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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Hygiene and Safety
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Distribution of Indicator bacteria in Spring Water in Seoul
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 17, issue 2, 2002, Pages 55~60
In order to investigate the microbiological contamination of spring water, we performed the standard plate count, coliform and psychrotrophilic bacteria in 109 spring waters in Seoul. Of 109 spring waters, geometirc mean standard plate count was 0.19 CFU/ml, and the highest in Mt. Boolam, 4..43 CFU/ml and Mt. Dobong, 3.86 CFU/ml, but not detected in Mt. Woomyun and Mt. Cheonggye. Four spring waters have shown over 100 CFU/ml in standard plate count. The geometric mean psychrotrophilic bacteria was 49.2 CFU/ml, the most prevalent spring water was Mt. Nam, 125 CFU/ml, the lowest Mt. Woomyeun. Among a total of 109, coliform was detected from 21 spring waters(19.3%) and the geometric mean of coliform was 0.005 MPN/100ml. The isolated genera of coliform were 7 isolates of E. coli(33%), 5 Klebsiella(24%), 4 Enterobacter(19%), 3 Citrobacter(14%) and 2 Serratia(10%), respectively. The 22 spring waters(20.2%) failed to meet the standard limits of drinking water based on regulation in Korea. The inappropriate rate of standard plate count in spring water was 4.5%, that of coliform was 81.1% and both of them was 13.6%. There was the significant correlation between standard plate count and psychrotrophilic bacteria in spring water(r=0.95, p<0.01).
Antibiotic Susceptibility of Salmonella spp. Isolated From Diarrhoea Patients in Seoul From 1996 to 2001
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 17, issue 2, 2002, Pages 61~70
In order to investigate the classification and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella species,718 isolates were isolated from patient in Seoul from 1996 to 2001. The two hundred and ninety eight isolates (41.5%) were identified as Sal. Enteritidis, followed by Sal. Typhi 218 isolates (30.4%), and Sal. Typhimurium 87 isolates (12.1%). The identified Salmonella species were most resistant to tetracycline (32.7%), followed by streptomycin (28.0%), ticarcillin (18.1%) and ampicillin (12.4%). Among isolates,34.7% of Sal. Enteritidis were resistant to tetracycline, 32.3% to streptomycin,23.2% to ticarcillin,13.5% to ampicillin, respectively. 13.8% of Sal. Typhi were resistant to streptomycin,10.6% to tetracycline, respectively.66.7% of Sal. Typhimurium were resistant to tetracycline, 42.5% to streptomycin, 28.7% to ticarcillin, 26.4% to ampicillin and 17.2% to chloramphenicol, respectively. Of 718 isolates, 324 isolates (45.1%) were resistant to 1 or more drugs and 64 isolates (19.8%) were resistant to 1 drug, 132 isolates (40.7%) were resistant to 2 drugs,50 isolates (15.4%) were resistant to 3 drugs, 27 isolates (8.3%) to 4 drugs,27 isolates (8.3%) to 5 drugs,22 Isolates (6.8%) to 6 drugs. The most prevalent multiple resistant pattern was tetracycline-kanamycin (35.5%), followed by tetracycline-kanamycin-ticarcillin (8.3%), and tetracycline-kanamycin-ticarcillin-ampicillin (7.4%) . Antibiotic resistant rate of Sal. Typhimurium was 73.6%,1311owe4 by Sal. Enteritidis 53.7% and Sal. Typhi 19.3%. Most Sal. Enteritidis was resistant to 1 drug o.2 drugs, whereas Sal. Typhi. and Sal.. Typhunurium were more .resistant to 5 (16.7%) or 6 drugs (26.6%). The old generation antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline, and streptomycin were annually more resistant than the new generation antibiotics such as ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin or cefoxitin.
Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Product Made by Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Against Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 17, issue 2, 2002, Pages 71~78
With the incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria there is increasing interest in natural products such as herb extract and probiotics to control antibiotic resistant bacteria. This study was focused on the determination of antimicrobial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten against Salmonella enetrica serovar Enteritidis (S. enterifidis), S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) DT 104 and Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Though bactericidal effect of 0. ficus-indica var. saboten was not observed, it had significant inhibitory activity against Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 on the Moulter Hinton agar containing its solution dissolved in deionized water. To investigate the antimicrobial activity in vivo, mice were challenged with 5. Typhimurium DT104 (3.7
108 cfu/mouse) after pre-feeding 0. ficus-indica var. saboten solution. The fecal shedding of S. Typhimurium DT104 was more dramatically decreased and not detectable in feces and intestines 3 days after challenge in mice fed with 0. ficus-indica var. saboten. Antibody responses of the intestinal IgA were also significantly increased in mice fed with 0. ficus-indica var. saboten. These findings suggest that Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten decreased the shedding of S. Typhimurium DT104 in vitro and also in the gastrointestinal tract in mice. In addition, administration of the product might enhance the mucosal immune response against S. Typhimurium DT 104. In conclusion, Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten might be useful to control antibiotic resistant bacteria in vivo and in vitro.
Reduction of Aflatoxin during the Cooking and Processing of Rice
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 17, issue 2, 2002, Pages 79~86
Aflatoxin is a secondary fungal metabolite and is a public health hazard because it is a human carcinogenic and has many deleterious effects in men and animals. Rice is one of the better substrates far the fungus which can produce aflatoxins. This study was performed to investigate aflatoxin reduction during the cooking and processing of rice. Aflatoxin was produced by Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517 on well-milled rice (Japonica type) at the level of 13.2 ppb. Cooked rice, rice cakes (baek-sol-gi, plain steamed rice bread), fermented rice (sikhye, sweet rice beverage), and popped rice were prepared from the aflatoxin-contaminated rice. Aflatoxin content in the samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The total aflatoxin level was decreased to 46.9% in the cooked rice, 85.6% in the rice cakes, 11.4% in the fermented rice, and 7.6% in the popped rice, respectively (p.0.05). This reduction brought the level of aflatoxins down to below the Standard and Specification of korea (10 ppb), except for the rice cakes. These results indicate that washing, steaming, fermentation, and popping of rice was helpful in reducing the aflatoxin level in the rice and the most helpful factors were high temperature & high pressure. More research is needed to understand why the preparation of rice cakes did not reduce the level of aflatoxin as much as the other cooking methods.
Removal of Organophosphorus Pesticides during Making and Fermentation of Kimchi
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 17, issue 2, 2002, Pages 87~93
The removal of three pesticides which were residued in chinese cabbage was investigated during making process of Kimchi. When chinese cabbage was washed by water, the removal rates of three pesticides were 62.0%, 54.8% and 61.1% for pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos and prothiofos, respectively. Pesticides remaining in chinese cabbage after washing by water were also removed from 22.4% to 23.8% by salting. During the fermentation of kimchi for 24 days at 4。C, the pH was lowered 4.5 from 5.8 and the residual amount of pesticides was decreased by 51.4% to 69.4% for three Pesticides remaining after washing and salting On the other hand, when Kimchi was fermented under various temperature for 11 days, the residual amount of chlorpyrifos was decreased up to 29.2%, 45.0% and 77.3% of initial concentration at 4, 10 and 20 。C, respectively. The residual amount of chlorpyrifos in Kimchi was decreased up to 16.3% by heating at 100 。C for 6.5 minutes.
The Formation of N-Nitrosamine in Kimchi and Salt-fermented Fish Under Simulated Gastric Digestion
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 17, issue 2, 2002, Pages 94~100
This work was performed in order to examine the effect of nitrite, thiocyanate and ascorbic acid on formation of N-nitrosamine(NA) in kimchi, fermented anchovy and shrimp under simulated gastric digestion, in vitro. The contents of nitrate were 10.7~24.5 mg/kg in kimchi, 1.5~5.6 mg/kg in fermented anchovy, 1.0~2.0 mg/kg in fermented shrimp and those of nitrite were average 0.3 mg/kg in all analyzed samples. Dimethylamine and trirmethylarnine contents were 4.9~l5.4 mg/kg, 0.6~0.8 mg/kg in kimchi, 3.3~4.0 mg/kg, 1.9~2.8 mg/kg in fermented anchovy, 30.3~177.9 mg/kg, 4.4~21.3 mg/kg in fermented shrimp, respectively. The contents of N-nitrosodime -thylamine(NDMA) were in the range of 0.8~6.9
/kg in kimchi, 0~l.2
/kg in fermented anchovy and 0~0.9
/kg in fermented shrimp. After simulated gastric digestion, NDMA was increased about 1.5 times in all sample. In every nitrite added samples, the contents of NDMA were increased by 183.1 times in fermented shrimp and were detected 192.4
/kg and 220.9
/kg when it was treated with 4 mM and 8 mM of nitrite, respectively. NDMA, when above samples were added 8 mM nitrite and 6.4 mM thiocyanate, was increased about 1.5 times than control samples. The formation of NDMA was inhibited by 49.9~92.4% in all samples added 12.8 mM ascorbic acid compared with the control sample.
Contents of Nitrate and Nitrite in Vegetables and fruits
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 17, issue 2, 2002, Pages 101~105
A total of 53 vegetables and fruits, consisting of 23 leaf vegetables, 4 fruits vegetables, 4 edible roots,7 spice vegetables and 15 fruits were analyzed for contents of nitrate and nitrite by ion chromatography. Nitrite was detected 10 of 23 kinds of leaf vegetables, which was dominant in lettuce by average 349.9 mg/kg. Nitrate contents of leaf vegetables were average 578.3 mg/kg, 415.7 mg/kg, 348.6 mg/kg in wild plant, mustard leaf and chinese vegetable, respectively. Nitrite was not detected in fruits vegetables and rootcrops but the nitrate contents were abundant and the highest in squash(average, 86.2 mg/kg) and radish(average, 297.5 mg/kg), respectively. In spice vegetables, mate contents were from 0 to 29.8 mg/kg, but not detected in garlic. In welsh onion, its nitrite were higher in small type than large type, while nitrate contents were higher 3 times in the latter. Nitrate contents of fruits were lower in apple(average, 0.5 mg/kg) and higher in plum(average, 76.6 mg/kg) than other samples.
Protection of ROS-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage by the extract of Alpinia of ficinarum
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 17, issue 2, 2002, Pages 106~116
The 70% ethanol extract of Alpinia officinarum and its major flavonoid, galangin showed strong antioxidative effect on the lipid peroxidation of ethyl linolate with Fenton's reagent and free radical scavenging effect to DPPH radical generation. However, they did not reveal any pro-oxidant effect on bleomycin-Fe(III) dependent DNA degradation. They also showed the protective effect against
or UV-induced cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. They also showed the suppressive effect of DNA damage induced by
with dose-dependent manner in single cell gel electrophoresis(SCGE) assay. On the other hand, they have an anticlastogenic effect against adriamycin-induced micronucleated reticulocyte in peripheral blood of mice. These results suggest that the mechanism of inhibition by 70% ethanol extract of Alpinia officinarum and galangin against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced genotoxicity or cytotoxicity is due, at least partly, to their antioxidative and free radical scavenging properties without pro-oxidant effect. All these results indicate that 70% ethanol extract of Alpinia officinarum and galangin may be useful for protection against ROS-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage.