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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 44, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Discrimination Analysis of the Geographical Origin of Foods
Choi, Jin-Young ; Bang, Kyong-Hwan ; Han, Kee-Young ; Noh, Bong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 503~525
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.503
Consumers are increasingly concerned about the origin of foods, so the geographical origin of foods has been a major topic of debate and extensive research. Various instrumental methods (e.g. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), electronic nose, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), DNA analysis, multi-isotope analysis) in conjunction with statistical analysis, were developed and applied in attempt to provide reliable answers to their geographical origin. This study reviews current developments in the application of various methods for a clear geographical origin of foods. The limitation of discrimination analysis for geographical origin was also discussed.
The Functionalities and Active Constituents of Olive Oil
Heo, Wan ; Lee, So Yoon ; Lim, Su-Young ; Pan, Jeong Hoon ; Kim, Hyung Min ; Kim, Young Jun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 526~531
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.526
Olive oil is widely consumed in Korea, and is a representative fat source in the Mediterranean diet, known to be effective in the prevention of coronary artery disease. In addition, diverse functionalities have been reported, such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation effects. In this review, the status of production and variety were investigated with respect to the functionalities of olive oil. The main functional constituents of olive oil are oleic acid, known to improve blood cholesterol, and the minor constituents are polyphenol, tocopherol, squalene, and phospholipid, the concentrations of which can be used to distinguish pressed from refined olive oil. A number of studies of the functionality of olive oil have dealt with the minor constituents, and the beneficial functionalities, such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and improving blood circulation have been reported. This review intensively investigates the functionalities and the responsible components, and suggests that continual studies on olive oil are necessary for the prevention of various metabolic diseases.
Characterization and Identification of Gamma-Irradiated Kimchi Cabbage and Broccoli by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy using Different Sample Pre-treatments
Kwak, Ji-Young ; Ahn, Jae-Jun ; Akram, Kashif ; Kim, Gui-Ran ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 532~539
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.532
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy of gamma-irradiated fresh broccoli and kimchi cabbage was conducted to identify their irradiation history. Different pretreatments, such as freeze-drying (FD), oven-drying (OD), alcoholic-drying (ALD), and water-washing and alcoholic-drying (WAD) were used to lower the moisture contents of the samples prior to ESR analysis. The non-irradiated samples exhibited a single central signal (
Vitamin C, Total Polyphenol, Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Several Fruit Peels
Lee, Min-Young ; Yoo, Mi-So ; Whang, Yoo-Jeong ; Jin, Yoo-Jeong ; Hong, Myung-Hee ; Pyo, Young-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 540~544
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.540
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamin C contents in peels of 11 commercial fruits commonly consumed in the Republic of Korea. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by ABTS, DPPH radical scavenging methods and reducing power. The peels of plum (Prunus spp.) and golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) exhibited the highest values of antioxidant activity and total phenolics, while the highest level of ascorbic acid was recorded in the peel of citrus fruit (p<0.05). There were positive correlations between the antioxidant activity assessed by both reducing power and ABTS methods and total polyphenol content (
Quality Characteristics of Low-Salted Yacon Pickles with Leaf-mustard and Pepper
Shim, Ki Hoon ; Choi, Ok Ja ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 545~552
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.545
To improve a low-salted yacon pickle, the change of quality characteristics during the storage of yacon pickles were investigated at
for 50 days using two-way ANOVA. One factor that was added was the leaf-mustard and pepper (A), the other was storage time (B). The leaf-mustard and pepper were added to increase the yacon pickle`s taste, flavor, and properties. The sugar content, total acidity and salinity were significant for factor A and B. With the interaction effect of the two factors, yacon pickles increased as storage time increased. The L value was not significant for factor A but significant for factor B. The a and b values were significant for the two factors. All Hunter`s color value had the interaction effect. The shearing force was not significant for each factor, and yacon pickles did not show a softening effect. In the results of the sensory evaluation, color, taste, and overall preference were significant for factor A and B, yet the flavor was only significant for factor B. The texture was not significant at all. In the overall preference, yacon pickles were higher at 30 and 40 days and also, had the interaction effect. Yacon pickles were not above the 3.0% of salinity.
Quality Characteristics of Sikhye Prepared with Puffed Rice Powder during Saccharification
Lee, Myung-Wook ; Yi, Young Hyoun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 553~558
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.553
The pH, turbidity, color, brix, reducing sugar, total sugar, ketose, amino acid, protein and organoleptic characteristics of sikhye prepared with puffed rice powder (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% (w/w)) were investigated during saccharification. A higher concentration of puffed rice powder and longer saccharification time resulted in pH reduction (p<0.05) and tended to increase turbidity. A higher Hunter "L" value was observed with higher puffed rice powder content, except for the addition of 25% at 0 h. The Hunter "L" value peaked at hour 1 and slowly declined thereafter. Elevations in brix, reducing sugar, total sugar and sucrose were observed with higher puffed rice powder content and longer duration of saccharification (p<0.05). The sucrose content ranged from 0.79-0.86% (w/w) at hour 6, which was markedly lower than that of commercial sikhye. With time, levels of amino acid and protein increased (p<0.05). Sensory evaluation revealed moderate differences between 0% and both 75 and 100% (p<0.001), with 75 and 100% preferred over 0% (p<0.05).
Storage Quality of Ready-to-Eat Campbell Table Grapes as Affected by Active Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Lee, Hyun-Hee ; Hong, Seok-In ; Kim, Dongman ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 559~567
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.559
The storage quality of ready-to-eat Campbell table grapes which were packaged under modified atmospheres was investigated in order to examine the effect of high
on the fruit. Fresh table grapes with 10-15 berries were packed into polypropylene (PP) trays and were top-sealed with polythylene terephthalate/PP film. The initial gas compositions inside the packages were air, 20%
, and 40%
. Sealed packages with low density polyethylene film bags and perforated PP trays were also used as a further treatment and control, respectively. The quality attributes were assessed during storage at
for 28 days. Fruit packaged in high
concentration showed the lowest viable cell counts of inherent microorganisms among all samples, although they suffered from severe off-flavors. High levels of
significantly lowered flesh weight loss and maintained the flavor of grape. In an overall sensory aspect, the high
packages exhibited greater scores than the air and control at the end of the storage period. Other quality attributes showed no significant differences among treatments. Results suggest that packaging with an appropriate combination of high
can be used as an effective processing treatment for improvement of the storability of ready-to-eat table grapes.
Influences of Sugar Substitutes on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties and Hardness of Baksulgi during Storage
Ryu, Dayeon ; Kim, Dan Bi ; Lee, Kyung Hwan ; Son, Dong Sung ; Surh, Jeonghee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 568~576
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.568
Baksulgi with various sugar substitutes was prepared and characterized for physicochemical and sensory qualities. The 10% sugar in a control baksulgi was replaced with 16.1% glucose, 13.3% erythritol, 10.2% xylitol, 0.2% stevioside (enzymatically modified stevia 100%), 0.05% aspartame, or 1.2% sucralose. Instrumental and sensory analyses indicated that the baksulgi with glucose was significantly different in color from the others, which was attributed to high susceptibility to browning reaction of the glucose. Baksulgi with aspartame showed significantly lower pH than that of control baksulgi, suggesting that the aspartame might have been hydrolyzed into its constituent amino acids under elevated steaming temperature. A sensory evaluation revealed that baksulgi with sucralose or xylitol was comparable to the control baksulgi in all sensory characteristics. However, the baksulgi with sucralose showed appreciably increased hardness with increased storage time at
, partially due to the anhygroscopic property of sucralose.
Preparation and Physicochemical Characteristics of Octenyl Succinated Rice Starches Based on Amylose Content
Jung, Myung-Hoon ; Youn, Kwang-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 577~582
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.577
The purpose of this study was to investigate the preparation and physicochemical characteristics of n-octenylsuccinylated (OSAn) rice starches with different rice amylose contents. Amylose contents of Jinsumi flour and Milyang 261 flour were 15.42 and 20.31%, respectively. After processing by alkali treatment, amylose contents of Jinsumi rice starch and Milyang 261 rice starch were 34.21% and 39.32%, respectively. After OSAn treatment, the degree of substitution and reaction efficiency of Jinsumi starch were higher than those of Milyang 261. The stability of the modified Jinsumi emulsion was higher than that of the Milyang 261 emulsion. Viscosity of the Jinsumi emulsion was higher than that of the Milyang 261 emulsion. When the emulsions were spray dried, modified Jinsumi rice starch showed excellent coating efficiency compared to that of modified Milyang 261 rice starch. Therefore, Jinsumi was more suitable than Milyang 261 to apply for encapsulation as wall materials.
Storage Properties and Biogenic Amines Production of Makgeolli Brewed with Different Proportions of Rice and Wheat Flour
Kim, Soon Mi ; Han, Ara ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 583~591
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.583
Four kinds of makgeolli brewed with different proportions of rice and wheat flour were prepared to investigate the effects of the carbohydrates source on the storage properties, and to examine the chemical characteristics and BA (biogenic amine) contents in makgeolli stored over 30 days at 4, 10 and
, respectively. The chemical properties and BA contents were sustained at a consistent level for those makgeolli stored at
over 30 days. The alcohol content was significantly higher for makgeolli brewed with higher proportions of rice (R) over wheat flour (WF) (R 100: WF 0, R 70: WF 30) when compared with those brewed with a high proportion of wheat flour (R 30: WF 70, R 0: WF 100), and increased with increasing storage temperature and duration. The free amino acid contents of makgeolli brewed with high proportion of rice were significantly lower under the same conditions. Among the 8 BAs examined, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine and phenylethylamine were detected, while tyramine and putrescine were mainly detected. Histamine was not detected throughout storage. Makgeolli brewed with rice as the only carbohydrate source exhibited very low levels of total BA during 30 days of storing at
. Total BA contents of R100, R70, R30, R0 were 178.6, 682.9, 1186.7 and 1150.4 mg/L, respectively. These results suggest that makgeolli brewed with relatively higher proportions of rice have better storage properties and are safer for consumption.
Changes in Physicochemical Properties of Low-Salt Doenjang during Fermentation
Lee, Seul ; Kim, Dong-Han ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 592~599
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.592
The effect of additives on the quality of low-salt doenjang was investigated. The amylase activity of the mustard added group decreased during the fermentation period, and the number of yeast and bacteria was also decreased during the fermentation period. The oxidation-reduction potential was low at the later fermentation stages for the mustard and mustard-garlic added groups, and water activity decreased considerably for the alcohol added group. The L-value of alcohol added doenjang decreased with increases in the a-value. The pH was 4.84 in the mustard added group. The reducing sugar content was 10.15% in the alcohol-garlic added group, and the alcohol production was limited by adding mustard. The amino-type and ammonia-type nitrogen were high in garlic and mustard added groups. Alcohol and alcoholgarlic added groups exhibited significantly improved taste and overall acceptability of doenjang.
Identification of Novel Bacillus subtilis IDCC 9204 Producing a High-Level Fibrinolytic Enzyme and Properties of NK-IL9204
Lee, Seung-Hun ; An, Gwangmin ; Kim, Heu-Hang ; Kang, Jae-Hoon ; Kang, Dae-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 600~606
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.600
A Bacillus sp. that produces fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from Cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean soybean-fermented food. According to 16S rRNA gene base sequencing, the bacillus was identified as a variety of Bacillus subtilis, and named Bacillus subtilis IDCC 9204. Fibrinolytic enzyme NK-IL9204 was stable up to
and within pH range of 5-10. Purified NK-IL9204 was detected through fibrin zymography. The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were estimated to be 27.7 kDa and 6.7 by SDS-PAGE and 2D electrophoresis, respectively. Its amino acid sequence was similar to that of nattokinase (identities 99.5%) and different from that of nattokinase BPN (identities 86.4%). The plasma fibrinolytic activity of NK-IL9204 was measured by euglobulin clot lysis times (ECLT). The NK-IL9204 was orally administered to SD rats for 3 weeks (1,000 FU/rat/day). The ECLT was significantly shortened by supplementation of NK-IL9204.
Biological Activity of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) extracts Fermented with Raw Sugar
Kim, Kyung-Min ; Kim, Young-Nam ; Choi, Byoung-Kon ; Oh, Deog-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 607~612
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.607
Dandelions were fermented for 120 days at
in batches containing thirty and fifty percent raw sugar (FD30 and FD50). The total phenolic concentration of FD30 and FD50 were about
mg/g, respectively, both being higher than the 2
mg/g determined for DWE (dandelion water extract). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of FD30 and FD50 showed
, respectively, and FD30 displayed the highest antioxidant activity. 2 mg/mL of FD30 and FD50 showed
production of NO, respectively, compared with
of the dandelion extract. The protease,
-amylase, and lipase activity of FD50 was the highest. The fibrinolytic activity of FD30 and FD50 were
unit/mg protein, respectively, which was substantially higher than the 0.28 unit/mg protein of DWE. In conclusion, the dandelions fermented by sugar showed improved antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and enzymatic activities.
Changes in Nutrient Composition and Fermentation Properties of Abalone Mul-Kimchi using Dried Pollack and Licorice Stock
Jang, Mi-Soon ; Park, Hee-Yeon ; Nam, Ki-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 613~620
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.613
This study was carried out to investigate changes in nutrient composition and fermentation properties in abalone mul-kimchi using dried pollack stock (AMKP) and licorice stock (AMKL) during storage at
for 35 days. The levels of moisture (88.37-90.94%) and crude ash (2%) did not differ much between AMKP and AMKL during the 35 days of storage. But crude protein and crude lipid levels decreased gradually until 21 days of storage. AMKP and AMKL fermentation during 21 days led to a decrease in pH, increased acidity, and the highest Leuconostoc sp. count. AMKP and AMKL showed acidity of 0.50% at pH 4.30, when the kimchi samples were ripened properly. Glutamic acid showed the highest content in AMKP and AMKL, and hydroxypoline was the most abundant of all free amino acids. We have provided basic data for commodification research on abalone mul-kimchi.
Inhibitory Effects of Aralia cordata Thunb Extracts on Nitric Oxide Synthesis in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells
Kang, Chang-Ho ; Koo, Ja-Ryong ; So, Jae-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 621~627
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.621
Assessment was made of the effects of Aralia cordata Thunb (DH) on the cell proliferation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA gene expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. For the screening of anti-inflammatory activities, ethanolic extracts of 55 species of traditional herbal medicines were examined for inhibitory effects, and it was confirmed that DH possessed inhibitory effects on NO production. As a result, DH significantly decreased the production of NO and iNOS gene expression at a concentration of
. The chloroformsoluble fractionates have the strongest No synthesis inhibitory effect. It is presumed that the inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by DH components occurred via the modulation of iNOS and DH, and that the active compound from DH may be useful for therapeutic management of inflammatory-associate diseases.
Removal Effects of Microorganism and Pesticide Residues on Chinese Cabbages by Electrolyzed Water Washing
Sung, Jung-Min ; Park, Kee-Jai ; Lim, Jeong-Ho ; Jeong, Jin-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 628~633
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.628
This study investigated the washing efficiency of electrolyzed water for the removal of microorganisms and pesticide residues from Chinese cabbage. Initial total bacteria and coliform counts were 6.64 and 3.56 log cfu/g respectively. After washing, total bacteria count of tap water (TW) were 5.97 log cfu/g and low alkaline electrolyzed water (LAlEW) and strong acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) were 1.63-4.67 log cfu/g. Especially SAcEW-100 was found to the most effective method of washing the cabbages. After washing, the coliform count was dramatically reduced. The removal rate of pesticide residues by NaClO treatment (36.93-50.13%) was greater than that of TW treatment (32.28-38.46%). The removal rate of LAlEW-100 and SAcEW-100 was 63.79 and 78.30% respectively, and was higher than those of TW and NaClO treatments. The vitamin C content of the Chinese cabbages after all treatments did not differ significantly. Consequentially, the electrolyzed water was found to be effective to remove bacteria and pesticide residues from Chinese cabbage without affecting quality.
In vitro Test of Mycelial Growth Inhibition of 5 Fungi Pathogenic to Strawberries by Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) Irradiation
Kim, Seon Ae ; Ahn, Soon-Young ; Oh, Wook ; Yun, Hae Keun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 634~637
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.634
In strawberry production, among others, the high incidence of diseases by pathogenic fungi resulting in the reduction of fruit yield and quality requires the development of eco-friendly management systems rather than chemical sprays to control them. The diameter of colonies grown in media at
for 5 days was measured to evaluate the in vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of 5 pathogenic fungi by irradiation with ultraviolet (UV-C, 264 nm). The mycelial growth of 5 pathogenic fungi was inhibited in potato dextrose agar (PDA) by the irradiation of UV-C for 1 hour a day, and was dramatically inhibited by the irradiation of UV-C for 9-12 h a day. The irradiation of UV-C for 9-12 h a day inhibited completely the growth of the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora cactorum. The irradiation distance of 40 to 50 cm was effective for the inhibition of mycelial growth of fungi. The mycelial growth of fungi without pre-incubation was inhibited strongly by UV-C irradiation compared to fungi pre-incubated for 2 days without light. The mycelia growth of Colletotrichum gloeosprioides and Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited strongly by UV-C irradiation in vegetable 8 juice agar compared to PDA.
Use of IMS-RT-PCR for the Rapid Isolation and Detection of Hepatitis A Virus from the Swine Feces
Lee, Hee-Min ; Kim, Duwoon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 638~642
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.638
Human pathogenic viruses such as hepatitis A and E virus (HAV and HEV), which lead to acute liver failure and death, are foodborne pathogens associated with the consumption of virus-contaminated meats, filter-feeding bivalves, fruits, and salads. Two of the three swine farms examined in this study had HAV and HEV positive stool samples in a nested RT-PCR assay. The use of the immunomagnetic separation (IMS) facilitated the separation of HAV through interactions between the ligand on the virion surface and the antibody from the swine feces containing both HAV and HEV. The nested RT-PCR analysis was performed for the detection of HAV obtained from hepatocarcinoma cell line (PLC/PRF/5) contaminated with eluent fraction of IMS. This indicated that IMS has the potential to simultaneously isolate and concentrate target viruses by changing antibodies linked on the magnetic beads.
Antioxidant capacities of Aloe vera (Aloe vera Linne) from Jeju Island, Korea
Seol, Nam Gyu ; Jang, Eun Yeong ; Sung, Jang Hoon ; Moon, Gi Won ; Lee, JaeHwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 643~647
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.643
The antioxidant capacity of aloe vera gel (AG), aloe vera exudates (AE), and a low molecular filtrate of aloe vera gel (ALMF) prepared from aloe vera grown on Jeju Island, Korea was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2`-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays, and total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined. The phenolic compounds in aloe samples were analyzed. Antioxidant capacities in oil-in-water emulsions following riboflavin photosensitization were analyzed using lipid hydroperoxide. AE had significantly higher antioxidant capacity than that of the other samples based on the DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC assays (p<0.05). Lipid hydroperoxide values of 5 mg/mL for AG, AE, and ALMF were 521.78, 272.32, and 699.89 mmol/kg oil, respectively, whereas that of samples without aloe vera was 893.07 mmol/kg oil over 48 h. AE had higher TPC and TFC values. Aloesin and aloin were found in AE, whereas those compounds were only found in trace amounts in AG and ALMF.
Sensory Profiling of Commercial Korean Distilled Soju
Lee, Seung-Joo ; Park, Cheon-Soo ; Kim, Ho-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 5, 2012, Pages 648~652
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2012.44.5.648
The sensory characteristics of nine commercially distilled soju samples were determined by sensory descriptive analysis. Eight aroma attributes, as well as four flavor/taste attributes, and six mouth-feel related attributes were evaluated by 9 judges. The descriptive data set was initially analyzed for a significant overall product effect by employing a three-way mixed model analysis of variance (judges, samples, and replications) as well as two-way interactions, with judges treated as random. In addition, correlations between mean attribute ratings were calculated, and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the mean attribute ratings employing the covariance matrix was conducted. Based on the PCA, distilled soju samples were primarily separated along the first principal component, which accounted for 66% of the total variance between the samples, with high intensities of `alcohol taste` and `alcohol aroma` versus `yeast aroma`. The second principal component accounted for 14% of the total variance. Soju containing high alcohol showed stronger intensities of `bitterness`, `alcohol taste`, `alcohol aroma`, as well as all mouth-feel attributes.