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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Safety of Saccharin and Its Current Status of Regulation in the World
Kim, Jeong-Weon ; Baek, Hyung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 659~674
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.659
Saccharin was reported to cause urinary bladder cancer in male rats when fed at high doses in a two-generation study, which led to a ban on the use of saccharin in Canada. However, no carcinogenic effect has been observed in other animal experiments conducted with mice, hamsters, or monkeys. Furthermore, numerous epidemiological studies have indicated that there was no relationship between saccharin consumption and the risk of bladder cancer in the human population. Sodium saccharin produces urothelial bladder tumors in rats by the formation of a urinary calcium phosphatecontaining precipitate, which is not relevant to humans because of critical interspecies difference in urine composition. Consequently, in 1999 IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) concluded that saccharin and its salts cannot be classified as to their carcinogenicity in humans. In 2010, the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of the United States removed saccharin from its list of hazardous substances. It is expected that the use of saccharin in foods might be expanded because saccharin is currently considered safe.
Monitoring of Anti-impotence Drugs and Their Analogues in Food
Lee, Hyun-Sook ; Lee, Joon-Goo ; Kim, Jin-Chul ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Jang, Young-Mi ; Kim, Mee-Hye ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 675~682
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.675
This study was conducted to monitor the concentrations of 24 anti-impotence drugs and their analogues in various foods and dietary supplements, with the aim of ensuring the safety of the foods and supplements. The measurements were done in 226 samples using high performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Five male sexual function enhancing products have been detected as follows: acethylvardenafil (21,476 mg/kg; 15 mg/capsule from one sample), sildenafil (52,778 mg/kg, 29 mg/capsule in one sample; 71,535 mg/kg, 48 mg/capsule in one sample), and tadalafil (9,772-55,545 mg/kg, 6-33 mg/capsule in four samples). A sustainable monitoring of anti-impotence drugs and their analogues in various foods and dietary supplement is recommended.
Influence of Cooking on Nutrient Composition in Provitamin A- Biofortified Rice
Lee, Young-Tack ; Kim, Mi-Hyun ; Im, Ji-Soon ; Kim, Jae-Kwang ; Ha, Sun-Hwa ; Lee, Si-Myung ; Kweon, Soon-Jong ; Suh, Seok-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 683~688
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.683
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different cooking methods on the nutrient composition of genetically modified (GM) provitamin A(PA)-biofortified rice. PA-biofortified rice was subjected to different cooking methods, namely boiling and a soaking, steaming and roasting process. The proximate components (starch, protein, lipid and ash) of raw PA-biofortified rice were similar to those found in the parental non-GM rice, and were not significantly affected by a conventional boiling treatment. When compared with raw rice, boiled PA-biofortified rice showed a similar nutrient composition, despite a slight reduction in a majority of its amino acid contents. However, the PA-biofortified rice that underwent the soaking/steaming/roasting process exhibited a significant reduction in a majority of its amino acids and mineral contents. This procedure also led to a significant reduction in carotenoid contents. The overall results of this study demonstrate that using a conventional boiling method for PA-biofortified rice retains nutrients better than a soaking/steaming/roasting method.
Optimization of Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification for Production of Human Milk Fat Substitutes by Response Surface Methodology
Son, Jeoung-Mae ; Lee, Jeung-Hee ; Xue, Cheng-Lian ; Hong, Soon-Taek ; Lee, Ki-Teak ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 689~695
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.689
1,3-Dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO)-rich human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was synthesized from tripalmitin (PPP)-rich fraction and oleic ethyl ester by a lipase-catalyzed interesterification. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the presence of palmitic acid at sn-2 position (
, %) and of oleic acid at sn-1,3 (
, %), with the reaction factors as substrate molar ratio of PPP-rich fraction to oleic ethyl ester (
, 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6), reaction temperature (
, 50, 55 and
), and time (
, 3, 7.5 and 12 h). The optimal conditions for HMFS synthesis were predicted at the reaction combination of
, 3 h and 1:6 substrate ratio. HMFS re-synthesized under the same conditions displayed 70.70% palmitic acid at the sn-2 position and 69.58% oleic acid at the sn-1,3 position. Reaction product was predominantly (90.35%) triacylglycerol (TAG) was observed in which the major TAG species, OPO, comprised 31.24%.
Physicochemical Properties of Taro Flours with Different Drying, Roasting and Steaming Conditions
Moon, Ji-Hye ; Choi, Hee-Don ; Choi, In-Wook ; Kim, Yoon-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 696~701
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.696
To evaluate the processing adaptability of taro flours, the physicochemical properties of taro flour with different drying, roasting and steaming conditions were investigated. The moisture content and total dietary fiber were decreased as temperature increased with hot-air drying. Freeze-dried taro flours showed the highest vitamin C contents. Taro flours made by freeze-drying and hot-air drying showed significantly higher total dietary fiber content than those with roasting and steaming process. Steamed taro flours had the highest water absorption index, while hot-air dried and freeze dried taro flours had the highest water solubility index. No differences were displayed in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermal characteristics among hot-air dried and freeze dried taro flours. Roasted taro displayed decreased onset temperature and peak temperature as roasting temperature increased. Using a rapid visco-analyzer, the peak viscosity, through viscosity, and final viscosity of dried and steamed taro flours were higher than roasted taro flours, whereas the set back value, which is a prediction of retrogradation, decreased with steaming processing. From those results, it could be concluded that hotair dried taro flours, which have high gelatinization viscosity, are beneficial in imparting viscosity to dough products and hot-air drying after steaming taro flours, which retard retrogradation, is good for porridge and flake base products.
Determination of Aflatoxins in Nuts, Their Products and Dried Fruits Using Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Choi, Su-Jeong ; Park, Ju-Sung ; Jung, So-Young ; Son, Yeo-Joon ; Lyi, Yun-Jeong ; Kim, Mi-Sun ; Park, So-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Me ; Chae, Young-Zoo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 702~710
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.702
The occurrence of aflatoxins
in nuts, their products and dried fruits was investigated. Samples were collected from local markets in Seoul and analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using an immunoaffinity column. The chromatography method was validated for assay of aflatoxins using linearity, accuracy, precision and limit of detection and quantification. The linearity in the concentration ranged from 0.10 to
> 0.9999. Sample recoveries ranged from 71.1 to 97.2% with relative standard deviations below 4.5% for spiking levels from 1 to
. The limits of detection ranged between 0.02 and
and the limits of quantification ranged between 0.05 and
. The levels of aflatoxin
in nuts, their products and dried fruits were
Lipid Oxidation and Antioxidant Changes in Perilla Seeds during Heating
Wang, Seon-Yeong ; Choe, Eun-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 711~718
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.711
Effects of heating conditions and seed roasting on the lipid oxidation and antioxidants of perilla seeds were studied. Perilla seeds, that were unroasted or roasted at
for 20 min, were ground and heated over steam at
atm or at
atm. Lipid oxidation was evaluated by peroxide value, conjugated dienoic acids contents, and fatty acid composition. Tocopherols and polyphenols were also determined. Lipid oxidation of perilla seeds was higher during heating at
atm than at
atm, and the oxidation rate was lower in unroasted seeds than in roasted seeds. Degradation of tocopherols and polyphenols in perilla seeds during heating was faster under high pressure and temperature, and was decreased by seed roasting. Contribution of polyphenols to the oxidative stability of perilla seeds during heating was higher than that of tocopherols, suggesting polyphenols and seed roasting as important factors in lipid oxidation of perilla seeds.
Physicochemical Properties of Shade-cultivated Powdered Green Teas
Lee, Lan-Sook ; Park, Jong-Dae ; Cha, Hwan-Soo ; Kim, Jong-Tae ; Kim, Sang-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 719~722
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.719
The Daecha-12 and Yabukita varieties of powdered green teas were grown under 85% shade-cultivated condition, and their physicochemical properties were analyzed. Total catechin content was not significantly different but, non-gallated catechin content in Daecha-12 was significantly higher than that in Yabukita. Theanine (32%), caffeine (14%), lutein (15%) and total chlorophyll (28%) levels were significantly higher in Daecha-12 than those in Yabukita. The results of a color analysis showed that the lightness L-value of Yabukita was higher than that of Daecha-12 but, that the greenness negative a-value and b-values of Daecha-12 were higher than those of Yabukita. The Daecha-12 cultivar had lower catechin content but higher content of theanine, caffeine, theobromine, lutein, chlorophyll, and a negative a-value than those of the Yabukita cultivar. Thus, the Daecha-12 cultivar is suitable to prepare a high-quality powdered green tea product.
Effect of Sargassum sagamianum Extract on Shelf-life and Improved Quality of Morning Bread
Kim, Min-Ji ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Lee, Chung-Jo ; Kwak, Ji-Hee ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; SunWoo, Chan ; Jung, Seul-A ; Kang, Ju-Youn ; Kim, Hyun-Jee ; Choi, Jung-Su ; Choi, Ho-Duk ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 723~728
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.723
This study was performed to test the effect of Sargassum sagamianum extract (SSE) on shelf-life and improved quality in bread with 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% added SSE. Bread with added SSE had reduced total microbial counts by 2 log cycles and mold cell counts by 3 log cycles. No changes in moisture content or pH occurred from days 3 to 9. In addition, bread with SSE had a lower yield of malonaldehyde than that of the control as shown by the TBARS assay. Yellowness increased in bread with added SSE, whereas lightness and redness decreased. In the sensory evaluation, taste, total preference, inner shape, and color of the bread containing 0.25 and 0.5% SSE were preferred. These results suggest that the adding 0.25 and 0.5% SSE to bread improved shelf-life and quality.
Derivatization of Rice Wine Meal Using Commercial Proteases and Characterization of Its Hydrolysates
Kim, Chang-Won ; Choi, Hyuk-Joon ; Han, Bok-Kyung ; Yoo, Seung-Seok ; Kim, Chang-Nam ; Kim, Byung-Yong ; Baik, Moo-Yeol ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 729~734
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.729
With the goal of transforming rice protein from an insoluble to a soluble form to increase the industrial utilization of rice wine meal (RWM), RWM was derivatized using commercial proteases and the RWM hydrolysates were characterized. Eight commercial proteases were used individually or in combination for hydrolysis of RWM. The degree of hydrolysis was assessed by determining the soluble protein in supernatant using the Lowry assay, protein in precipitates using a semimicro Kjeldahl procedure, and gravimetrically by the weight difference before and after hydrolysis. Protamex, Alcalase and Protease N proteases were most effective for hydrolysis of RWM. Although these assessment methodologies displayed some variation, they generally showed a similar pattern. When the aforementioned three proteases were simultaneously used to treat RWM, no significant difference was observed between the three assays (p<0.05) indicating an absence of enzymatic synergy.
Isolation and Characterization of Oligotrophic Strains with High Enzyme Activity from Buckwheat Sokseongjang
Lee, Sung-Young ; Kim, Ji-Yeun ; Baek, Sung-Yeol ; Yeo, Soo-Hwan ; Koo, Bon-Sung ; Park, Hye-Young ; Choi, Hye-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 735~741
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.735
Bealmijang is a short-term fermented regional product that is prepared with soybean and extra ingredients. In this study, starter strain candidates were screened from Bealmijang for fermented soybean paste products. Twenty one bacterial strains producing extracellular enzymes (amylase, cellulase, protease, xylanase and lipase) were isolated from Bealmijang, buckwheat sokseongjang. The isolates were assessed for fibrinolytic and antibacterial activities, and salt tolerance. Strain HJ18-4, identified as Bacillus subtilis (AB601598) by biochemical properties (89.6%) and 16S rDNA sequencing (100%), showed the highest enzymatic, fibrinolytic, and antibacterial activities among the isolates. Although the growth of HJ18-4 was inhibited by the increase of NaCl concentration, the growth still exceeded that of B. subtilis KACC 10114 at 5% and 10% NaCl. These results suggest that B. subtilis HJ18-4 is suitable as a starter for soybean paste manufacture.
Effect of Microwave Treated-Wild Ginseng on the Quality of Korean Traditional Yakju
Lee, Dae-Hyoung ; Kang, Heui-Yun ; Lee, Yong-Seon ; Cho, Chang-Hui ; Kim, Soon-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 742~746
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.742
To increase the quality of Korean traditional yakju, we prepared seed cultures by fermentation at
for 2 days after addition of 140% water, 3% nuruk and 1.5% yeast into cooked rice. After the 200% cooked rice, 120% water and 0.08% commercial saccharifying enzyme were added to seed cultures and fermented for 2 days at
, wild ginseng was added and then further fermented for 5 days. Physicochemical properties of traditional yakju were investigated. Ethanol was produced (18.5%) by the addition of 1.2% wild ginseng. However, ethanol content was not increased by addition of microwave treated-wild ginseng and rice (either cooked rice or raw). The traditional yakju obtained by fermentation at
for 5 days, after 90 sec of microwave treated-wild ginseng was added into main fermentation broth, showed good total acceptability and also contained 791 ppm saponin.
Hair Growth Promoting Effect of Black Soybean Extract In Vitro and In Vivo
Jeon, Hee-Young ; Kim, Seung-Hun ; Kim, Chae-Wook ; Shin, Hyun-Jeong ; Seo, Dae-Bang ; Lee, Sang-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 747~753
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.747
It is commonly believed that black soybean (Glycine max: BB) prevents and alleviates hair loss. However, few studies have directly assessed the effect of BB on hair growth. We presently evaluated the mitosis induction on dermal papillae cell and mitogenic effect on NIH3T3 cells in vitro. To elucidate the hair growth promoting effect in vivo, anagen induction and hair restoration were examined in a shaving model of C57BL/6 mice. We also conducted biochemical analysis of blood plasma. Significant stimulation of dermal papillae and NIH3T3 cell proliferation were observed by treatment of BB in a dose-dependent manner. BB markedly promoted hair growth and significantly improved blood total antioxidant capacity and reduced lipid peroxidation and triglyceride level. These results suggest that BB has hair growth promoting effect and it is a potent candidate for the prevention of hair loss.
Changes in Color Response of MTT formazan by Zinc Protoporphyrin
Park, Kyung-A ; Choi, Hyun-A ; Kim, Mi-Ri ; Choi, Yoo-Mi ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Hong, Jung-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 754~759
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.754
Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) is produced endogenously during heme metabolism and treated in cells as a heme oxygenase inhibitor. In the present study, the effects of ZnPP on the color response of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, a commonly-used method for analyzing cell viability, were investigated. ZnPP induced rapid decolorizaion of MTT formazan under light; the degradation rates were 10- and 20- folds faster in the presence of 5 and
ZnPP, respectively. Methylene blue (MB), another type of photosensitizer, also accelerated degradation of formazan under light. Butylated hyroxytoluene did not inhibit ZnPP- or MB-induced formazan degradation. The color degradation of formazan dye was signficantly delayed in the presence of N-acetylcysteine or
-carotene. The present results suggest that certain photosensitizing compounds may affect the color and stability of MTT formazan, which should be carefully considered when conducting the MTT assay.
The Antioxidative Effect of Black Garlic Extract on Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress in ICR Mice
Noh, Byung-Kyu ; Lee, Jung-Kyu ; Won, Yong-Duk ; Park, Hyun-Jin ; Lee, Sung-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 760~765
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.760
We investigated the antioxidative effect of black garlic extract (BGE) on paraquat (PQ)- induced oxidative stress in mice. A DPPH radical scavenging activity assay showed that BGE had potent free radical scavenging activity, comparable to that exhibited by vitamin C. Mice were administered with either vitamin C or two levels of BGE by oral gavage for 10 days, with PQ being injected intraperitoneally on day five. It was found that BGE reduced the liver enzyme levels induced by PQ injection in mice. The concentrations of plasma and hepatic malonedialdehyde were both significantly reduced in the BGE groups compared with the levels in the PQ group, whereas the hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly increased in the BGE groups compared with the PQ group. These findings suggest that BGE has potent antioxidative activities in vivo and thus could prevent the oxidative stress induced by PQ injection in mice by two mechanisms: the induction of antixoxidative enzyme systems and direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species.
Assessment of Estimated Daily Intakes of Propyl Gallate, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetra acetate), and Erythorbic Acid in Korea
Suh, Hee-Jae ; Choi, Sung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 766~772
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.766
This study was conducted to evaluate the daily intakes of propyl gallate, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetra acetate), and erythorbic acid for average consumers by age group and the intake of high consumers (
percentile) in Korea. The average intake of EDTA was
, and 0.0% of the ADI (acceptable daily intake) established by JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). The
percentile intake of EDTA was
(5.6% of ADI). The average intake of erythorbic acid was
, and the 3-6 year-old group had the highest consumption (
), which was <1.0% of the ADI established by the EU (European Union). The
percentile intake of erythorbic acid was
and 22.0% of the ADI. In conclusion, daily intakes of propyl gallate, EDTA, and erythorbic acid in Korea were at safe levels in all age groups and also in high consumers.
Selection of Representative Foods and `Best-fit` Mapping of Other Foods for Estimation of a Comprehensive Exposure to Food Contaminants in a Korean Total Diet Study
Koh, Eun-Mi ; Shin, Hye-Hyung ; Yon, Mi-Yong ; Nam, Eun-Jeong ; Lee, Yoon-Na ; Kim, Do-Hee ; Lee, Jee-Yeon ; Kim, Mee-Hye ; Park, Sung-Kug ; Choi, Hoon ; Kim, Cho-Il ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 773~782
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.773
A food list representing the typical diet of Koreans was developed for a total diet study based on the 687 food items which appeared in the dietary intake data collected during the 2008 & 2009 Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey. Food items included in 90% of the cumulative intake, items with a consumption frequency of 5% or higher and items contributing to 80% of cumulative fat intake were considered first. From the resulting 165 food items, 15 items were removed to avoid similar foods, while 10 distinct items were added to increase the efficiency of `best-fit` mapping. Consequently, 160 items were selected as representative foods, which cover 90.93% of intake amount, 91.36% of energy intake and 89.05% of fat intake. Given that every food consumed by Koreans can`t be analyzed for contaminants of interest, mapping other foods to the previously mentioned representative 160 foods is warranted because it enables a more comprehensive dietary exposure assessment that is close to reality.
Anti-cariogenic Activities of Mushroom Extracted with Various Solvent Systems
Park, Eun-Jin ; Lee, Jun-Soo ; Choi, Won-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 783~786
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.783
Various mushroom extracts were examined for their anti-Streptococcus mutans and anti-glucosyltransferase (GTase) activities. Mushrooms were extracted with chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, and distilled water. The chloroform, methanol, and ethyl acetate extracts showed higher antimicrobial activity than that of the others. The inhibitory effects of the chloroform, methanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of Lyopyllum ulmarium, which have high anti-microbial and GTase activities, on the growth of S. mutans were examined and the optimal ratio of solvents was also evaluated to investigate the influence of solvents using a simplex centroid design. The anti-cariogenic effects of the L. ulmarium extract on S. mutans was influenced by the solvent, and the optimum anti-cariogenic activity of the extract was obtained with the ratio of chloroform:methanol:ethyl acetate
Effect of Acer tegmentosum M. Extracts on Hepatocarcinoma Cell
Kwon, Ha-Na ; Bang, Woo-Suk ; Kim, Joo-Young ; Park, Jyung-Rewng ; Jeon, Jeong-Ryae ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 787~790
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.787
The objective of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of Acer tegmentosum M. extracts. HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were treated with ethanol, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol, aqueous fraction and hot water extract. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion, MTT-based viability assay and morphology. The trypan blue test showed that anticancer effect of the A. tegmentosum M. extracts on HepG2 cells increased gradually in proportion to the increasing concentration of the fractions. The butanol fraction showed the highest anticancer activity against HepG2 cells (p<0.05). The MTT assay indicated that the growth inhibition by the butanol fraction was dose-dependent. These results suggest that A. tegmentosum M. has the potential to inhibit the growth of hepatocarcinoma cells.
Antimicrobial Activity of Citral against Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus
Kim, Jung-Jee ; In, Ye-Won ; Oh, Se-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 6, 2011, Pages 791~794
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2011.43.6.791
The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial characteristics of citral against Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activities were determined according to the citral concentration and initial pH. The tested citral concentrations were 0-1,000 ppm in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and 0-5,000 ppm in Angelica keiskei juice (NokJeup). The initial pHs tested were 4-7. Antimicrobial activities increased as citral concentration increased. S. aureus was more susceptible than S. Typhimurium during culture in TSB. But S. aureus was less susceptible to pH changes. Citral caused about 1-2 log reduction of S. aureus and 2-5 log reduction of S. Typhimurium after 10 min exposure at different pHs. As the citral concentration in the Algelica keiskei juice increased, S. aureus was easily inactivated but S. Typhimurium was not inactivated.