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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Food Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
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Cellular Flavonoid Transport Mechanisms in Animal and Plant Cells
Han, Yoo-Li ; Lee, So-Young ; Lee, Ji Hae ; Lee, Sung-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 137~141
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.137
Flavonoids have various biological activities; however, their cellular uptake mechanism is beginning to be understood only recently. This review focuses on cellular flavonoids transport mechanisms in both plants and animals. In plants, flavonoids exist in various cellular compartments, providing a specialized transport system. Newly synthesized flavonoids can be transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the vacuoles or extracellular space via cellular trafficking pathway. Among membrane transporters, ATP binding cassette, multidrug and toxic extrusion, bilitranslocase homologue transporters play roles in both the influx and efflux of cellular flavonoids across the cell membrane. In recent years, extensive researches have provided a better understanding on the cellular flavonoid transport in mammalian cells. Bilitranslocase transports flavonoids in various tissues, including the liver, intestine and kidneys. However, other transport mechanisms are largely unknown and thus, further investigation should provide detailed mechanisms, which can potentially lead to an improved bioavailability and cellular function of flavonoids in humans.
Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics among Different Types of Pale Ale Beer
Kim, Ki Hwa ; Park, Sue Jee ; Kim, Jee Eun ; Dong, Hyemin ; Park, In Seon ; Lee, JaeHwan ; Hyun, So Yang ; Noh, Bong Soo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 142~147
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.142
This study was conducted to evaluate and compare new beer (NB) with market beers, e.g., New castle brown ale (NC), Victoria bitter (VB), and Coopers pale ale (CP) using physicochemical parameters. In addition, pattern recognition analyses were carried out using an electronic nose based on mass spectrometry (MS-E nose) and an electronic tongue (E-tongue) for differentiation of the different types of beer. The measured alcohol content of NB was 4.37%. NB was not significantly different compared with other types of beer with regard to bitterness unit, color, and polyphenol content (p<0.05). On the basis of the flavor pattern determined by the MS-E nose, NB was separated by DF1 (first score from discriminant function analysis), while NC, VB, and CP were located in the same group. The result of the E-tongue showed that the different samples could be clearly discriminated; NB was less sour. It was suggested that the discriminant function analysis (DFA) given by the MS-E nose and E-tongue could be used for evaluations during new product development. Furthermore, because of its simplicity, it might be possible to use the validated method for the evaluation of beer.
Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for the Insecticide Sulfoxaflor in Agricultural Commodities using HPLC-UVD
Do, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Mi-Young ; Park, Hyejin ; Kwon, Ji-Eun ; Jang, Hyojin ; Cho, Yoon-Jae ; Kang, Il-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Mok ; Chang, Moon-Ik ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Hwang, In-Gyun ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 148~155
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.148
Sulfoxaflor is a new active ingredient within the sulfoximine insecticide class that acts via a unique interaction with the nicotinic receptor. The MRLs (maximun residue limit) of sulfoxaflor in apple and pear are set at 0.4 mg/kg and that in pepper is set at 0.5 mg/kg. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical method for the determination of sulfoxaflor residues in agricultural commodities using HPLC-UVD and LC-MS. The analysis of sulfoxaflor was performed by reverse phase-HPLC using an UV detector. Acetone and methanol were used for the extraction and aminopropyl (
) cartridge was used for the clean-up in the samples. Recovery experiments were conducted on 7 representative agricultural products to validate the analytical method. The recoveries of the proposed method ranged from 82.8% to 108.2% and relative standard deviations were less than 10%. Finally, LC-MS with selected ion monitoring was also applied to confirm the suspected residues of sulfoxaflor in agricultural commodities.
Development of Detection Method of Unapproved Genetically Modified Potato (EH92-527-1) in Korea using Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Yoo, Myung-Ryul ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Yea, Mi-Chi ; Kim, Hae-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 156~160
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.156
A duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed to detect unapproved genetically modified (GM) potato (EH92-527-1) in Korea. The UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) gene was selected as an endogenous reference gene for potato and used to validate the specificity for 14 different crops. The primer pair EH92-F/R was designed to amplify the junction sequence between the genome and transgenic region introduced in GM potato. Its specificity was also validated using several different GM events. The detection limit of the duplex PCR method is approximately 0.05%. This duplex PCR method could be useful for monitoring cultivation of unauthorized GM potato in Korea.
Effect of Microwave Treatment on the Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Beef Loin during Storage at 4℃
Kang, Ho Jin ; Lee, Hyun-Yu ; Park, Jong-Dae ; Kum, Jun-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 161~166
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.161
This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of beef loin following microwave treatment at
. Two types of microwave treatment were applied. i.e., continued microwave treatment (CW) and holding microwave treatment (HW). The L value increased, while a and b values were not significantly different among the samples as the storage time and microwave dose increased. The initial pH and after 3 days ranged from 5.51-5.74 and 6.32-6.51, respectively (p<0.05). The thiobarbituric acid value of all beef loins increased with increasing storage period and decreased with increasing microwave dose. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content of the control was higher than that of the other samples and the VBN content decreased with increasing microwave dose. The total plate count of beef loins decreased with increasing microwave dose. This result indicated that T2 (100 W, HW) is most effective treatment with regard to the safety of beef loins without decreasing the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics.
Physicochemical Quality and Luminescence Characteristics of Gamma-irradiated Dried Fish Products
Park, Eun-Joo ; Jang, Han-Na ; Jo, Deokjo ; Kim, Gui-Ran ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 167~173
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.167
Dried fish products, such as seasoned cuttlefish, anchovy, and filefish, were analyzed to investigate the physicochemical quality and luminescence properties following gamma-irradiation. The overall color difference slightly increased in all irradiated samples, showing significant changes in Hunter`s L, a, and b color values. Cuttlefish and filefish showed higher values in hydrophilic browning, whereas anchovy showed a higher value in lipophilic browning. The brown color intensity of filefish showed a dose-dependent increase. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value significantly increased in irradiated samples of cuttlefish and anchovy, which have relatively high lipid contents. Irradiated samples, except anchovy, were not suitable for screening using photostimulated luminescence (PSL) because only negative or intermediate values were observed. Thermoluminescence (TL) measurements were suitable for all fish samples, i.e., irradiation-specific glow curves were obtained, signal intensity increased, and the TL ratio fulfilled the criterion. There was no significant difference among the irradiated samples with regard to the sensory properties.
Isolation and Identification of 3 Low-molecular Compounds from Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuhwangbae) Fruit Peel
Lee, Yu Geon ; Cho, Jeong-Yong ; Kim, Chan-Mi ; Jeong, Hang-Yeon ; Lee, DongI ; Kim, Soo Ro ; Lee, Sang-Hyen ; Kim, Wol-Soo ; Park, Keun-Hyung ; Moon, Jae-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 174~179
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.174
Three low-molecular compounds were isolated from methanol extracts of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia N. cv. Chuhwangbae) fruit peels using solvent fractionation, various types of column chromatogrphy (Diaion HP-20, Sephadex LH-20, and silica gel), and high performance liquid chromatography with an assay guided by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity. The isolated compounds were identified as 2-carboxyl-4(1H)-quinolinone (kynurenic acid, 1) from butanol fraction, cis-p-coumaric acid (2) from ethyl acetate-acidic fraction, and vanillin (3) from the ethyl acetate-phenolic fraction, respectively. These isolated compounds were confirmed on the basis of the spectroscopic data of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. This is the first time that compounds 1-3 were isolated and identified in pear.
Optimization of White Pan Bread Preparation by Addition of Black Barley Flour and Olive Oil using Response Surface Methodology
Kim, Jin Kon ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Oh, Jong Chul ; Yu, Hyeon Hee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 180~190
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.180
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal amount of 2 ingredients, i.e., black barley flour (
), and olive oil (
), for the production of white pan bread from black barley flour. The experiment was designed according to the central composite design of response surface methodology, which showed 10 experimental points, including 2 replicates for black barley flour and olive oil. Significant differences were found in the results of the physical and mechanical properties analysis of each sample, including weight (p<0.05), volume (p<0.01), specific loaf volume (p<0.01), color L (p<0.01), color a (p<0.001), color b (p<0.05), hardness (p<0.001), springiness (p<0.01), cohesiveness (p<0.01), gumminess (p<0.001) and chewiness (p<0.05). Significant differences in the sensory measurements were observed in color (p<0.01), appearance (p<0.01), texture (p<0.05), taste (p<0.05) and overall quality (p<0.05). The optimum formulation, which was calculated using the numerical and graphical methods, was determined to be 18.00% black barley flour and 1.80% olive oil.
Storage Quality of Sulhyang Strawberries as Affected by High O
Lee, Hyun-Hee ; Hong, Seok-In ; Kim, Dongman ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 191~198
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.191
The storage quality of fresh Sulhyang strawberries packaged under modified atmospheres was investigated to examine the effect of high
on the fruit. Fresh strawberries were packed into PP trays and top-sealed with PET/PP film. Initial gas compositions inside the packages were varied with air, 40%
, and 80%
. Sealed packages in PE film bags with air and perforated PP trays were also used as another treatment and control, respectively. Quality attributes and viable cell counts of pathogenic bacteria were assessed during storage at
for 12 days. High
concentration showed no significant effects on the physicochemical and microbial qualities of strawberries. Fruit packaged in PE film bags with 6-15%
during storage had the lowest viable cell counts of inherent microorganisms among the treatment samples. Growth of pathogenic bacteria was suppressed in perforated packages where molds occurred frequently. In an overall sensory aspect, the PE film packages exhibited higher scores than the others at the end of storage period. The experimental results suggested that gas-permeable film packaging with an appropriate combination of
rather than gas-barrier tray packaging with an initially high
concentration would be suitable for improving the storability of strawberries.
Anti-obesity Effects of Ishige okamurae Extract in C57BL/6J mice Fed High-fat Diet
Park, Se-Jin ; Jeon, You-Jin ; Kim, Hak-Ju ; Han, Ji-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 199~205
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.199
We investigated the anti-obesity effects of Ishige okamurae extract (IOE) on body weight, epididymal adipose tissue weight, plasma lipid levels, and leptin levels in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. After inducing obesity by feeding 45% HFD for 4 weeks, C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to HFD or HFD containing 5% IOE, and then fed for 6 weeks. The body weight and epididymal adipose tissue weight were increased by HFD, but they were significantly less in animals fed HFD containing 5% IOE than in those fed HFD. Levels of plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower, but the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly higher in animals fed HFD containing 5% IOE compared with the HFD group. The plasma leptin level was significantly lower in animals fed HFD containing 5% IOE. The diet containing 5% IOE did not show any adverse effects on liver and kidney functions. These results suggest that IOE has a potential as anti-obesity agent by reducing body weight and lowering the levels of obesity-related factors in plasma.
Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Effect of Taraxacum officinale Extracts on Nitric Oxide Production
Min, Kyung-Chun ; Jhoo, Jin-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 206~212
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.206
In the current study, antioxidant properties of extracts from different parts of Taraxacum officinale were determined by measuring the radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl(DPPH) and 2,2`-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The antioxidant activity of aerial and root parts of this plant was measured in extracts obtained from various solvents, e.g., water, 50, 70, 100% ethanol, and hot-water. The hot-water extracts had the highest radical scavenging activities. A further study was conducted to determine the total antioxidant activity of hot-water extract fractions obtained from different solvents, e.g., chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. The ethyl acetate fraction of this extract displayed the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity and the highest total phenolic contents. The inhibitory effect of individual solvent fractions on the production of nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was measured. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of aerial and roots part extracts significantly reduced nitric oxide productions.
Quality Characteristics of Onions Applied with Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) during Cultivation
Kwon, Eunjin ; Ryu, Dayeon ; Surh, Jeonghee ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 213~220
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.213
Two types of onions cultivated with different methods of sulfur application (designated as S-1 and S-2) were examined for their physicochemical and sensory properties, and then compared with onions without sulfur application as a control. During cultivation, dietary sulfur methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) was sprayed on the leaves twice starting at 2 months before harvest, with one month intervals for S-1. For S-2, the MSM was applied once onto surface soils before sowing, and then once again on the leaves at 2 months before harvest. Thiosulfinate, a major sulfur-containing compound in onions, increased in the order of control, S-1, and S-2, without noticeable differences in the strength of spicy hot taste and flavor. The S-2 onions demonstrated a total reducing capacity three times higher than control and S-1 did. It indicates that the application of sulfur would positively affect the quality of onions under the condition where sufficient time is given for soil mineralization.
Antioxidant, Tyrosinase Inhibitory, and Anti-proliferative Activities of Gochujang Added with Cheonggukjang Powder Made from Sword Bean
Chang, Moon-Ik ; Kim, Jae-Young ; Kim, Un-Sung ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 221~226
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.221
This study aimed to examine the antioxidant, tyrosinase inhibitory, and anti-proliferative activities (A549, G361, HT-29, and MDA-MB-231) of fermented gochujang (made from sword bean cheonggukjang powder (SBC) for 90 days. Gochujang was prepared by adding 0 (SBC 0), 2 (SBC 2), 5 (SBC 5), 8 (SBC 8) and 10% (SBC 10) levels with SBC, and all experiments were measured at diluted levels of 20, 50 and 100 times. The antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory effect demonstrated that SBC 10 increased approximately 1.2 and 1.1 times compared with SBC 0, respectively, at diluted levels of 50 and 100 times. The anti-proliferative effects of A549, G361, and HT-29 presented that SBC 10 were 2.8, 1.1, and 8.9 times higher compared with SBC 0, respectively, at diluted levels of 50, 20, and 100 times. In the case of MDA-MB-231, SBC 10 was 3.7 times higher compared with SBC 5 at diluted level of 20 times. As a result, we confirmed that SBC gochujang was improved for physiological activities and anti-proliferative effects.
Component Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Oenanthe javanica Extracts
Hwang, Seok-Jun ; Park, Sung-Jin ; Kim, Jong-Dai ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 227~234
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.227
The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using Oenanthe javanica as a natural health food source. To accomplish this, its general and biological activities were measured. Its carbohydrate, crude protein, crude lipid, and ash contents were 44.7, 9.8, 8.9, and 27.8%, respectively. The K content was largest for minerals followed by Ca, P, and Mg, which means that Oenanthe javanica is an alkali material. The concentrations of total phenol and flavonoids of OJE were
mg GAE/g, and
mg QE/g, respectively. Gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid in OJE as measured by using HPLC were
mg/g. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of OJE were 72.2%, and 66.1%, respectively, at
. The FRAP and reducing power of OJE were 0.79, and 0.41 absorbance units value respectively, at
. OJE possessed significant antioxidant properties, which suggests its great potential as a functional ingredient for food applications.
Analysis and Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin M
in Infant Formula
Kang, YoungWoon ; Song, Jeong-Eon ; Suh, Junghyuck ; Park, Sung Kug ; Kim, Meehye ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 235~240
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.235
To analyze aflatoxin
), we dissolved infant formula in warm water and cleaned it by using an immunoaffinity column (IAC). The amount of
was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection.
was detected in 281 of 439 samples. Thus, the detection rate of
was 64.0%. The average concentration of
in positive samples was 2.6 ng/kg (of prepared formula). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of
through infant formula was 0.087-0.646 ng/kg body weight/day and the additional number of cases of liver cancer associated with exposure to
would be 0.003-0.020 cancer cases/1,000,000. Because there is less than 1 cancer case/1,000,000 per year, the exposure to
through infant formula in Korea is considered to be an unlikely human health concern.
Intra-laboratory Validation of an HPLC Post-column Oxidation Method for the Analysis of PSP Toxins in Oysters and Mussels
Song, Ki Cheol ; Lee, Ka-Jeong ; Yu, Hong-Sik ; Mok, Jong-Soo ; Kim, Ji Hoe ; Lim, Keun-Sik ; Lee, Mi-Ae ; Kim, Mee-Hye ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 241~247
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.241
AOAC Mouse Bioassay Analysis (MBA) has been the gold standard for the analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin (PSP toxin) for more than 50 years. However, this method has inaccurate limit of quantification and cannot be used to determine toxic profiles. An HPLC method (PCOX) was optimized for Korean shellfish to establish an alternative or supplementary method for PSP analysis and was intended to be used for the official monitoring and regulation of food. The recovery rate of the PCOX method was 83.5-112.1% and the limit of quantification for total toxin was about
/100 g. A long-term comparison study showed a good correlation of the PCOX results with the AOAC MBA results: the correlation factors were 0.9534 and 0.9109 for oyster and mussel matrices, respectively. The PCOX method may be used as an alternative or supplementary method for AOAC MBA to monitor the occurrence of PSP and to analyze PSP toxin profile in oysters and mussels.
Effect of Sterilization by Intense Pulsed Light on Radiation-resistant Bacterium, Micrococcus roseus
Kim, Bora ; Kim, Ae-Jin ; Shin, Jung-Kue ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 248~251
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.248
The purpose of this study was to investigate the inactivation effect of intense pulsed light (IPL) on Micrococcus roseus, an irradiation-resistant bacterium isolated from laver, and the commercial feasibility of this sterilization method on dried laver. The inactivation of M. roseus in cultivated plates increased with increasing light intensity and treatment time. Approximately 6.6 log CFU/mL reduction of the cell viability was achieved with IPL treatment for 3 min at 1,000 V of light intensity, tailing was not shown. In addition, the inactivation rate of M. roseus increased with increasing pulse number at same light intensity and treatment time. The killing efficiency for M. roseus increased with by decreasing the distance between the light source and the sample surface.
Production of Korean Domestic Wheat (keumkangmil) Vinegar with Acetobacter pasteurianus A8
Cho, Kye Man ; Shin, Ji Hyeon ; Seo, Weon Taek ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 252~256
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.252
We tested the possibility of utilizing Korea domestic wheat (winter wheat variety "keumkangmil") as a source of vinegar production. After saccharification of the whole-wheat flour with wheat malt, the saccharized liquid undergoes alcoholic fermentation, followed by acetic fermentation. Acetic acid bacterium A8, which showed the highest acetic acid production (4.56%) with domestic wheat as substrate, was selected from conventional vinegars. The strain A8 was identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus A8 through phylogenetic study using 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. The optimal condition for the malt enzyme was found to be
for germination periods of 6 days; its amylase activity was 608.4 U. Acetic acid production from domestic wheat substrate supplemented with 5% ethyl alcohol reached 5.8% after 24 days of static fermentation at
with a seeding rate of 5%.
Protective Effects of Black Soybean Seed Coat Extracts against Oxidative Stress-induced Neurotoxicity
Kwak, Ji Hyeon ; Jo, Yu Na ; Jeong, Ji Hee ; Kim, Hyeon Ju ; Jin, Su Il ; Choi, Sung-Gil ; Heo, Ho Jin ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 257~261
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.257
Rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and mice were utilized as in vitro and in vivo models to determine the neuroprotective effects of a 70% acetone extract of black soybean seed coat (BSSCE). BSSCE showed higher total phenolic contents than other extracts. Intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation from
treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when BSSCE was present in the media compared to PC12 cells treated with
only. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) reduction assay and lactate dehydrogenase assay also showed significantly increased protective effects in PC12 cells. In addition, BSSCE improved the in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid beta peptide-induced neuronal deficits.
Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Fermented Black Rice and Its Fractions
Kim, Young-Hyun ; Lee, Young-Jun ; Park, Sun-Ok ; Lee, Sang-Jong ; Lee, Ok-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 2, 2013, Pages 262~266
DOI : 10.9721/KJFST.2013.45.2.262
The aim of this study was to determine the total phenol, total flavonoids, and proanthocyanidin contents of fermented black rice and its fractions, as well as to assess the antioxidant activities. Antioxidative activities were assessed in various in vitro models using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2`-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), reducing power, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and nitrite scavenging activity (Griess reagent assay). Our results show that the antioxidant activity was significantly higher in the low-molecular fraction of fermented black rice than in the other samples (p<0.05). Among the fermented black rice and its fractions, the low-molecular fraction had the highest total phenol (
mg GAE, gallic acid equivalent/g), total flavonoids (
mg RE, rutin equivalent/g), and proanthocyanidin (
mg CE, catechin equivalent/g) contents, which correlated strongly with its antioxidative activity. Considering the high consumer demand due to the beneficial health effects, fermented black rice and its fractions can be utilized to develop functional food, as well as health-promoting and pharmaceutical agents.