid Plastic Container
Kim, Jai-Neung ; Lee, Youn-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 272~277
In this research, three dimensional mathematical models were developed to predict the shelf life of tofu packaged in a semi-rigid plastic container. A model combining oxygen transfer through the package and oxygen consumption within the package was considered. According to the results, the model simulations estimated that the number of microorganisms in the filled water was higher than that in the tofu, suggesting the shelf life of packaged tofu was not affected by the number of microorganisms in the tofu product, but rather by the number of organisms in the filled water. Additionally, the effects of the physical properties of the packaging material, such as oxygen permeability through the package, oxygen diffusion coefficient, the initial oxygen concentration in the filled water, and the depth of the filled water in the packaged tofu, were also observed.
Quality Characteristics of White Pan Bread Containing HPMC, MC, and Sodium Alginate
Kim, Mi-Young ; Lee, Jeong-Hoon ; Lee, Si-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 278~283
This study was carried out to evaluate the quality characteristics of white pan breads containing 0.5% of gums, including HPMC, MC and SA. Moisture content, water activity, cooling loss, bread volume, rheological, and sensory evaluations were performed to examine the bread quality characteristics. Moisture content and water activity were highest in the bread with added HPMC. HPMC showed the smallest cooling loss among the breads compared to the other added gums. The bread with added SA had the thelargest volume at
mL. In terms of rheological properties, the hardness of the bread containing HPMC was lowest and the springness of the bread with added SA was the highest. In sensory evaluations, the bread containing HPMC was evaluated as the most preferred product by acquiring the highest scores in internal and external evaluations. Consequently, the bread containing 0.5% SA showed better volume and springiness values. However, the bread containing 0.5% HPMC showed greater moisture content, greater water activity, lower cooling loss, and better sensory evaluation scores. Based on the overall results, HPMC was considered to be the most effective hydrocolloid to increase bread quality.
Enhancement of the Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Berberis koreana Bark by Using a Low Temperature and High-Pressure Extraction Process
Jin, Ling ; Ha, Ji-Hye ; Jeong, Myoung-Hoon ; Chung, Eul-Kwon ; Chung, Ae-Ran ; Kim, Jin-Chul ; Ahn, Ju-Hee ; Lee, Hyeon-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 284~291
This study was conducted to characterize the enhanced antioxidant and anticancer activities of Berberis koreana bark following a low temperature and high pressure extraction process. The results indicate that the B. koreana bark extracted as described showed a 93% increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity. Inhibition activity of xanthine oxidase was highest by this extraction process. In addition the growth of human lung cancer cells (A549), human stomach cancer cells (AGS), human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human liver cancer cells (Hep3B) were inhibited by 70.8%, 86.2%, 84.3% and 62.5% respectively. These data indicate that this low temperature and high pressure extraction technique results in the efficient extraction of bioactive compounds from rigid plant materials. This process could also be combined with other techniques to improve extraction yields and identify new biologically active substances from relatively hard plants.
The Geographical Discrimination of Korean and Chinese Soybeans (Glycine max(L.) merrill) Using NMR Relaxation Methods
Kim, Mi-Hyun ; Rho, Jeong-Hae ; Lee, Cherl-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 292~295
To discriminate the geographical origin (Korea vs. China) of soybean (Glycine max(L.) merrill) samples (Korean samples n=25, Chinese samples n=24), proximate composition of soybeans and relaxation times were analyzed using low field NMR. Composition results indicate that there are no significant differences in moisture, fat, or ash contents between soybeans. The crude protein content of Korean soybeans, however, was higher than that of Chinese soybeans (p<0.05). The relaxation times of T1-IR (p<0.0001), T1-SR (p<0.0001), and T2-SE (p<0.0086) in Korean soybeans were longer than those in Chinese soybeans. The geographical origin of soybeans could be identified using a canonical discriminant analysis using two relaxation times (T1-IR and T1-SR) with 96% accuracy. Furthermore, in this study, a canonical discriminant analysis using four relaxation times (T1-IR, T1-SR, T2-SE, and T2-CPMG) could discriminate the geographical origin with 100% accuracy. It was possible to identify the geographical origin of Korean and Chinese soybeans using relaxation times from 10 MHz NMR.
Characterization and Volatile Flavor Components in Glutinous Rice Wines Prepared with Different Yeasts of Nuruks
Kim, Hye-Ryun ; Kwon, Young-Hee ; Jo, Sung-Jin ; Kim, Jae-Ho ; Ahn, Byung-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 296~301
In order to investigate the effect of different yeasts (La Parisienne (LP), Y18-2, Y54-3, Y90-2, Y90-9 and Y272-7) from nuruks on the quality of Glutinous rice wines, physicochemical properties and volatile flavor components were evaluated. Glutinous rice wines prepared with different yeasts were analyzed for ethanol, pH, total acid, amino acid, soluble solid, coloring degree, UV absorbance, reducing sugar, organic acid, free sugar and volatile compounds. After fermentation for 17 days, the ethanol contents ranged from 13.40 to 14.50%, while the total acid levels were from 0.33 to 0.44%. The amino acid contents in six samples ranged from 0.13 to 0.18%, while soluble solid contents ranged from 12.1 to
. The glutinous rice wine prepared with LP showed the highest level of coloring degree, soluble solid and reducing sugar among six samples. Organic acid contents of the glutinous rice wine prepared with LP had the highest levels of lactic acid and acetic acid, while the glutinous rice wine prepared with Y90-9 had the highest level of succinic acid. In all glutinous rice wines tested, the most abundant free sugars were glucose followed by maltose. Volatile flavor components in the glutinous rice wines were identified by using GC-MSD. Nineteen esters, ten alcohols, eight acids, one aldehyde and one miscellaneous compound were identified in the glutinous rice wines. Using relative peak area, it was found that other than ethyl alcohol, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester was the major component, predominantly found in the range of 2.73-10.41%. Phenylethyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate and tetradecanoic acid ethyl ester were some of the major volatile components present through the fermentation, respectively. Overall, it was shown that different yeast strains from nuruks greatly affected chemical and volatile characteristics of the glutinous rice wines.
Quantification of Caffeic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Hot-water Extracts from Leaves of Perilla frutescens
Lee, Hyun-Sun ; Lee, Hyun-Ah ; Hong, Chung-Oui ; Yang, Sung-Yong ; Hong, Sung-Yu ; Park, Sang-Yul ; Lee, Ho-Jung ; Lee, Kwang-Won ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 302~306
The principal objective of this investigation was to identify adequate species for the harvest of Perilla frutescens leaves, which provide profound antioxidant activities, and harbor abundant caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid. Namchun, Donggeul-2, Bora, Sae-bora and Neul-bora variants of the plant were assessed herein. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effects of these plants, and utilized an HPLC system to verify their caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid contents. Dried Perilla frutescens leaves were boiled at a temperature of
for three hours, and were lyopholized in a freezedryer. The extracts were then processed in order to confirm their antioxidant activities via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging activity assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, total flavonoid content and total polyphenol content assays. According to the observed antioxidant results of the five tested species of Perilla frutescens leaves, Bora and Donggeul-2 were shown to have more potent antioxidant activities than the other tested variants. The scavenge 50% of DPPH radical (
of DPPH) values were 241
DM/mL in Donggeul-2 and 261
DM/mL in Bora. Based on the results of the FRAP assay, the Bora variant showed a value of 796 mM
DM, and Donggeul-2 exhibited a value of 748 mM
DM, of which the total polyphenol contents were measured as 69.4 g GAE/kg DM and 61.8 g GAE/kg DM, respectively. Moreover, the Bora variant had the highest level of caffeic acid, and Donggeul-2 showed the highest rosmarinic acid content among the tested samples (0.87 mg/100 g wet base and 121 mg/100 g wet base, respectively). According to the results of this experiment, we selected two species, Bora and Donggeul-2, which were both verified to contain adequate and favorable antioxidant activities.
The Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and/or Exercise on Body Weight and Body Composition in College Women with High Body Fat Mass
Son, Say-Jin ; Lee, Ji-Eun ; Park, Eun-Kyo ; Paik, Eun-Young ; Lee, Ji-Eun ; Kim, Young-Jae ; Kim, Tae-Wook ; Kim, Dae-Han ; Kim, Jong-Hyuck ; Jung, In-Kyung ; Kim, Jung-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 307~312
To investigate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and/or exercise on body fat mass and weight, college women of normal weight (21
30%) were recruited for this study. The participants were divided into 4 groups: placebo-no exercise, placebo-exercise, CLA-no exercise, and CLA-exercise groups. Three grams of either a placebo (corn oil) or CLA were taken every day for 12 weeks, and the exercise groups performed 80 minutes of aerobic and anaerobic exercise three times a week for 12 weeks. There were no differences in nutrient intakes among the groups. The CLA-exercise group had significantly lower body weight, BMI and body fat mass compared to the placebo-no exercise group. In addition, the HDL-cholesterol levels of subjects in the CLA-no exercise and CLA-exercise groups significantly increased compared to those in the placebo-no exercise group. These results suggest that a combination of CLA supplementation with exercise could efficiently reduce body fat mass and body weight compared to CLA supplementation or exercise alone.
Enhancement of Immune Activity of Spirulina maxima by Low Temperature Ultrasonification Extraction
Oh, Sung-Ho ; Han, Jae-Gun ; Ha, Ji-Hye ; Kim, Young ; Jeong, Myoung-Hoon ; Kim, Seong-Sub ; Jeong, Hyang-Suk ; Choi, Geun-Pyo ; Park, Uk-Yeon ; Kang, Do-Hyung ; Lee, Hyeon-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 313~319
The marine microalga Spirulina maxima was extracted using water or ethanol at 100 or
and by ultrasonification in water at
. The ultrasonification technique generated the highest yield (19.8%). To be therapeutically useful, the extraction should yield a product with low cytotoxicity and high immunity against skin infections. The cytotoxicity of all extracts (1.0 mg/mL) was below 25%. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the extract generated by ultrasonification was 5%. Extracts prepared in the described manners could inhibit hyaluronidase activity by up to 40% compared to the control. Increased growth of human B, T and NK cells and an increase in cytokine secretion were observed, confirming the interrelationship between both human immune and skin immune activity. The extract prepared by ultrasonification increased the growth of human B, T and NK cells up to
cells/mL, respectively. The extract prepared by ultrasonification also greatly increased the secretion of both IL-6 and
. Moreover, it was estimated that protein, Na and leucine occupy a high ratio. Accordingly, this study has confirmed that extracts prepared as described have the potential to effectively increase skin immunity.
Acute Oral Toxicity and Anti-obesity Effect of Diglyceride Preparation Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Rat
Hong, Soon-Gi ; Park, Chae-Kyu ; Lee, Mi-Ja ; Chung, Shin-Gyo ; Lee, Young-Ho ; Hyun, Sun-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 320~325
The present study was carried out to investigate the acute oral toxicity and anti-obesity effects of a diglyceride preparation containing conjugated linoleic acid (DG+CLA). To test its acute oral toxicity, the DG+CLA was injected into 30 rats (15 males and 15 females) at dosage of 2,000 mg/kg and 5,000 mg/kg. Mortality rates, clinical signs, and body weight changes were monitored for 14 days following administration. According to the results, the lethal dose (
) of DG+CLA was determined as >5,000 mg/kg in both sexes. There were no significant changes in general conditions, clinical signs, body weight, and gross lesions between the vehicle control and DG+CLA groups. For the anti-obesity studies, obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed saline, soybean oil, diglyceride, and DG+CLA, respectively, for 8 weeks. The DG+CLA groups presented significant differences in body weight, food efficiency ratio, serum lipid levels, and fat weight. Overall, the results showed that the DG+CLA did not have acute oral toxicity and reduced body weight, serum lipid levels, and fat gain.
Determination of Heterocyclic Amines in Roasted Fish and Shellfish by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization/Mass Spectrometry
Lee, Jae-Hwan ; Back, Yoo-Mi ; Lee, Kwang-Geun ; Shin, Han-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 326~333
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic substances that are formed during the heating of protein-rich foods. HCAs are generally found at low amounts in a complex matrix, which requires sophisticated analysis. In this study, HCAs were extracted from lyophilized fish and shellfish samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The HCA recoveries in the fish and shellfish ranged from 15.7 to 74.7% with standard deviations from 0.2 to 7.63%. And HCA concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 1,117.7
in cooked food samples. 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were the most abundant HCAs formed in the muscle of fried mackerel, at levels of 1,117.7, 926.6, and 133.7 ng/g, respectively. 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-aminodipiryrido[1,2-a:3,2-d]imidazole(Glu-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole(A
C), 2-amino-3methyl-9H-pyrido [1,2-a:3,2-d]imidazole(MeA
C), 2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (TriMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline(7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were only detected by small quantities ranged from 1.5 to 98.6 ng/g. Overall, this study provides useful information on HCA levels in fish and shellfish products consumed in Korea.
Microbial Contamination Analysis to Assess the Safety of Marketplace Sushi
Cho, Sun-Kyung ; Moon, Bo-Youn ; Park, Jong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 334~338
To determine the contamination status of Sushi fish and rice, seventy-nine samples of Sushi were collected from wholesale markets and Japanese restaurants within the Seoul area and subsequently analyzed for food-borne pathogens. Total aerobic counts ranged from 4 to 6 log CFU/g for the sliced raw fish, and from 3 to 5 log CFU/g for the boiled rice. Higher levels of contamination were detected in bream and shrimp Sushi versus other types. Coliform counts of 3-4 log CFU/g were detected in the sliced raw fish, whereas levels in the boiled rice were one log CFU/g lower compared to the raw fish. The raw Sushi fish had higher amounts of contamination than the boiled rice, however, E.coli was not detected. The prevalence rates of pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, in the raw fish were 17% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the prevalence rates in the boiled rice were 11% and 8% for S. aureus and B.cereus, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were also detected; however, other pathogens such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Clostridium perfrigens, and Yersinia enterocolitica were not detected. Among the high contaminating pathogens, B.cereus was found in 13% of samples from the wholesale markets, while S.aureus was found in 30% of samples from the Japanese restaurants. Therefore, these data suggest that the primary microbial hazard factors for Sushi are S. aureus and B. cereus, in addition to V. parahaemolyticus, and further risk assessments should focus on those pathogens.
Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Processed Chestnut Products
Seo, Il-Won ; Nam, He-Jung ; Kim, Dong-Hyuk ; Shin, Han-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 339~344
Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in processed chestnut products were determined by HPLC/FLD. The methodology involved procedures of sonication with water, extraction with hexane, and clean-up on a Sep-pak florisil cartridge. The PAH limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.012 to 0.382
and from 0.042 to 1.273
, respectively. The coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-day assays were 0.02-4.48% and 0.37-9.83%, respectively, and the accuracies were 81.95-125.44% and 79.89-116.53%, respectively. The overall recoveries for eight PAHs spiked into the processed chestnut products ranged from 87.83 to 100.56%. As a result, PAH contents were not detected in the processed chestnut products.
Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Cell Wall Materials from Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata)
Kan, Yoon-Han ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 345~349
This study measured the amounts of uronic acid, total sugars, non-cellulosic neutral sugars, phenolic compounds as well as antioxidants activity in cell wall materials (CWM) derived from different parts of deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata). The values of the uronic acid (UA): neutral sugars (NS) ratio in polymers extracted from the CWM of the flesh and skin were 4 and 6, respectively. The total sugar contents of the flesh and skin were 788.6 and 824.9
of CWM, respectively. Galactose and arabinose were the main noncellulosic neutral sugars. The chemical structure of five phenolic compounds from the CWM were analyzed and identified as vanillic acid, p-OH-benzaldehyde, vanillin, ferulic acid, and 8-O-4' diferulic acid by HPLC spectral data. Among them, p-OH-benzaldehyde, vanillin, and 8-O-4' diferulic acid were the first compounds identified from the deodeok. The content of 8-O-4' diferulic acid in the skin CWM was 56.1
AIR (alcohol insoluble residue). The ethanol-NaOH fractions from CWM had the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activities, followed by the AIR fractions and ethanol fractions.
A PCR Method for Rapid Detection of Peanut Ingredients in Food
Lee, Su-Jin ; Yoon, Jang-Ho ; Hong, Kwang-Won ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 3, 2009, Pages 350~353
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) often causes severe allergic reactions in sensitive people. Agglutinin is known to be one of the allergenic proteins in peanut. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed to detect peanut ingredients in food using a primer pair corresponding to the agglutinin gene. This primer pair enabled PCR amplification of specific regions of agglutinin DNA from peanut, but not from 11 other nuts, beans, and cereals (pistachio, almond, sunflower seed, pine nut, walnut, soybean, black bean, kidney bean, azuki bean, rice, and black rice). The proposed PCR method successfully identified all of the 6 processed foods containing peanut whereas 13 other processed foods, which don't declare peanuts as an ingredient, were all negative. The detection limit of this method for purified peanut DNA was 100 pg/reaction. The sensitivity of this method was sufficient to detect peanut DNA in soybean DNA mixture which had been spiked with 0.1% peanut DNA.