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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Hygiene and Safety
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Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
Effects of Water Activity on Microbial Growth in Herb Extract
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 77~82
As a fundermental research for quality stailization of herb extract, the effects of water activity on microbial growth in herb extract were investigated. Herbs-Panax ginseng, Cinnamomum cassia, Lycium chinense, Zyzyphus jujuba, Lindera obtusilobum-were mixed and extracted with water at
and concentrated at
. Water activity of the herb extract was adjusted to 0.86, 0.80 and 0.69, using water activity analyzer. The extracts were incubated for 180 days at
and then examined microbial cell counts and some physicochemical properties. In the extract of
0.86, 18 CFU/g of initial viable cell was increased to 80 CFU/g with 90 days of incubation and to 190 CFU/g 180 days of incubation. In the extract of
0.80, 24 CFU/g of initial viable cell was also increased to 83 CFU/g during the 90 days of incubation and to 170 CFU/ g for the 180 days of incubation. However, in the extract of
0.69, viable cell after 180 days of incubation was remained at almost the same level as initial viable cell. pH of herb extract was reduced in proportion to the decrease in water activity. The TLC (thin layer chromatography) patterns of ginseng saponins of herb extract did not show any significant changes after 180 days of incubation. Growth of pathogenic microorganisms was inhibited more with lower water activity of the herb extracts. In the herb extract inoculated with Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger, initial viable cells of 150 and 140 CFU/g were decreased to 30 and 20 CFU/g, repectively, after 30 days of incubation at
. In the case of herb extract inoculated with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, growth of the bacteria was totally inhibited even after 30 days of incubation at
Studies on the Biological Function and Antibacterial Effect of Lactoperoxidase System in Raw Milk 2. Antibacterial Effect of Lactoperoxidase System Against Listeria monocytogenes
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 83~86
This study was carried out to measure the antibacterial effect of lactoperoxidase system against L. monocytogenes. When the initial inoculum levels (
), concentration of LP (10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm), culture media (TSB-YE, UHT milk) and storage temperatures (
) were set up differently for the experiment and the antibacterial effect was compared, the highest antibacterial effect of LP system was shown at
of initial inoculum level, 10 ppm of LP concentration and
of incubaction temperature. The antibacterial effect of LPS in UHT milk was similar to that in Tryptic soy broth.
The Effect of Tannic Acid to the Cadmium on Mouse
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 87~93
The tannic acid (0.5 mg/ml, 1.0 mg/mi, 2.0 mg/ml) and/or cadmium (20 mg/kg) were administered by oral administration. The results were as follows: 1. There were adverse effects on the weight changes and water consumption. But, the extent of adverse changes were decreased by tannic acid administration. 2. Also, there were some significant changes in organ weight, especially relative liver weight and relative brain weight by cadmium administration, but Ta1.0 group was significant changes in relative liver weight, relative lung weight and relative thymus weight compared with control group. 3. In the hematological patterns of administered mice, there were significant changes between cadmium treated groups and control group. Hemoglobin contents, packed cell volume, platelet count and neutrophill count were significantly change compared with control group. These changes were not shown in tannic acid treated group. 4. There were serological enzymatic changes in the cadmium treated mouse. In the tannic acid treated group 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/ml, ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine were recovered to the extent of control group. From the above results, the tannic acid has some possible alleviative effects of cadmium toxicity upto the 2.0 mg/ml/day of oral dose for 4 weeks. But we need further study of mechanism for toxicty alleviating action of tannic acid to the heavy metals like cadmium.
Chemical Compositions of Agaricus blazei Murill Fruiting Bodies Cultivated in a Korean Local Farm
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 94~98
Agaricus blazei Murill, a mushroom which is well known as a potent antitumor agent, contains abundant pharmaceutical substances. To identifY the major components of Agaricus blazei Murill fruiting bodies cultivated in a Korean local farm was analyzed. There were not large differences in chemical compositions of inorganic substances, carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids between Agaricus blazei Murill fruiting bodies cultivated in Korea and those in Japan. However, carbohydrate composition was significantly lower in Agaricus blazei Murill of Korea compared to those of Japan. Total amino acid contents were 280.75 mg% in Agaricus blazei Murill fruiting bodies. Sixteen species of amino acid were identified by high performance liquid chromatography except cysteine. Linoleic acid, the most abundant fatty acid contained in Agaricus blazei Murill fruiting bodies, was estimated to be 78.3% of total fatty acids.
Antimicrobial Activity of Pectin hydrolysate and its Preservative Effect
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 99~105
Pectin hydrolysate prepared from citrus pectin by enzymatic hydrolysis has antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was increased by its hydrolyzing rate and it was rapidly increased after 70% hydrolysis of the pectin. The antibacterial activity of pectin hydrolysate against Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 was the strongest at pH 4.9~5.5, but it diminished slightly at neutral pH values. The antibacterial activity of pectin hydrolysate was stronger than those of against molds and yeasts. The growth of bacteria submitted to this test except lactics was completely inhibited for 48 hrs at
by adding 2.0~3.0% pectin hydrolysate. While the growth of Lactococcus lactis ATCC 19435 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Penicillium funiculosum ATCC 11797 were reached about 60~70% compared with those of the controls in the same condition. But there was no significant effect on the growth of the yeasts. The antibacterial effect of pectin hydrolysate was significantly stimulated by addition of glycine, ethanol, sodium ascorbate, sodium chloride and sodium acetate. The shelf life of Kimchi containing 1.0% pectin hydrolysate was prolonged above 15 days at
than that of its control. In case of whitish bean jam viable cell counts were inhibited about 2 log cycles by 10 days at
. According to these results, author can sincerely suggest that pectin hydrolysate will be used as a natural food preservative for inhibition of common bacterial growth without inhibition of lactics and yeasts.
Estrogeicity of Genistein and Bisphenol A
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 106~111
This study has been focused on both estrogenic and proliferating activity of genistein (GEN) and bisphenol A (BPA). GEN and BPA enhance the proliferation of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 human breast cancer cells at concentrations as low as 100 nM of GEN and 8 ng/ml of BP A achieving similar effect to that of estradiol at 1 nM. Expression of the estrogen responsive gene, pS2 was also induced in MCF-7 cells by treatment with genistein at dose as low as 1 nM and BPA at dose as low as 4 ng/ml. Using 21 day-old ovariectomized nude mice, we examined end-bud formation and mammary gland development after treatment with bisphenol A or genistein. Compared with untreated control, mammary gland development and end-bud formation were significantly increased in mice fed genistein or bisphenol A (p<0.05). Taken together, it is concluded that GEN and BP A can act as an estrogen agonist resulting in cell proliferation and induction of the estrogen responsive pS2 gene in MCF-7 cells in vitro and in athymic mice in vivo, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that GEN and BP A might modulate human endocrine system and these compounds might be considered as a endocrine modulator at the low levels of doses.
A Study on Synergisitic Effect of Chitosan and Sorbic Acid on Growth Inhibition of Escherichia coli O517:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 112~120
This study was performed to investigate the synergistic effect of chitosan and sorbic acid as a new food preservative. So it was performed to investigate inhibitory effect on growh of E. coli 0157:H7, gram negative pathogenic food borne disease bacteria and of S. aureus, gram positive food borne disease bacteria in chitosan, sorbic acid and combination of chitosan and sorbic acid. Minimun Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of chitosan in E. coli 0157:H7 was 500 ppm at pH 5.0, 250 ppm at pH 5.5, 500 ppm at pH 6.0, and 2000 ppm at pH 6.5, while in Staph. aureus 31.25 ppm at pH 5.0 and 62. 5 ppm at more than pH 5.5. also, MIC of sorbic acid in E. coli 0157:H7 was 500 ppm at pH 5.0, 1500 ppm at pH 5.5, and 2000 ppm at more than pH 6.0, while in Staph. aureus 1500 ppm at pH 5.0 and more than 2000 ppm at more than pH 5.5. Due to the effect of pH in E. coli 0157:H7, MIC of combined chitosan and sorbic acid was 500 ppm of chitosan with 500 ppm of sorbic acid at pH 6.5, but 250 ppm of chitosan with 31.3 ppm of sorbic acid at pH 5.0. In Staph. aureus, there was great effect of chitosan, but neither effect of pH nor sorbic acid. When E. coli 0157:H7 were treated with 500 ppm of chitosan with 500 ppm of sorbic acid and 250 ppm of chitosan with 250 ppm of sorbic acid at pH 6.5, they were inhibited. But, they were increased at the initial concentration of bacteria at 1000 ppm of chitosan in 18 hours, at 500 ppm of chitosan in 36 hours. There was no effect of growth inhibition with sorbic acid but great effect with chitosan on Staph. aureus. The correl~tions between MICs of chitosan and sorbic acid in E. coli 0157:H7 accoding to pH were higher than those in Staph. aureus. R values in E. coli 0157:H7 were 0.95 (p<0.01), 0.99 (p<0.01), 0.97 (p<0.01), and 0.99 (p<0.01) at pH 6.5, 6.0, 5.5, and 5.0 respectively. The synergistic effect of chitosan and sorbic acid in E. coli 0157:H7 could be confirmed from the result of this experiment. Therefore, it was expected that the food preservation would increase or maintain by using sorble acid together with chitosan, natural food additive that did no harm to human body.
Study of Antidotes on the Nephrotoxicity of Ochratoxin A
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 121~128
Ochratoxin A (OA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus ochraceus as well as other molds. It is a natural contaminant of mouldy food and feed. OA has a number of toxic effects, the most prominant being nephrotoxicity. Futhermore, OA is immunosuppressive, genotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic. OA inhibits protein synthesis by competition with phenylalanine in the phenylalanine-tRNA aminoacylation reaction. Recently, lipid peroxidation induced by OA has been reported, indicating that the lesion induced by this mycotoxin could be also related to oxidative pathway. Since it seems impossible to avoid contamination of foodstuffs by toxigenic fungi, detoxification and detoxication of OA are needed. In this study we investigated the protective effects of aspartame (Asp), phenylalanine (Phe), polyphenol 70S (PP) and aloe extract (AE) on the nephrotoxicity induced by subacute exposure to the OA. Asp and Phe are structural analogues of OA. PP, an ingredient of Green Tea and AE have been known as antioxidant and radical scavenger. Phe (40 mg/kg, i.p.) and Asp (25 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to Sprague-Dawley rats simultaneously with OA (2.0 mg/kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks. PP (200 mg/kg, p.o.) and AE (50 mg/kg, i.v.) were pretreated before administration of OA, for 2 weeks and 3 days, respectively. Using enzymuria, BUN level, creatinemia and histophathologic examination as indices of renal damage, we observed that all of four compounds prevented the nephrotoxic effects induced by OA. It seems that structural analogues of OA such as Asp and Phe have better protective effect on the nephrotoxicity of OA than antioxidants. These results indicate that 1) formation of free radical and lipid peroxidation are likely to be involved in the nephrotoxicity of OA in vivo, 2) Asp, PP and AE might be used for prevention of renal lesions in cases of ochratoxicosis.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Nivalenol
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 129~134
To develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for nivalenol (NIV), we produced polyclonal antibodies against tetraacetyl nivalenol (Ac4-NIV) and established ELISA conditions. Ac4-NIV-hemisuccinate conjugated to bovine serum albumin (Ac4-NIV-HS-BSA) was immunized with Freund's adjuvants into rabbits subcutaneously several times. By use of the antiserum showing the highest titer and Ac4-NIV-HS-HRP conjugate, we established competitive direct ELISA (cdELISA). Standard curve of cdELISA showed that the detection range of Ac4-NIV was about 10~5,000 ng/ml (ppb). The cross-reactivities of the polyclonal antibody towards Ac4-NIV and acetyl T-2 were 100 and 70% respectively, and those towards NIV, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, triacetyl deoxynivalenol, fusarenonX, and T-2 were less than 0.1%. When cdELISA was applied to NIV-spiked corns followed by extraction with 70% acetonitrile and acetylation with acetic anhydride in pyridine, the recovery rates of the Ac4-NIV were 108, 143, and 70% (average, 107%) in the levels of 100, 300, and 1,000 ng/g (ppb), respectively.
Mutagenicity Studies of Cosmetic Dyes (2)
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 135~142
The mutagenicity of three external colorants, lake red CBA (D&C Red No.9, R-9), rhodamine B stearate (D&C Red No.37, R-37) and permanent orange (D&C Orange No.17, O-17) was evaluated. In this study, the genetic toxicity of the these dyes was examined by in vitro chromosome aberration test in cultured mammalian cells, in vivo micronucleus test in ddY mice, and somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Three dyes did not induce mutagenicity in chromosome aberration test and micronucleus test. But Red No.9 and Red No. 37 showed slight increase of abnormal wing spots in Drosophila melanogaster.
Reestablishment of Approval Toxin Amount in Paralytic Shellfish Poison-Infested Shellfish 3. Thermal Resistance of Paralytic Shellfish Poison
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 143~148
The purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) destruction at various temperature. The toxic digestive gland homogenate of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), PSP crude toxin, gonyautoxin group and saxitoxin group were heated at temperature ranging from 90 to
, and then the toxicities were measured in samples heated for various time intervals. The rate constant (k) of the toxic digestive gland homogenate, PSP crude toxin, gonyautoxin group and saxitoxin group were
, respectively. The decimal reduction time (D-value) of the toxic digestive gland homogenate, PSP crude toxin, gonyautoxin group and saxitoxin group were 70, 192, 39 and 89 at
, respectively. These results indicate that PSP crude toxin is most heat-stable of 4 types of PSP toxins and PSP toxin are more heat-stable than food poisoning bacteria and spores. The retorting condition to reduce PSP toxicity below quarantine limit (
in Korea and America, 4 MU/g in Japan) could be calculated by rate constant. For example, the digestive gland homogenate having a initial toxicity of
could have toxicity below quarantine limit when heated at
for 129 min.,
for 82 min.,
for 48 min. and
for 28 min. These results suggest that commercial retorting condition (
for 70 min) in Korea is enough to reduce toxicity below quarantine limit from initial toxicity of
. From these results, the quarantine limit of PSP-infested shellfish for canning can be level up to raw score of
The Chemotoxonoic Relationship of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 by Fatty Acid Compositions
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 149~154
The authors attempted utilization of fatty acid composition of vibrios as a tool for identification of the strains. Fatty acid of 49 strains of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, V. cholerae O1, V mimicus, V vulinificus and V parahaemolyticus was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography column. According to the statistical analysis of the fatty acid data, the relationship between the Vibrio species and serotypes of the strains was discussed. Forty one kinds of fatty acid were detected from the tested strains and 35 kinds of fatty acids among the detected fatty acids were significant factors to identify the vibrios. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1 cis 9, 18:1 trans 9/6/cis 11 and 15:0 iso 2OH/16:1 cis 9 as above about 20% in total. Fatty acid compositions of the Vibrio species were an important factor in identifying their subspecies either predominant fatty acids or minor ones. According to the analysed results by a conventional statistical processing method (UPGMA) and prepared dendrogram, V cholerae non-01 had more closer relationship with V. mimicus compared with V. cholerae 01. Moreover, the distribution of hydroxy acid was a significant factor for identifying V cholerae subspecies. Comprising all the 10 serotypes detected from V. cholerae non-01 examined such as O2, O5, O8, O10, O14, O27, O37, O39, O45 and O69, we could group them into seven subspecies by cluster analysis with the similarity value of fatty acid composition as above 92%. It means that there is a significant relationship between serotypes and fatty acid composition of V. cholerae. These results indicated that numerical analysis of fatty acid composition data of V cholerae non-01 could classifY them into subspecies, and also which may provide a useful epidemiologic information or a basis for further analysis such as PCR and DNA probe analysis.
A Study on the Determinants of Liporotein(a) Level - Primary, Middle, and High School Teachers in Seoul -
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 155~163
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between blood lipids, fibrinogen, fasting blood sugar, lifestyle-related factors and lipoprotein(a). This study was performed with 140 healthy adults (male:80, female:60) among the teachers in primary, middle, and high school in Seoul in November 1996. Lipoprotein(a) concentration was measured with an enzyme-linked-immunosorbents assay(ELISA), and the results showed that the distribution was highly skewed and the average concentrations of male and female were
, respectively. The percentage of subject with lipoprotein(a) concentrations higher than 30 mg/dL was 26.4%. Univariate analysis showed significant association between lipoprotein(a) and age, alcohol, meat, and NaCl consumption (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, lipoprotein(a) correlated positively with age (p<0.05) and meat consumption (p<0.01). These data suggest that lifestyle-related factors may affect the lipoprotein(a) concentration regarded as a risk factor of atherosclerosis disease.
Effect of Lactobacillus casei and a Fermented Milk on the Growth and Aflatoxin Production of Asperillus Parasiticus
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 164~170
In this study a commercial fermented milk produced in Korea and a Lactobacillus strain used for the product (L. casei) were found to affect mold growth and inhibit aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517. Aflatoxins were determined using an HPLC system that consisted of a
column and a fluorescence detector. When the fermented milk was added to the yeast-extract broth the levels of aflatoxin
significantly decreased by 48.6~58.1% and 29.8~34.2%, respectively (p
were found in comparison with the control (monoculture). L. casei was found to be very inhibitory to the growth of A. parasiticus for 5 days, but no significant difference of mycelial weight was observed between the mixed culture and control at the end of incubation. The pH values of the culture broth in mixed culture were observed to be significantly lower than those in monoculture (p
Effect of Garlic Oil (diallyl disulfide)/ Vitamin A( retinol acetate on Heat Shock Protein Induction in Cadmium Treated Rats.
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 13, issue 2, 1998, Pages 171~187
Garlic occupies a special position among the many foods of vegetable origin because it is the sole food for Koreans during the their lives. And vitamin A has been ingested by forms of food or additives. Cadmium has been described as one of the most dangerous trace elements in the food and environment of man and livestocks. Since the de novo synthesis of stress proteins can be detected early after exposure to some agents, analysis of cadmium-induced changes in gene expression , ie. alterations in patterns of protein synthesis, may be useful to develop as biomarkers of exposure and damage for food hygiene. He acute and chronic combine effects of cadmium (Cd, CdCl2 20mg/kg), garlic oil(Dds: diallyl disulfide 50mg/kg, 3 times a week) and vitamin A(Ra: retinol acetate 50,000 IU/kg, 3 times a week) on Wistar male rats were evaluated concerning cadmium contents, tissues enzyme activity, HSP expression histopathological and electron microscopical examinations. The results of the study are as follows ; 1. Less cadmium was absorbed through the digestive tracts, but the ratio of contents in tissue were not changed by the simultaneous adminstration of diallyl disufide or retinol acetate. 2. ALT(alanine aminotransferase) , AST(aspartate aminotransferase), glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen), creatinine, the key indices of the clinical changes in hepatic and renal function were significantly hanged by the cadmium treatment after 1 week in liver, after 4 weeks in kidney. 3. Histopathological changes in cadmium treated rats were appeared at 8 weeks age treatment in kidneys. Homogenous eosinophilic material was accumulated in cortical and collecting tubular lumens at 16 weeks. Degenerated or necrotized tubular cells were observed in cortex and medulla. Degenerated seminiferous tubules and homogeneous eosinophilic material was seen in interstitial tissue of rat treated with cadmium for 16 weeks. Calcium deposits were seen in degenerated seminiferous tubules and the tubules showed severe calcification of rat treated with cadmium for 16 weeks. Electron microscope changes in kidney were observed in rats treated with CdCl2 20 mg/kg. Proximal convoluted tubule cells showed selling of cytoplasm and narrow lumen. Capillary endothelial cells showed cytoplasmic vacuoles and swelling. Degenerated epithelial cells were accumulated in tubular lumen of kidney. 4. Enhanced synthesis of 70 KDa relateve molecular mass proteins were detected in 2 hours after cadmium, exposure, with maximum activity occurring at 8~48 hours. Induction of HSP 70 was evident at proximal tubules and glomeruli in kidney. Testicular cells produced enough HSP to be detected normally. From the above results, it could be concluded that HSP70 induction by the cadmium treatment was a rapid reaction to indicated the exposure of xenobiotics, and retinol acetate reduced the cadmium induced nephrotoxicity.