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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Hygiene and Safety
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Sep 1996
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Jun 1996
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
Selecting the target year
Effects of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide on Prostaglandin Production in Primary Cultured Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 227~234
This study was designed to characterize endotoxin-induced prostaglandin production in primary cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The time course for prostaglandin synthesis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated VSMC showed that the maximum production was reached in 12 hours. LPS induced prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS) activity in VSMC and the time course profile in the changes of PGHS activity paralleled that of total prostaglandin production. Differential treatment showed that 4 hours' exposure to LPS was enough for the maximum effect on the prostaglandin production and this effect was completely inhibited by the co-treatment of actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor. These results suggest that LPS effect might be determined within 4 hours. Actinomycin D increased PGHS activity without affecting prostaglandin production if added 4 hours after LPS treatment. On the other hand, cyclogeximide, a translation inhibitor, augmented LPS-induced prostaglandin production if treated during first four hours, but it inhibited LPS-induced PGHS activity regardless of treatment schedule. These results suggest the existence of multiple regulating mechanisms in the LPS-induced prostaglandin synthesis.
Immunomodulating Effects on Macrophage of Rhamnan Sulfate Extracted from Monostroma nitidum
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 235~241
The rhamnan sulfate extracted from green algae seaweed, Monostroma nitidum was characterized as activity in vitro culture assay with macrophages from mice. Rhamnan sulfate indicated that F-4-3 fraction enhanced glucose consumption, as well as the production of nitrogen dioxide and tumor necrosis factor(TNF). F-4-3 fraction was also augmented IL-1 secretion from those macrophages. Effects of the pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with rhamnan sulfate F-4-3 fraction and several polysaccharides as relative standard on the production of H2O2 induced with unopsonized zymosan A were examined. Pretreatment with polysaccharides inhibited the zymosan A mediated H2O2 production by macrophages. The phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) mediated H2O2 production was not affected by the pretreament. These result suggested that pretreatment of rhamnan sulfate interfered with the interaction of macrophages zymosan A. Rhamnan sulfate inhibited zymosan A mediated production of H**O** by macrophages and F-4-3 Fraction was also activator of macrophages.
Effects of Aloe vera on the Cholesterol and Vitamin
-induced Atherosclerosis in Rats
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 243~259
This study was performed to investigate the induction of experimental atherosclerosis in rats and inhibitory effects of aloe vera on progression of atherosclerosis in rats. Adose range finding study of cholesterol and vitamin D2 for the induction of atherosclerosis and studies on the subchronic effect of aloe vera and on the chronic effect of aloe vera were carried out. A total of 3-week old 125 male rats of Sprague-Dawley were divided into 25 groups and fed with the diet containing cholesterol (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) and vitamin D2 (500, 5000, 50000 and 500, 000 IU/100 g) for 4 weeks. 35 male rats were divided into 7 groups and fed with the diet containing aloe vera with 1.0% of cholesterol and 50, 000 IU/100 g of vitamin D2 for 4 weeks. 200 male rats were divided into 5 groups and fed with cholesterol and vitamin D2 for 6 and 12 months. Growth, clinical and pathological changes of rats in the three experiments were observed. The results were as follows: 1. In the dose-range finding study, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio and weight to body weight were increased in all of the feed groups containing 500, 000 IU/100 g of vitamin D2. Serum biochemical values of total cholesterol, high-density lipiprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), triglyceride, calcium, inorganic phosphorous and chloride of male rats in treated groups. The aorta and coronary artery of rats in all of the diet group containing 500, 000 IU/100 g of vitamin D2 showed typical atherosclerotic lesions. 2. Male rats fed with the diet containing aloe vera with 1.0% cholesterol and 50, 000 IU/100 g of vitamin D2 for 6 and 12 months did not show significant difference of diet intake and weight gain, and relative organ weight. The level of serum HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride recovered to the normal range by the aloe vera ingestation. 3. The aorta showed irregular appearence in the tunica intima with swelling, necrosis and calcification. The aorta of rat fed aloe vera diet showed no pathological lesions such as atherosclerosis of aorta. Aloe vera could have a helpful effect of vitamin D2 and cholesterol induced atherosclerosis in rats. Long-term supplementation of aloe vera may slow down the process of experimental atherosclerosis in rats have effects on the development of atherosclerosis.
Subacute Toxicity of G009, a Polysaccharide Isolated from Ganoderma lucidum IY009
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 261~271
It has been reported that G009, polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma lucidum IY009 has various pharmacological effects, such as antinflamatory, antiviral, anticarcinogenic and immunmodulation effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the subacute toxicity of orally administered G009 in Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of 40 male and 40 female rats were gavaged with 0, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg/day for 30 days. No drug-related deaths and clinical morbidities were resulted. There was no drug-related effect on the body weight gain, food consumption and water consumption. Statistically significant changes were observed in several hematological and biochemical parameters of G009-treated groups; however, most of these changes were within normal range and had no relationship to dosage. Urinalysis and bone marrow biopsy showed no remarkable changes in all treated groups. Gross necropsy and hisopathology revealed no evidence of specific toxicity related to G009. Our data indicate that no-observed effect level of G009 is estimated to be above 2,000 mg/kg/day in rats.
Effect of Oriental Onion (allium fistulosum) on Platelet Aggregation
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 273~276
Platelets serve many biological functions, including a major role in the haemostatic process. But platelets also play a crucial role in the formation of arterial thrombosis, arteriosclerosis and other pathologic processes. Thus, there have been many studies to develop new antiplatelet agents from foods and plants for decades. Inthis study, inhibitory effects of the oriental onion (Allium fistulosum) on platelet aggregation were investigated using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Water extracts of oriental onion was separated into two fractions (Fraction I and Fraction II) by Sephadex G-150 column. Platelet aggregations were inhibited by total water extracts as well as Fraction I and II. IC50 value of Fraction I was much lower than that of Fraction II. Inhibitory effects of total water extracts of oriental onion on ATP release by PRP were also observed.
A Retrospective Study on the Comparison of Outbreaks of Food Poisoning for Food Hygiene in Korea and Japan
Lee, Won-Chang ; Chung, Choog-Il ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 277~285
Retrospective study on the comparison of outbreaks of food poisoning for food hygiene in Korea and Japan. The average value of morbidity rate by year in Korea during the period of 1971 to 1992 was 2.9 per 100,000 population, and that of Japan was 29.1. The mean value of mortality rates in case of food poisoning by year in Korea was 2.33%, and that of Japan was 0.07%. When compared the rates of morbidity and mortality between Korea and Japan during the same period, the morbidity rates of Japan were much higher than those of Korea (p<0.01). However, mortality rate of patients in Korea were much higher then those of Japan(p<0.01). Resulting from comparative observation of food poisoning by preparing facilities between Korea and Japan. The highest list the places where the outbreaks occurred was home-made foods accounted for 48.8% of the total cases in Korea and that of Japan was restaurants accounted for 33.0%. Causative foods in Korea, the most common incrimination vehicles were seafood, meat and animal products and grain and vegetables, including mushroom. However, in the case of the common incrimination vehicles Japan were unknown and other foods, seafood, vegetables and meat and animal products etc.. Food poisoning of pathogenic substance in Korea were 60.9% of bacterial food poisoning of the total cases showing that Vibrio species, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus spp., pathogenic E. coli, Clostridium spp. and other spp. were 33.3%, 26.2%, 16.3%, 5.3%, 0.4% and 18.5%, respectively. On the other hand, in Japan, major causes were Vibrio spp. (45.7%), Staphylococcus spp. (23.7%), Salmonella spp. (16.8%), pathogenic E. coli (3.8%), Clostridium spp. (0.2%) and other spp. (9.6%).
Enzyme Immunoassay for the Sulfamethazine Residues in Pork Tissue
Park, Jun-Hong ; Lim, Yoon-Kyu ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 287~290
To control the maximum residue level (MRL) for sulfamethazine (SMZ) residues in pork tissue, a microbial inhibition method is a regulatory screening assay method in Korea. Microwell plate-based competitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) kit is avalable for routine screening of SMZ residues in pork tissue. One ELISA kit is evaluated. Phosphate buffer extracts of samples fortified with SMZ at 0, 1, 5, and 10 ng/g were used in a recovery test of the kit. Market pork samples were assayed by the kit. Recovery of sulfamethazine was 104% at 10 ng/g. Intraassay variations and interassay variations for the kit were 7.70% and 5.76%, respectively. Concentration causing 50% inhibition of color development compared with blanks was 16.4ng. The violative pork samples with over MRL (0.1
/g) was 4 of 32 cases (12.5%) by used ELISA kit. This result indicates a possibility of the ELISA kit for screening test of SMZ residues in pork tissue, and still needs a comfirmatory assay for mandatory purposes.
Lack of Evidence for Involvement of Cytochrome P-450 2E1 in Acutely Induced Alcoholic Fatty Liver
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 291~297
The role of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (P450 2E1) in the early phase of alcoholic fatty liver was examined. Female rats were pretreated with either allyl sulfide (200 mg/kg, po), disulfiram (500 mg/kg, po), YH 439 (250 mg/kg, po) or pyrazine (200 mg/kg/day
2 days, ip). Marked changes in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and caboxyhemoglobin (COHb) elevation due to dichloromethane administration were observed in rats treated with one of the P450 2E1 modulators. A single dose of ethanol (6 g/kg, po) increased the hepatic triglyceride contents approximately 2 fold, which was inhibited completely by YH 439 pretreatment. However, the other P450 2E1 modulators failed to alter the ethanol-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. In vitro hepatic microsomal enzyme activity was determined in 4 week old premature and 12 week old adult rats. Aminopyrine-N demethylation was not different, but p-nitrophenol hydroxylation and p-nitroanisole O-demethylation were significantly higher in premature rats. However, no difference in the triglyceride accumulation induced by an intraperitoneal dose of ethanol (3 g/kg) was noted between premature and adult rats. The results suggest that the P450 2E1 activity dose not play an important role in the induction of acute alcoholic fatty liver.
Evaluation of Antifungal Activities and Safeties of 6-[(N-2,4-Dibromophenyl) amino]-7-Chloro-5,8-Quinolinedione
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 299~306
6-[(N-3,4-Dibromophenyl)amino]-7-chloro-5,8-quinolinedione(FCK13) was tested for antifungal activities. The MIC values were determined by the two-fold dilution method. The therapeutic potential of RCK13 had been assessed in comparison with ketoconazole and fluconazole against systemic infections with candida albicans in normal mice. RCK13 had ED50,0.80
0.21 mg/kg but ketoconazole had ED50, 8.00
0.73 mg/kg respectively. And administered RCK13 at the ED50 for 14 days improved survival rates as well as ketoconazole. Acute oral toxicity studies of RCK13 were carried out in ICR mice of both sexes. These acute oral toxicities of RCK13 were low and LD50 values were over 2,850 mg/kg in ICR mice. The genotoxicities of RCK13 had been evaluated. RCK13 was negative in Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium and chromosomal aberration test in CHL cells. The clastogenicity was tested on the RCK13 with in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. RCK13 did not show any clastogenic effect in mouse peripheral blood and was negative in mouse micronucleus assay. These results indicate that RCK13 has no genotoxic potential under these experimental conditions.
Evaluatioon of EEc 4-Plate Test for the Sensitivity and Identification of Families of Antimicrobial Drugs in Mea
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 307~314
The European Economic Community four plate test(EEC 4-plate test, FPT, EU) has been used for monitoring antimicrobial drug residues in meat by Local Veterinary Service Center in Korea. This study was performed to evaluate sensitivity and group specificity of some antimicrobial drugs in FPT and to compare FPT with Charm II test. The minimal detectable levels of targeted antimicrobial drugs tested with standard solutions were 0.025∼1.0 ppm for 7 beta-lactams, 0.5∼1.0 ppm for 4 aminoglycosides, 0.05∼0.5 ppm for 5 macrolides, 0.05∼0.25 ppm for 3 tetracyclines and 0.25&1.0 ppm for 6 sulfonamides. In comparison of FPT and Charm II test, the results of FPT were not accord with those of Charm II test having the group specificity of seven families of antimicrobial drugs in meat samples except some families like tetracyclines.
Development of Baccillus megaterium Disk Assay Kit for the Determination of Antibacterial Residues in Animal Tissues
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 315~321
Various antimicrobial drug screen tests have been used in order to ensure food safety. However, the conventional screen tests, the Swab Test on Premises(STOP, USA), the Calf Antibiotic and Sulfa Test(CAST, USA) and the European Economic Community 4-plate Test(FPT, EU) are not sufficiently rapid or sensitive enough to detect low levels of sulfa drugs in meat. We developed a new screen test kit for the determination of the antimicrobial residues in meat called the Bacillus megaterium Disk Assay(BmDA). A comparison of BmDA with the older screen tests showed BmDA was as good as the older ones with several advantages. The new test kit is faster-it can be read in 4∼6 hours instead of 16∼18 hours. Moreover, BmDA can discriminate sulfa drugs from other antimicrobial drugs because p-aminobenzoic acid countacts the inhibiting action of sulfa drugs. Minimum detectable levels of sulfa drugs were significantly improved at the lever of 0.025*0.1 pp, compared with the level of 1.0 ppm in FPT. A comparison of BmDA with the older screen tests in HPLC confirmed meat samples exceeded the Korean tolerance value of 0.1 ppm showed BmDA was the most sensitive in the microbiological screen tests. As the microbiological screen tests have already known, a person familiar with simple laboratory techniques should have no difficulty in using it to detect antimicrobial residues in meat. This would be a simple, economic method of antimicrobial residues detection which might be succesfully used by many laboratories.
Stevioside, a Natural Sweetener : Is It Safe\ulcorner
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 11, issue 4, 1996, Pages 323~327