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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 41, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
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Influence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Formation in Sesame Oils with Different Roasting Conditions
Seo, Il-Won ; Nam, He-Jung ; Shin, Han-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 355~361
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental carcinogenic compounds that arise by several means including food processing methods such as smoking and direct drying and cooking. This study examined the concentration of PAHs in sesame oils with various roasting temperatures (190, 220 and
), methods (direct heating vs. indirect hot air heating), and times (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min). The PAHs in the sesame oils were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase clean up (Florisil), followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. According to the results, mean levels of total PAHs increased when the sesame oils were roasted at increasing temperatures and times. The sesame oil roasted at
for 25 min had the highest mean value of total PAHs (4.66
/kg). The results of this study suggest that the indirect hot air roasting method decreased PAH formation during sesame oil processing.
Influence of Roasting Conditions on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contents in Ground Coffee Bean
Nam, He-Jung ; Seo, Il-Won ; Shin, Han-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 362~368
Roasting may lead to the formation of undesired compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, green coffee beans were roasted under controlled conditions and the formation of PAHs during the roasting process was monitored. Roasting was performed in a hot air roaster, with an inlet air temperature varying from 150 to
for 5, 10, and 20 min. The PAH content of the roasted coffee was then evaluated by HPLC-FLD. The levels of total PAHs in Arabica (Colombia, Brazil) and Robusta (India) coffee samples were 1.26-215.07, 1.85-178.14, and 0.18-2.61
Starch Liquefaction and Residence Time Distribution in Twin-Screw Extrusion of
Kim, Sung-Uk ; Lee, Seung-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 369~373
-Waxy corn starch was used as a feed for twin-screw extrusion in order to enhance starch liquefaction with added thermostable
-amylase (derived from Bacillus licheniformis). The residence time distribution and starch liquefaction were investigated. The starch liquefaction was analyzed in terms of reducing sugar contents, molecular size from gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and microstructure from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The use of
-starch contributed to the production of more reducing sugar than the use of raw starch use alone. From GPC, the effect of
- starch on the molecular size reduction was shown to be small. From SEM, irregular and damaged surface were observed on the extrudate from
-starch, as compared to those from raw starch. The spread of residence time distribution curves was greater with feed of
-starch than raw starch, indicating that
-starch was hard to flow forward during extrusion. This could be improved by increasing the feed moisture content and barrel temperature of extruder.
Changes of Physico-Characteristics in Green Pumpkin during Storage by Packaging Material and Method
Lee, Jin-Won ; Shin, Hye-Seoung ; Lee, Kyung-Hee ; Park, Jang-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 374~379
In this study, we investigated effects of different packaging materials and methods on physico-characteristics of green pumpkin during storage at
. Whole green pumpkin samples were packaged with polyvinyl chloride film (PVCF), orange coating film (OCF), paraffin film (PF), or paper with paraffin film (PWPF) and stored at
. Weight loss, pH, firmness, browning, and gas composition (
) inside the film packages were evaluated. All characteristics of the unpackaged group (control group, CON) changed rapidly and lost marketability as compared with the packed pumpkin group. The pH values in all of the green pumpkin samples were between 6.38 and 6.67, and decreased with increased storage time. Over the storage time, all packaged pumpkin groups evidenced prevented or retarded deterioration of the green pumpkin samples in terms of appearance, texture, and discoloration. Firmness decreased slightly with increased storage time. Brown color difference were much higher in the controls than in the film-packaged green pumpkin samples, and increased rapidly in the early stages of storage. These results were attributed to reduce respiration rates as a result of elevated carbon dioxide and reduced oxygen levels in the packages. The results of this study demonstrated that the green pumpkin packaged with PWPF and PVCF showed retarded deterioration as compared to the CON, OCF and PF samples in a controlled atmosphere, and thus significant differences were noted according to the packaging material and methods used.
The Comparison of Extraction Process for Enhancement of Immunomodulating Activities of Ulva pertusa kjellman
Han, Jae-Gun ; Ha, Ji-Hye ; Choi, Yeong-Beom ; Go, Jeong-Lim ; Kang, Do-Hyung ; Lee, Hyeon-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 380~385
The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of Ulva pertusa kjellman extract after undergoing a low temperature and high-pressure extraction process. First, the extracts obtained under the extraction conditions of 150 MPa and
showed a relatively high antioxidant activity, with 90% super oxide radical activity compared to the extracts from conventional extraction process with water at
. This extract also improved the growth of both human immune B and T cells up to
cells/mL compared to
cells/mL in adding the extracts from conventional processes. It was found that the extracts obtained at 100 MPa and
showed better activities in NK cell growth and NO production from macrophage as
cells/mL and 30.0
. Overall, the extracts from high pressure and low temperature extraction process had relatively higher immune activation activity, possibly because the low temperature and high pressure extraction process may have higher yields of active compounds and have less damage to useful ingredients from relatively weak marine natural resources, such as Ulva pertusa kjellmann than that from the conventional extraction system.
Antioxidant Activities and Quality Characteristics of Germinated Rough Rice Tea according to Roasting Temperature, Time and Leaching Condition
Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Lee, Youn-Ri ; Hwang, In-Guk ; Woo, Koan-Sik ; Kim, Kyoung-Ho ; Kim, Kee-Jong ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 386~391
To verify the possibility of manufacturing a germinated rough rice tea, germinated rough rice was roasted at 200, 220, and
for 10, 20, and 30 min. The treated rice powder was then put into tea bags and leached for 1, 3, and 5 min, after which their antioxidant, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics were compared. The total polyphenol content and 2,2'-Azino-bis-(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of the germinated rough rice tea increased as the roasting temperature increased as well as in response to increased roasting and leaching times. Furthermore, the greater the roasting temperature, roasting time, and leaching time, the greater the increase in total soluble solid contents. Moreover, the turbidity and browning index of the germinated rice tea rose as the roasting temperature, roasting time, and leaching time increased. Additionally, the pH tended to decrease as the roasting temperature, roasting time, and leaching time increased. Evaluation of the sensory characteristics of the germinated rice tea revealed that the formation of a Maillard reaction product in the course of heating the rice added a unique flavor, which led to increase preference for the color, flavor, and taste, and therefore, the overall preference.
Microbiological Safety Assessment of a Perilla Leaf Postharvest Facility for Application of a Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) System
Kim, Kyeong-Yeol ; Nam, Min-Ji ; Lee, Hyo-Won ; Shim, Won-Bo ; Yoon, Yo-Han ; Kim, Se-Ri ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; Ryu, Jae-Gee ; Hong, Moo-Ki ; You, Oh-Jong ; Chung, Duck-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 392~398
This study identified risk factors of cross-contamination of foodborne pathogens and established a good agricultural practice (GAP) system for an agricultural products processing center (APC) for perilla leaves. All samples were collected before and after a standard work shift at the APC, while perilla leaves were also collected after each step in the APC. In addition, the workers and their surroundings were sampled by swabbing. The total plate count (TPC) and coliform count in the water samples increased significantly (p<0.05) to 3.36 and 1.73 log CFU/mL after work, respectively. However, no Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were detected. The bacterial populations of the workers and their surroundings did not differ significantly (p
0.05) before and after work. However, Staphylococcus aureus (<1.66 log CFU) was detected at a high rate (13-50%) in the basket, packing table, gloves and cloth. Although perilla leaves passed through the washing steps, the TPC and coliform bacterial populations on the final products were higher (p
0.05) than those of unwashed perilla leaves, which indicates that the washing system was not functioning properly. Accordingly, a GAP system with a better washing system should be employed at this facility.
Effect of the Mixed Culture of Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum on the Quality of Cheonggukjang
Ju, Kyung-Eun ; Oh, Nam-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 399~404
The goal of this study was to improve the quality of cheonggukjang by the optimization of the inoculation methods of the Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) strains. In order to optimize the mixed cultivation of B. subtilis and L. plantarum, the B. subtilis strain was inoculated into steamed soybeans after cultivation of L. plantarum. Inoculation size of B. subtilis was changed to the simultaneous inoculation method in order to stimulate the growth of the L. plantarum in cheonggukjang. The viable cell count of L. plantarum increased from
CFU/g and B. subtilis grew to
CFU/g. These results showed that 2 strains were successfully able to grow in the steamed soybean for good quality of cheonggukjang by optimization of the inoculation methods. The sensory evaluation indicated that a favorable aroma and overall acceptance of cheonggukjang by the optimized mixed cultivation of B. subtilis and L. plantarum, which was relatively higher than those of cheonggukjang by single strain inoculation of B. subtilis.
Inhibitory Effect of Glycoprotein Isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau on Histamine Release and COX-2 Activity in RBL-2H3 Cells
Oh, Phil-Sun ; Lee, Hye-Jin ; Lim, Kye-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 405~412
The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of a glycoprotein isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau (CTB glycoprotein, 75 kDa) on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced allergic inflammation in RBL-2H3 cells. This experiment evaluated the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the activities of mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK), transcription factor (c-jun), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and histamine release in cells. The results showed that the CTB glycoprotein inhibited histamine release and COX-2 expression induced by IgE in the cells. The CTB glycoprotein also had suppressive effects on the expressions of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, c-jun, and the production of intracellular ROS in IgE-treated RBL-2H3 cells. The activities of c-jun and COX-2 were collectively blocked by ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) and p38 MAPK inhibitor (SKF86002), respectively. Hence, we speculate that CTB glycoprotein might be a component with potential use in the preparation of health supplements for the prevention of allergic diseases.
In vivo Immune Activity of Sap of the White Birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica)
Lee, Chang-Hyeon ; Cho, Young-Min ; Park, Eui-Seok ; Shin, Chang-seob ; Lee, Ju-Yeon ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 413~416
The sap of the white birch is one of the most widely used herbal medicines to treat gastrointestinal tract, jaundice, and various periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of white birch sap on in vivo immune agents in mice. The treatment of white birch sap on the forced swimming test has been used as a screening model for new immune enhancement agents. The hematological examination was significantly different in neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts between treatment and control groups. Moreover the white birch sap changed the phagocytic index, immobility duration time, and leukocyte counts in mice.
Changes of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAM) in Kimchi Using Different Raw Materials
Lee, Myung-Ki ; Lee, Hyun-Jung ; Park, Wan-Soo ; Koo, Kyung-Hyung ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Jang, Dai-Ja ; Suh, Joo-Won ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 417~422
The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) content and to find the best condition for SAM Kimchi during fermentation with the different kinds of raw materials of Kimchi and the diverse ways of making Kimchi. As fermentation was processing, pH of all Kimchi groups dramatically decreases at the beginning stage of experimentation. However, pH value was 4.2-4.3 in the last stage. Titratable acidity tends toward the similar results in pH value. At the first, the SAM content went down time substantially and then increases. Kimchi (A), which was made of the most basic raw materials, resulted in the lowest content of SAM. The most abundant SAM content of Kimchi was the Kimchi made with certain materials. Kimchi (I) had the most has SAM content, overall. The best time of fermentation was when pH was between 4.3 and 5.3, and titratable acidity was 0.5-1.0%. As the results of this study, the highest SAM content in Kimchi could be made when Kimchi was fermented for 9-12 days and titratable acidity showed 0.5-1.0% This study proved that the ratio of raw materials such as red pepper, fermented fished sauces, and other materials improved the levels of SAM in the Kimchi.
Antithrombotic and Cholesterol Reduction Effects of Defatted Soybean Grits Fermented by Bacillus subtilis NUC1
Lee, Sung-Gyu ; Kim, Hyun-Jeong ; Im, Nam-Kyung ; Lee, Eun-Ju ; Lee, Sam-Pin ; Lee, In-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 423~427
This study investigated antithrombotic and hypocholesterolemic activities of defatted soybean grits (DSG) and fermented DSG (FD). The FD was prepared by the solid state fermentation using Bacillus subtilis NUC1 at
for 24h. The water extracts of fermented DSG (FDW) exhibited higher fibrinolytic activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by ADP than water extracts of DSG (DW). However, the DW and FDW inhibited HMG-CoA reductase activity and significantly decreased the intracellular cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. In addition, DW treatment did not show any cholesterol adsorption capacity, while FDW demonstrated the highest cholesterol adsorption by 90%. The results suggest that fermented DSG have significant antithrombotic and hypocholesterolemic effects in vitro and these activities were improved during fermentation by B. subtilis NUC1.
Anti-hypertensive Activities of Lactobacillus Isolated from Kimchi
Yu, Mi-Hee ; Im, Hyo-Gwon ; Im, Nam-Kyung ; Hwang, Eun-Young ; Choi, Jun-Hyeok ; Lee, Eun-Ju ; Kim, Jong-Boo ; Lee, In-Seon ; Seo, Hwa-Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 428~434
This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-hypertensive effect of Lactobacillus sp. isolated from Kimchi by examining its effects on renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, lipid components and blood pressure using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) system. Most Lactobacillus sp. extracts (lysozyme, sonication and ethyl acetate extracts) showed higher capacities for the inhibition of ACE activity than those of cultured media. Particularly, LG 7, 8 and 42 of Lactobacillus sp. showed the strongest inhibitory activity among the Lactobacillus sp. extracts. The concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum were lower in the Lactobacillus sp. administration groups than in the control group, but these differences were not significant. The HDL-cholesterol concentrations of the LG 42 administration groups (IX, X) were significantly higher than that of the control group. At 4 weeks, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the LG 42 Lactobacillus sp. (
cfu/mL) group (XI) was about 27% lower than that of the control group (V). No adverse effects were observed on the liver and there was no difference in the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values among groups. The results of this study suggest that long term consumption of LG 42 Lactobacillus sp. may be beneficial to the prevention of high blood pressure.
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effect of Green Tea Extracts According to Storage Condition
Kwak, Ji Hyun ; Jeong, Chang-Ho ; Kim, Ji Hye ; Choi, Gwi Nam ; Shin, Young-Hee ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ; Cho, Sung Hwan ; Choi, Sung-Gil ; Heo, Ho Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 435~440
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, which enhance cholinergic transmission by reducing the enzymatic degradation of acetylcholine, are the only source of the compound that is currently approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these experiments, the concentration samples of green tea extracts were 100, 500, and 1,000
/mL. Among them, the highest concentration (1,000
/mL) of fresh green tea extracts showed the most potent inhibitory effect on AChE by reducing more than 40% of enzyme activity, and in a concentration-dependent pattern. In addition, we examined the effect of other storing conditions on AChE inhibition. In order to maintain storage for 3 months, the materials were held at the certain storing conditions of temperature (room temperature, 4 and
) and for water activity (0.81, 0.69, and 0.23). In these storing conditions, the difference in temperature did not contribute to the AChE inhibitory effect. Our presented data showed that the AChE inhibitory effect was affected by the concentration of green tea extract and by water activity (0.81). These results suggest that green tea may serve as a potential dietary source of AChE inhibitor.
Beneficial Effect of Collagen Peptide Supplement on Anti-aging Against Photodamage
Kim, Jeong-Kee ; Lee, Ji-Hae ; Yang, Mi-Sook ; Seo, Dae-Bang ; Lee, Sang-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 441~445
Recent research has revealed that hydrolyzed collagen peptides have beneficial effects in various diseases such as osteoarthritis and human rheumatoid arthritis and also play a protective role in skin by improving the activity of antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the effects of a novel mixture (AP-CPM01) containing collagen peptides and elastin peptides on photoaged hairless mice skin both in vivo and in vitro. To evaluate the effects of AP-CPM01 on UVBinduced skin wrinkle formation in vivo, the hairless mice were exposed to UVB irradiation and orally administered the AP-CPM01 at 333 mg/kg per day for 10 weeks. The effects on skin appearance and epidermal thickness were measured using bioengineering and histochemical methods. In addition, the influence of AP-CPM01 on collagen metabolism in human skin fibroblasts was also investigated. The skin of mice in the AP-CPM01 treated group had better appearance and less wrinkling than that of mice in the control group. In the human fibroblast cells, the amount of de novo procollagen synthesis was increased after AP-CPM01 treatment, reflecting that AP-CPM01 can induce de novo procollagen synthesis and reduce UVB-induced skin wrinkle formation. These results suggest that AP-CPM01 is a potent candidate for antiphotoaging functions.
Anti-Obesitic Effects of Cathepsin S Inhibitory Fraction Derived from Paecilomyces tenuipes in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Heo, Keon ; Myoung, Kil-Sun ; Lee, Jung-Hee ; Huh, Chul-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 446~451
In this study, cathepsin S (CTSS) inhibitory fraction was isolated from Paecilomyces tenuipes and anti-obesitic effects of the fraction were evaluated in mice, fed a high-fat diet. Hot water extract of P. tenuipes (DHW) was divided into 2 fractions, water eluate fraction (DHP1) and methanol eluate fraction (DHP2) using Diaion HP-20.
values for DHW, DHP1 and DHP2 against CTSS were 108.7, 890.3 and 2.3
/mL, respectively. To evaluate anti-obesitic effects of the fractions, each fraction was administrated orally to C57BL/6 mice for 4 weeks with a high-fat diet. DHP2 had the highest inhibitory effect on CTSS activity, causing serious reduction in weight gain, a reduction in the amount of adipose tissue and in serum lipids levels. These results suggest that the inhibition of CTSS by compounds derived from P. tenuipes may be effective in preventing and in ameliorating obesity.
Microbiological Characterization and Chlorine Treatment of Buckwheat Sprouts
Lee, Hyun-Hee ; Hong, Seok-In ; Kim, Dong-Man ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 452~457
In order to secure microbiological safety and quality of commercial vegetable sprouts, buckwheat seeds and sprouts were investigated for their microbiological flora and for the effect of chlorine treatment on quality. Microbiological analyses showed that major inherent bacteria including Enterobacter, Sphingomonas, and Klebsiella were found in commercial buckwheat sprouts with a population size ranging from
CFU/g. In addition, buckwheat seeds had a similar microbial flora to sprouts. Foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in the sprout or in the seed samples. Chlorine treatment with 50-150 ppm sodium hypochlorite noticeably reduced viable bacteria cell counts of the sprouts by about 1 log. However, no significant difference was observed among the different chlorine concentrations. After storage for 7 days at
, the sprouts treated with 100-150 ppm chlorine showed higher sensory scores in visual quality than the others (p<0.05). The results indicated that proper pretreatment, such as dipping in chlorinated water, could confer a beneficial effect on the microbiological safety and visual quality of buckwheat sprouts.
Establishment of a Method for the Analysis of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Lee, Ka-Jeong ; Suzuki, Toshiyuki ; Kim, Poong-Ho ; Oh, Eun-Gyoung ; Song, Ki-Cheol ; Kim, Ji-Hoe ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 458~463
To establish and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the rapid and accurate quantitation of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, we compared the results from different mobile phases and columns used for their analysis and collision energies for MS/MS experiments. Clear peaks of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were obtained by using a mobile phase comprising aqueous acetonitrile containing 2 mM ammonium formate and 50 mM formic acid. The collision energies were optimized to facilitate the most sensitive detection for each toxin, namely, OA, DTX1, pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), or yessotoxin (YTX). Further, the maximum ion response was obtained at a collision energy of 48 V for OA and DTX1. We compared the analytical performance of
columns. A wide range of toxins namely, OA, DTX1, PTX2, and YTX, except DTX3, were detected by both the columns. Although DTX3 was only detected by the
column, we found that the
column was also suitable for the quantitation of OA and DTX1 the toxins responsible for inducing diarrhea. The limit of detection of OA and DTX1 by the established LC-MS/MS conditions was 1 ng/g, and the limit of quantitation of the toxins under the same conditions was 3 ng/g. The process efficiencies were 91-118% for oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and 96-117% for mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) further, we observed no significant effect of matrix during the ionization process in LC-MS/MS. The comparison between mouse bioassay (MBA) and LC-MS/MS yielded varying results because low concentrations of OA and DTX1 were detected by LC-MS/MS in some shellfish samples, which provided positive results on MBA for DSP. The analysis time required by MBA for DSP analysis can be reduced by LC-MS/MS.
Optimizing Steeping Conditions of Waxy Rice Based on the Sensory Properties of Gangjung (a Traditional Korean Oil-Puffed Snack)
Kim, Haeng-Ran ; Kim, Kyung-Mi ; Kim, Kwang-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 464~470
This study was conducted to determine the optimal steeping period and temperature for Gangjung production, using response surface methodology based on the previously reported sensory characteristics. Five sensory attributes ('degree of expansion', 'sourness', 'butyric acid flavor', 'hardness' and 'degree of melting'), which showed high variability explained (
) and recognized to be important for the quality of Gangjung were selected for optimization. As a result, the optimal steeping temperature and period of waxy rice were determined to be
and 9 days, respectively.
Effects of Frying Time and Temperature on Formation of Acrylamide and Sensory Evaluation in French Fries
Kim, Jin-Man ; Choi, Ji-Hun ; Choi, Yun-Sang ; Han, Doo-Jeong ; Kim, Hack-Youn ; Lee, Mi-Ai ; Chung, Hae-Kyung ; Kim, Cheon-Jei ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 4, 2009, Pages 471~475
The objective of this research was to study the effect of different frying temperatures and time conditions on acrylamide formation, crispness, and sensory evaluations of french fries. Acrylamide concentration in french fries increased as frying temperature and cooking time increased. The french fries treated at
frying had higher crispness values than those with other treatments. Frying treatments for 2 min 30 sec had the highest crispness values of the french fries. Sensory evaluations in terms of color, texture, and overall acceptability, showed the better quality of french fries treated at the frying condition of
and 2 min 30 sec than with other treatments. French fries cooked at
for 2 min 30 sec had not only good sensory properties in french fries, but also led to a reduction in acrylamide formation.