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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Hygiene and Safety
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
Selecting the target year
Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella ser. typhimurium in Fermented Milk Products
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 175~180
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella ser. typhimurium are pathogens involved in food poisoning in numerous countries. This study aimed to obtain knowleges on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 KSC 109 and S. ser. typhimurium ATCC 14028 in fermentedmilk products which were on sale in Suwon Yakult supplier. To the final concentration of 103~104 cfu/
of E. coli O157:H7 KSC 109 or S. wer. typhimurium ATCC 14028 in the fermented milks, Metchnikoff, Ace, Yakult, Mastoni and Super 100 were inoculated with these pathogens and then were stored at 4
and viable cells of these pathogens were periodically counted. The results showed that the survival of two pathogens differed in the different types of fermented milks tested. Number of suriviving E. coli O157:H7 KSC 109 and S. ser. typimurium ATCC 14028 cells (initial inoculum, 103~104 cfu/
) were decreased to 101, 102 cfu/
in Ace after 100 hours, and were decreased gradually to 101 cfu/
in Yakult after 250 hours. In the other fermented milks, viable cells of E. coli O157:H7 KSC 109 was not drastically decreased but those of S. ser. typhimurium ATCC 14028 was decreased gradually to 102 (Mastoni), and to 101 cfu/
(Super 100) after 250 hours. It appeared that S. ser. typhimurium ATCC 14028 was more susceptible than E. coli O157:H7 KSC 109 at low pH. Vibale cells of E. coli O157:H7 KSC 109 was not drastically decreased in most of fermented milks tested except Ace and Yakult, but in general, S. ser. typhimurium ATCC 14028 was drastically decreased in most of the fermented milks. The major ingibition factor against these pathogens in the fermented milks during storage at 4
appeared to be the acidity and the metabolites produced by the starters bacteria used in fermented milk products.
Growth Inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 181~187
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018, Bifidobacterium longum 8001, and Bifidobacterium longum 8025 at the level of 106 cfu/
were cultured with 104 cfu/
of Escherichia coli O157:H7 KSC 109 or Salmonella typhimurium ATCC14028, in order to verify the effects of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria on the growth of the pathogens. In the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria with E. coli O157:H7 KSC 109, Growth inhibition and atypical microcolonies of E. coli O157:H7 KSC 109 were observed. The pathogens inoculated grew for 5 hors (pH 5.3), by the time L. acidophilus NCFM reached the exponential growth phase, and then the surviving pathogens were decreased to 101 cfu/
after 35 hours. When L. caseiYIT 9018 was grown with the pathogens, they grew for 10 hours (pH 4.6), by the time L. casei YIT 9018 reached the end of exponential growth phase, and then the surviving pathogens were decreased drastically. Up to the stationary growth phase of lactic acid bacteria, L. acidophilus NCFM exhibited stronger inhibition against the pathogens than L. casei YIT 9018 did, which might be attributed to its faster growth. Likewise bifidobacteria inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested, bifidobaceria was weaker in the inhibitory activity than lactic acid bacteria. When Bifidobacterium longum 8001 was cultured with the pathogens, E. coli O157:H7 KSC 109 was gradually ingibited at the stationary growth phase of bifidobacteria, atypical microcolonies were formed on Levine EMB medium after 48 hours, and Salmonella grew up to 106 dfu/
, then was drastically ingibited at the exponential growth phage of Bifidobacterium longum 8001. But when Bifidobacteriuam longum 8025 was cultured with the pathogens, the pathogens grew to the same level of Bifidobacteriuam longum 8025 was cultured with the pathogens, the pathogens grew to the same lever of Bifidobacteriuam longum 8025 after 10 hours, then the surviving pathogens were decreased drastically.
Growth Ingibiton Effect of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium by Lactic Fermented Milk Products Administrated Orally in Rabbit
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 188~194
The growth inhibition effect of Orally administrated yogurt ACE and Metchnikoffupon E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium inoculated into gastric lumen of rabbits was in vestigated. The rabbits challenged with each 1
of suspension containing 108 CFU/
of the pathogens were divided into 4 groups by the interval of yogurt administration: A group; preadministrated 7 days before inoculation of the pathogens and fed daily; B group; administrated daily after inocjlation of the pathogens, C group; administrated every 3 days after inoculation of the pathogens; Control group, not fed after inoculation of the pathogens. Each 3
of yogurt containing 109 CFU/
was orally administrated into rabbits. All yogurt administrated groups (A, B, c) chowed growth ingibition effect on E. coli O157:H7 in one day after inoculation of the pathogen by the level of 0.8~1.0 log CFU/g, compared with the result differences between the control group and the yogurt administrated groups. In the control group after 5 days of inoculation, the number of colonized pathogens was 105~106 CFU/g, whereas 103~104 CFU/g was detected in the yogurt administrated groups. After 10 days of inoculation, the viable pathogen number per gram (g) of the rabbit feces was 103 CFU/g in the control group, whereas the number below 101 CFU/g was detected in the group A, and 102 CFU/g in the control group, B and C. The growth inhibition effect of yogurt administration on E. coli O157:H7 was highly increased in the order of A, B, and C group. The same effect on S. typhimurium was observed at the level of 2 log CFU/g in the Metchnikoff yogurt administrated groups, compared with the control group result in one day after inoculation of the pathogen. In 7 days after inoculation of the pathogen, the viable number was increasingly decreased, and finally after 15 days no viable cell of S. typhimurium was discharged into the fecal samples in the group A, and the mean level of 10* CFU/g was detected in the group B, but there was no growth inhibition effect in the group C. The growth inhibition effect on S. typhimurium was observed at the same level of viable cell number between the yogurt ACE administrated groups and the control group in 5 days after inoculation. But, after 10 days of inoclation the viable cell number was started to decrease, and the viable cell of S. typhimurium was not discharged from rabbit intestinal contents after 15 days of inoculation in the yogurt ACE administrated groups. In such a case that yogurt was administrated in order to prevent the pathogens, pre-administration on a daily basis one week before inoculation of the pathogens exerted considerable effect in growth inhibition. In comparison with two kinds of yogurt tested in this study, the growth inhibition effect on two kinds of pathogens was observed more highly in the Metchnikoff administated group than the ACE administrated group.
Screening of Inhibitory Effect of Edible Mushrooms on Tyrosinase and Isolation of Active Component
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 195~199
For the purpose of isolation and screening of tyrosinase inhibitory activity from edible mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus, Auricularia auricula-Judae, Umbilicaria esculenta, Agaricus bisporus, Flammuline velutipes, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Coriouls versicolor were examined by tracing inhibitory activities against tyrosinase, utilizing L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as a substrate. Among the eight edible mushrooms tested, Umbilicaria esculenta showed potent enzyme inhibitory activities above 7804% against tyrosinase in ethylacetate (EtOAc) extracts. Ganoderma lucidum and Agaricus bisporus showed inhibitory activities of 67.3% and 51.5% in water extracts. EtOAc extracts of Umbilicaria esculenta was fractionated from silicagel column chromatography and one fraction showed the most inhibitory activity of 60.9%. The three bands (Rf=0.38, 0.27, 0.19) were isolated from preparative TLC of the fraction for purification and identified as mixtures of orsellinate, methyl orsellinate, methyl lecanorate, and methyl gyrophorate by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultravisible spectrophotometer (UV), mass spectrophotometer (Mass), nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR).
Combination Effects of Benzoate, Sorbate and pH for Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 200~204
Effects of benzoate (0~0.6 g/
) and sorbate (0~2.0 g/
) on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in tryptic soy broth at various pH levels (4~8) and temperatures (4
) were investigated. Benzoate and sorbate were inhibited the growth of E. coli O157:H7 up to 12 hours cultivation at 4
, and 2.0 g/
sorbate was only inhibited during 48 hours cultivation at 37
. Among the pH levels tested, pH 4 showed significant inhibitory effect against the E. coli O157:H7 on 4
and at 37
, respectively. When used in combination 0.2 g/
benzoate and sorbate were completely inhibited the growth of E. coli O157:H7 on pH 4 and at 37
. While on pH 5 at 4
, all of the concentration tested did not exert any inhibitory effect. The combined effects were retarded more than single treatment of E. coli O157:H7.
Effect of Alcohol Treatment on Growth of Microorganisms Contaminated in Ginseng Powders
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 205~209
Alcohol treatment was applied to ginseng powder for the improving hygienic quality of ginseng powder. A bacterial strain designated as GT5 was isolated from ginseng powder contaminated and was identified as Escherichia coli species by IMVIC test method. Ethanol used as alcohol, inhibited strongly the growth of coliforms in ginseng powder at the concentrations of 50 to 90%. Ethanol treatment also decreased numbers of total bacteria at the same concentrations. There was not significant changes in saponin of ginseng powder after treated with ethanol. However, ethanol treatment caused a decrease in Hunter's color L value and an increase in a and b values of ginseng powder. As a hygienic quality control of ginseng powder, ethanol treatment could be cosidered as an effective means for decontaminating microorganisms in ginseng powder.
Analysis of Antioxidants in Fatty Foods Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 210~216
The prevention of oxidative degradation in fats and oils is largely controlled by the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants. Antioxidants, BHA: 2-&-3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisol, BHT: 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, TBHQ: tert-butylhydroquinone, PG: propyl gallate, PTG: pentyl gallate, OG:octyl gallate, were extracted from fatty foods with hexane and from hexane layer to presaturated acetonitrile with hexane. The polar phenolic hydroxyl groups of antioxidants were silylated with MSTFA and injected to Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The calibration plots were linear in the investigated range, 0.1~10.0
/g. The limit of detection for 6 phenolic antioxidants was 0.1
/g. Recoveries and reproducibilities from samples fortified at 1.0
/g were in the range of 70~90% and 0.5~13%, respectively. The simultaneous determination of phenolic antioxidants in fatty foods using GC/MS-SIM mode and macro program was described.
Genotoxicological Safety of the Gamma-Irradiated Medicinal Herbs
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 217~227
These experiments were performed to investigate the safety of the three medicinal herbs- Curcuma longa Linne, Paeonia japonica Miyabe, Scutellaria baikalensis George-irradiated with gamma rays in respect of genotoxicity. The methanol-soluble and water-soluble fractions of the methanol-water extracts of the 10 kGy gamma-irradiated herbs were examined in two short-term in vitro tests : (1) Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay (Ames test) in strain TA 98, TA 100 and TA 012 (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No mutagenicity was detected in the assays with or without metabolic activation. From these results, the safety of the herbs irradiated with gamma rays at practical doses could be revealed in further tests of genotoxicity in vivo, chronic and reproductive toxiceity.
Synthesis and Antibiotic activity of Dextran-Phthalysulfathiazole
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 228~233
Drug Dclivcry system (DDS) purpose to getting better remedial result by improving medication from ordinary methods. Applied for DDS, to improve selectivity and comtinuity during absorbing and delivery step, polmer drug (prodrug) was prepared by the esterification with dextran in such of biodegradable polymer and phthalylsulfathiazole with is efficient for entilitis. The polymer durg was prepared with dextran and phthalylsulfathiazole by the esterification. The synthetic procedures of polymer drug was performed by acid chloride and DCC methods. Polymer drug was synthesized in high yield by acid chloride method than DCC method. The antibiotic activities of polymer drug exhibited growth-inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae at the concentration of 500 *g/m* in general through in vitro. As a result of test, polymer drug has 1/2 MIC than phthalylsulfathiazole. Also, it has high level MIC as much as phthalylsulfathiazole with Proteus, Pseudomonas. We conducted possibility of DDS as an applied for medicine with synthesized polymer drug by using natrural polymer. We consider that clinical research must be followed to verify safety and efficacy for controlled release, activity and toxicity.
Subacute Toxicity Test of Guh Sung Y.L.S.-95
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 234~239
Guh Sung Y.L.S.-95 is one of the polyacidic solution of which main component is acetic acid. We investigated the subchronic toxicity of the Guh Sung Y.L.S.-95 using SPF ICR mouse for 4 weeks. The Guh Sung Y.L.S.-95 was administered by gastric intubation, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 g/kg body weight. The results are as follows: 1. There are no adverse effects on the clinical obserbation and body weight changes. Also, there are some significant changes in organ weight, but it was meaningless because of the absence of dose-response relationships. 2. In the hematological patterns of administered mouse, there are no significant changes between the treated groups. Also, there are no serological enzymatic changes in the treated mouse. In the 1.0 g/kg treated group, ASP activity was increased significnatly compared with control group. But, this level of activity was fall under the normal physiological range of control mouse. 3. Histopathological findings of the brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, stomach, lung, testis, ovary, uterus and thymus were not observed in the treated mouse. From the above results, the Guh Sung Y.L.S.-95 has no toxicity upto the 5.0 g/kg/day of oral dose for 4 weeks.
Analysis of Problems of Food Service Establishments Contributing to Food Poisoning Outbreaks Discovered through the Epidemiological Studies of Some Outbreaks
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 12, issue 3, 1997, Pages 240~253
The main problems contributing to food poisoning outbreaks in institutional settings and a home were reviewed and analyzed through the epidemiological investigations of food poisoning. The major documented factors included improper holding temperatures, inadequate cooking, poor personal hygiene, cross-contamination and contaminated equipment, food from unsafe sources, failure to follow food hygiene policies, and lack of education, training, monitoring and superivision. Usually more than one factor contributed to the development of an outbreak. (1) Use of improper holding temperatures was the single most important factor contributing to food poisoning. They included improper cooling, allowing a laps of time (12 hours or more) between preparing food and eating it, improper hot holding, and inadequate or improper thawing. Food thermometers were not used in most of the instances. (2) In inadequate cooking, the core temperature of food during and after cooking had not been measured, and routine monitoring was limited to recording the temperature of plated meals. Compared with conventional methods of cooking, microwave ovens did not protect against food poisoning as effectively. Centralized food preparation potentially increased the risk of food poisoning outbreaks. (3) Poor personal hygiene both at the individual level (improper handwashing and lack of proper hygienic practices) and at the institutional level (poor general sanitization) increased the risk of transmission. Person to person transmission of enteric pathogens through direct contact and via fomites has been noted in several instances. (4) Obtaining food from unsafe sources was a risk factor in outbreaks of food poisoning. Food risks were high when food was grown or harvested from contaminated areas. Possibilities included contamination in the field, in transport, at the retail site, or at the time it was prepared for serving. (5) Cross-contamination and inadequate cleaning/handling of equipment became potential vehicles of food poisoning. Failure to separate cooked food from raw food was also a risk factor. (6) Failure to follow food hygiene policies also provided opportunities for outbreaks of food poisoning. It included improper hygienic practices during food preparation, neglect of personnel policies (involvement of symptomatic workers in food preparation), poor results on routine inspections, and disregarding the results and recommendations of an inspection. (7) Lack of formal and in-service education, training, monitoring, and supervision of food handlers or supervisors were critical and perhaps neglected elements in occurrences of food poisoning.