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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Hygiene and Safety
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Biological Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food-Borne Patients in Seoul
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 159~167
Staphylocorccus aureus is gram positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-sporulative coccus, and positive for coagulase and DNase. The food-poisoning outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus increases in the world, and third occurrence happened in our country. Of 105 isolates (25.4%) obtained 413 focal samples of food-poisoning suspicious patients. In those cases, the enterotoxins were detected from a total of 45 isolates (42.9%), 9 isolates(20.0%) were A type, 33 isolates (73.3%) were H types, 2 isolates (4.4%) were G type and 1 isolate was a I type enterotoxin. Among the isolates possessing staphylococcal enterotoxins, 29 isolates had H type only(64.4%), 5 isolates had A type only and 4 isolates had both A and H type. Two isolates had G type only and 1 isolate had I type only. In the antibiotic susceptibility, 48 isolates (46%) had at least one antibiotic resistance among 105 isolates, 34 isolates (70.8%) were resistant to penicillin. 1 isolate (2.1%) to ampicillin, 3 isolates (6.3%) to erythromycin and kanamycin. Seven were resistant to more than two antibiotics and especially 1 isolate was resistant to penicillin-ampicillin-nitrofurantoin.
Assessment of Sanitary Management Practices of School Foodservice Operations in Seoul
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 168~177
Sanitary management practices were assessed to insure the safety of school foodservice, to prevent the outbreak of foodborne illness, and to improve the quality of school foodservice. To accomplish these objectives, a survey was conducted and analyzed on elementary and high school foodservice operations located in Seoul area. A Questionnaire from based on HACCP standards was developed and used for self-reported evaluation of the school foodservice managers on their sanitary management practices. The results were analysed by examining their activities and identifying weaknesses in those activities. The questionnaire was composed of three sectors with all 53 questions; 33 questions for time-temperature management, 5 for personal hygiene and 15 for equipment/facility sanitation. Five-point-scale was used on the questionnaire answers. Among the schools responded,253 (98.4% of the total) were elementary schools and 19 (1.6%) were high schools. Among the three sectors, personal hygiene performance was mostly well conducted by marking average 4.06
0.57. Equipment/facility sanitation came next by marking average 3.84
0.53. Time-temperature marked average 3.45
0.46. “Storage after cooking (2.03
0.94)”was identified as the least managed activities because the school foodservice operations were not equipped well with hot holding and/or cold holding. “Separate use of sink per usage (3.03
1.10)” and “proper location of hand washing facility (3.07
1.13))” were identified as the least practiced activities in equipment/facility sanitation sector. To enhance these practices, proper number of sinks and hand washing facilities should be equipped first within the kitchen area.
Assessment of Estimated Daily Intakes of Sorbates for Average and High Consumers in Korea
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 178~187
A study has been performed to estimate the average and high (90th percentile of consumers-only) daily intakes of sorbates by age-sex groups (> 3 years old) in Korea. The estimation of daily intakes was based on individual-based dietary intake data in ‘National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998’and the contents of sorbates from samples. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of sorbates for average consumers ranged from 0.09 mg/kg/bw/day to 0.51 mg/kg bw/day corresponding to 0.4-2.1% of acceptable daily intake (ADI). For high consumers, the range of EDI of sorbates was 3.42-14.65 mg/kg bw/day corresponding to 13.7-58.6% of ADI. Foods that contributed most to the daily intakes of sorbates for all age-sex groups were processed fish products, processed meat products, and salted floods. There was an inverse relationship between age and the consumption of sorbates for average and high consumers, whereas no marked pattern was emerged by sex categories. The intake levels of sorbates even among high consumers were below the ADI in Korea.
Antimicrobial Activities of Viscous Substance from Chongkukjang Fermented with different bacillus spry.
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 188~193
To evaluate antimicrobial activities of chongkukjang slime fermented by different strains, growth characteristics were compared using various standard microorganisms with addition of chongkykjang slime. Chonghkjang slime was prepared by fermenting cooked soybean after inoculating with Bacillus circulans K-1, Baciilus spp N-1 and Bacillus subtilis CH-1, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity was observed by chongkukjang slime on gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus), gram negative bacteria(Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas fluorescens), and yeast (Pichia membranaefaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans). In case of B. cereus growth inhibition of 80% was achieved by the addition of chongkukjang slime; on the contrary, to Escherichia coli O157:H7 only 20% inhibition was observed. Slime from Bacillus subtilis CH-1, in particular, inhibition of 40% toward bacteria and yeast, whereas slime from Bacillus circulans K-1, Bacillus spp N-1 showed only 20% inhibition.
Evaluation of the
Method for the Enumeration of Aerobic Microorganisms and Coliforms in Retailed Meat Samples in Korea
Keun-Seok Seo ; Wonki Bae ; So-Hyun Kim ; Nam-Hoon Kwon ; Ji-Yeun Kim ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 194~199
This study was designed to compare the effectiveness and applicability of the HApS
(Hazard Analysis process System; HUKO, Seoul, Korea) based on Petrifilm
(3M, St. Paul, MN, USA) with the AOAC (the Association of Official Analytical Chemists) standard total aerobic count (TAC) method and coliform count (CC) method for meat products. The comparisons were carried out using 230 meat samples collected from various retailers: 80 pork samples, 80 chicken samples, and 70 beef samples. In the comparison of the correlation coefficient (r) between conventional method and HApS
method by a linear regression analysis, the correlation coefficients in total microorganism were 0.97767, 0.90712, and 0.95594 in pork, beef, and chicken samples, respectively. The correlation coefficients in coliform count were 0.82062, 0.94833, and 0.96839 in pork, beef and chicken samples, respectively. All the independent t-test on measurement values between conventional method and HApS
method represented no significant differences in the means between two methods at the 0.05 of significance level(
=0.05). Based on the high correlation between HApS
and the AOAC standard methods in the TAC and CC, it might be compatible to employ the HApS
method to measure the microbial contamination in livestock products. HApS
method was simpler and less time-consuming in sample preparation and procedures faster than the conventional method. These results suggested that the HApS
method could be substitute for the conventional methods in the analysis of microbial contamination measurement in meat products.n meat products.
Occurrence and Estimation Using Monte-Carlo Simulation of Aflatoxin
in Domestic Cow’s Milk and Milk Products
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 200~205
In this study, occurrence of aflatoxin M
) in domestic milk and milk products was determined. The level of AFM
in market milk (0.047 ppb) was lower than that in raw milk (0.083 pub) but this looks like that is due to dilution in collecting process rather than the effect of sterilization. In the case of nonfat dry milk, level of AFM
appeared high by 0.24 ppb but it is thought to be not different from market milk actually because nonfat dry milk is diluted at intake. In the case of ice cream, finished products were contaminated with AFM
of 0.020 ppd and also have the possibility of the contamination of AFB
due to secondary raw material such as nuts and almond. On the basis of the results of this study and previous studies, Monte-Carlo simulation is conducted to estimate the contamination level of AFM
in domestic market milk. To consider uncertainty and variability fitting procedure was passed through. And we used beta distribution to estimate the prevalence and triangular distribution to estimate the concentration level of AFM
in milk. As a result, the 5%, 50% and 95% points of the distribution of the probability of AFM
contamination level in milk is 0.0214, 0.0946 and 0.1888 ppb, respectively. Also we estimate that AFM
in almost milk was low more than 0.5 ppb that is American acceptable level but 80.4% exceeded far 0.05 ppb that is European standard.
The Effects of Mixed Culture with Aspergillus flavus, Aspergilus niger and Penicillium griseofulvum on Aflatoxin and Patulin Production
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 206~211
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed culture with mycotoxigenic and non-mycotoxigenic fungi on mycotoxin production. For this work, Aspegillus flavus (aflatoxin producing strain), Aspegillus niger (non-mycotoxigenic strain) and Penicillium griseofulvum (patulin producing strain)were cultured in 5 ml SLS medium for 15 days under single or mixed culture. Aflatoxin was determined by direct competitive ELISA, whereas, patulin was measured by HPLC. The mycelial growth, pH and total acidity were also observed by general methods. The mycelial growth was slightly decreased in the mixed culture, meanwhile total acidity was increased and pH was shown lower than that in single culture. Aspergillus flavus produced 145
/ml of aflatoxin for 12 days single culture, but in mixed culture, aflatoxin was decreased to 93%, and was shown as 10.16
/ml level. Patulin production in mixed culture was also decreased to 69.3% and was shown only 23.72
/ml level as compared with in single culture.
Effects of Pueraia mirifica on the Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats and Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 212~220
To investigate the modifying effect of Kwao Kreu, Pueraria mirifica (PM), we performed two kind of studies which are the non-surgical medium-term carcinogenicity study and the modulation of gap junctional intercellular communication study. The first study, a non-surgical medium-term carcinogenicity bioassay was done to investigate the modifying effect of Kwao Keru, Pueyaria mirifca (PH), a rejuvenating folk medicine from Thailand, on the male F344 rat liver. Specific pathogen free, male 6-week-old F3444 rats were divided into ten groups. To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, those in all groups were given a single i.p. injection of DEN (200 mg/kg) and were received two i.p. injection of DGA (300 mg/kg) at the ends of weeks 2 and 5. Rats of group 3-6 were given sodium phenobarbital (PB 0.05% in drink). A diet containing 10 mg/kg PM was given to group 2 during the post-initiation phase and to groups 4 and 5 during promotion and initiation phase, respectively. Group 6 was given the experimental diet alone throughout the experiment (8 weeks). Rats of group 7, 8, 9 and 10 were fed 1000 mg/kg PH in the same manner as group 2, 4, 5 and 6. All animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks after DEN administration. Result of the immunohistochemical staining of the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-p) indicated that the numbers and areas of the preneoplastic leisions were not significantly changed in all PM treatment group comparing to control group. Also the numbers and areas of GST-p positive foci among group 7, 8, 9 and 10 were not significantly changed in comparing to control group. To study the effect of PM on the modulation of gap junctional intercellular communication, the present study was performed scrape-loading dye transfer (SL/DT) assay in human keratinocytes. The results showed that PM could not modulate GJIC. These results indicate that Pueraria mirifica may have no carcinogenic effects on experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and gap junctional intercellular communication in human keratinocyte.
Effect of Various Sterilization Methods on Growth of Microorganism Contaminated in Ginseng Powder
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 221~226
Various sterilization methods were applied to the powder of ginseng for the improving hygienic quality. Ultra-violet (UV) and Infrared ray (IR) treatments could not inhibit highly growth of bacteria in ginseng powder. However, high hydrostatic pressure treatment showed high inhibition rate against bacterial growth in ginseng powder. Changes of viable cell count by the pressure showed positive relationship between growth inhibition rates and the pressures applied. When powder was treated with 2,000 kg/
for 10 min at
, initial viable cell count of the powder, 2.0
CFU/g, was decreased to 1.0
CFU/g. When it treated with 3,000, 4,000 and 5,000 kg/
of pressures under the same condition, viable cell counts were 8.0
CFU/g, respectively. Ginseng saponins of the powders were all detected when analyzed by TLC chromatography after treatment with the Pressures. Therefore, it was considered that saponin of ginseng powder was stable under the condition of 5,000 kg/
of pressure, even though the treatment induced coagulation of the powder.
Studies of GanEiung (III) -Study on The Improvement of Decreasing Aroma of Insam(Ginseng) Gangjung and The Development of It′s Substitutional Materials
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 227~231
Basic materials for various making gangjung, various concentration 0∼25.0%(w/v) of coating agent and 0∼20.0% of substitutional materials carried out an experiment in sensory evaluation, expansion rate and hardness of substitutional materials. The results are as follows: 1. Added coating agent far improvement of decreasing aroma, arabic gum and dextrin significant from 20.0% to 25.0% compared with others. A good results flavor strength score and hedonic score of added 20.0% arabic gum are highest. 2. Expansion rate is caused by substitutional waxy rice, expansion rate decreased above 20.0% as tapioca above 5.0%, rice above 10.0%, brown waxy rice and wheat flour 15.0%. 3. After firing gangjung of substitutional materials, hardness increase concentration of substitutional materials. Therefore substitutional materials added to tapioca below 5.0%, rice and wheat flour 10.0%, brown waxy rice 15.0% is thought of good.
Study on the Contamination of Pseudomonas tolaasii in Oyster Mushroom
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 232~240
One hundred twenty five bacterial isolates were obtained from the brown blotch-diseased oyster mushrooms collected from markets. Among them, 45 were determined as pathogenic bacteria and white line forming organisms(WLFO) were 6 strains and white line reaction organisms (WLRO) were 6 strains. All of the white line forming isolates were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasii which is a known pathogen of brown blotch disease of oyster mushroom by GC-MIS(Gas chromatography-microbial identification system). Six of the white line reacting organisms were identified as P. chlomraphis, P. fluorescens biotype A and type C. The rest of them were P gingeri, P. agarici, P. fluorescens biotype B, P. chloroyaphis, non-pathogenic P. tolaasii, P. putida biotype A and B etc. For spectrum of activity of tolaasin, culture filtrates from pathogenic isolates were examined by browning of mushroom tissue and pitting of mushroom caps. The weak pathogenic bacteria didn't induce browning or pitting of mushroom tissue. On the other hand, strong pathogenic isolates showed browning and pitting reaction on mushroom. An extracellular toxin produced by P. tolaasii, was investigated. The hemolysis activity test of 6 strains identified as P. tolaasii were 0.8∼0.9 at 600 nm and 3 strains of WLRO were 0.9∼1.0 and Pseudomonas app. were 1.0∼1.2. Observation of fresh mushroom tissue using confocal laser scanning microscopy was carried out for images of optical sectioning and vertical sectioning. Also images of brown blotch diseased oyster mushroom tissue after contamination P. tolaasii was obtained by CLSM.
Distribution of Pathogenic Vibrios and Environmental Factors Affecting Their Occurrence in the Seawater of Live Fish Tank
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 241~246
Distribution of pathogenic vibrios in the seawater of live fish tank and effect of environmental factors on their existence were investigated by collecting samples from fish markets and restaurants in 6 different cities. Pathogenic vibrios and coliforms were determined by using the most probable number (MPN) procedure, and aerobic plate count was enumerated by the standard pour plate method. No Vibrio chulerae O1 was detected in all the samples tested. Detection rates of V. cholerae non-O1, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in all the smaples tested were 7.7%, 69.2% and 23.1%, respectively. Water temperature and trubidity of the seawater measured were higher in the pathogenic vibrios positive samples than in those negative samples. However, higher salinity and pH were shown in the pathogenic vibrios negative samples than in positive samples. The aerobic plate counts and MPN or total and focal coliforms in the seawater were higher in the presence of pathogenic vibrios than in the absence of pathogenic vibrios. In this study, the presence of pathogenic vibrios in the seawater tested was closely related with other physiochemical parameters and populations of coliforms, indicators far food safety.
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxicity of Shellfishes, Sold at Fish Markets in Seoul
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 16, issue 3, 2001, Pages 247~250
In order to investigate the distribution of paralytic shellfish poison, we examined the toxicity during from February to October in 2000. Of 591 shellfish samples, 17(2.88%) samples were detected. Scapgarca broughtonii was highest collected 14.29%(2/14). In the monthly detection rate of PSP, April was hitest 13.3%(8/60), in the regional collecting rate, Cheon-nam coastal area was highest 3.82%(10/262), and in cases of imported area, China was 8.3%(1/12). Imported area as well as domestic area samples should be strengthen to examine enduringly.