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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Hygiene and Safety
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of the Safety of Fried-Food in Fast Food Store
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 19, issue 2, 2004, Pages 55~59
This study was performed to investigate 172 samples of fried food in fast food store. The free fatty acid value of 22 samples exceeded standard of fried-food. These samples were 10 fried chickens, 6 fried potatoes and 5 fried onions. Fatty acid composition differed from each company. The correlation between free fatty acid value and double bond index was very low. New standard of fried food in fast food store is needed for thorough hygiene management, because of being not existed standard. The fried potato containing many carbohydrate and fat appeared higher calory than fried chicken containing many protein. The fried food had high fat comparatively, so that attention in regard to excess intake is demanded. The trace materials were included Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cr in order of quantity, and the harmful heavy metals-Pb, Hg and Cd- were included small quantity.
Examination of Microbiological Contamination of Ready-to-eat Vegetable Salad
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 19, issue 2, 2004, Pages 60~65
120 samples of ready-to-eat salad product were purchased at department stores, marts and family restaurants in metro area. Coliform bacteria and food borne pathogenic bacteria were isolated from these samples. In 73 samples among the 120 salad product samples, coliform bacteria and food borne pathogenic bacteria were detected by 60.8％ of isolated rate. Salad were classified into organic and non-organic salad. According to a salad type, salad were classified into vegetable salad and mixed vegetable salad with fried chicken and extra food. According to a packing type, packed salad product and salad-bar product were classified. After the classification, the results of each cases were compared. There is no statistical relation between cultivation or packing methods and contaminated bacteria. But the incidence number of microbial strains was significantly different between vegetable salad and mixed vegetable salad(p＜0.005). In vegetable salad, more various strains were detected. E. coli was isolated in 10 cases among the 90 cases in non-organic vegetable and in 7 cases among the 30 cases in organic salad. Food borne pathogenic bacteria were isolated in non-organic vegetable salad product. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 4 cases of vegetable salad product and Salmonella spp. isolated in 1 case. After 5 times examination of each 4 market products, the total number of aerobic bacteria was average 4.8
0.19 log cfu/g. One sample from this product, saline and a detergent for vegetable were used for 3 minutes to notice the effect. As a result, when saline was used 5 times and detergent for vegetable was used 1 time, bacterial contamination was decreased up to 95.5％.
Microbiological Quality Assessment of Kimbap According to Preparation and Cooking Condition and Identification of Critical Control Points in the Processes
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 19, issue 2, 2004, Pages 66~73
This study was performed to assess the microbiological quality of kimbap (rice balls rolled in laver) prepared in two conditions (normal condition or clean, sanitized condition) and to support a practical application to identify critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and cooking processes of kimbap. Kimbap, raw materials of kimbap, utensils (knives, cutting board, and kimbal which is made of bamboo), and hands of food handlers were examined microbiologically. Airborne microbes in the kitchens were also evaluated. Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected in all samples. The aerobic bacteria and coliform bacteria levels of all samples in clean, sanitized condition were much lower than those in normal condition. More aerobic bacteria and coliform bacteria were counted in unheated raw materials of kimbap than in heated raw materials. In both conditions, the levels of airborne microbes of the kitchens were satisfactory. The aerobic bacteria and coliform bacteria of kimbap prepared in clean, sanitized condition were one hundredth levels of those of kimbap prepared in normal condition. However, fecal coliforms were detected even in the kimbap prepared in clean, sanitized condition. The results indicate that microbiological contamination of kimbap may be mainly originated from the contaminated unheated raw materials, utensils, and hands of food handlers, and also possible cross-contamination during preparation. The CCPs for kimbap preparation and cooking were handling of unheated raw materials, cleaning and sanitizing utensils, and hand washing of food handlers.
Microbiological Evaluation of Chilled Freshes Raw-fish Manufacturers before and after HACCP System Establishment
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 19, issue 2, 2004, Pages 74~83
Raw-fish food contains a lot of moisture and is a high-protein food. It is a first-stage processed food taking a lot of manual work. Therefore, it is classified as a PHF food, very liable to cause a bacterial food-poisoning. But its manufacturers are usually small-sized and a systematic sanitation management is difficult to expect. But the manufacturer participating in this study produces chilled fresh raw-fish food. Fish are sliced into two fillets, which are packaged under vacuum, kept and distributed in refrigerators, and sold within a day. It is a newly-developed kind of raw-fish food, and a more improved kind of raw-fish food making possible a systematic sanitation management. The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a systematic and continuous process-control method which is very efficient for controling food sanitation and reducing the expenses. A new HACCP model has been developed to be applied to a large-sized chilled fresh raw-fish food manufacturer. To ascertain its efficiency, the baterial examination was done to its workplace and products. The significance test was done on its data by "SPSS 12.0 for Window" and "Mann-Whitney U Test". The numbers of bacteria on its final products were significantly different in flatfish and porgy. The number of bacteria tended to decrease in each time-differential sampling (P＜.00l). The final food products showed no food-poisoning bacteria in all the time-differential tests and in all the samplings, which proves that the CCP of the HACCP system is under control. After the SSOP program was applied, no pathogenic bacteria were found in the work-place, and the kinds and numbers of bacteria decreased. The numbers of general bacteria and colon bacilli also showed a significant difference from those before the SSOP program in the filleting board (P＜.05), in the skinning board (P＜.0l), in the neck-removing knife (P＜.05), and in the filleting knife (P＜.01). The working equipments, periodically disinfected, also showed a significant difference in sanitary conditions (in the dehydrator, P＜.05). The number of bacteria found on the food-touching surface was within the standard (below 500/l00 cm
) After the SSOP program was applied, the general bacteria and colon bacilli were not found. The quality of water used in the food processing was also within the standard. The numbers of bacteria falling from the air in the work-place were negligible in all the samplings (＜30CFU/l000ι). The staphylococci and fungi were not found.
SSOP Program Development for HACCP Application in Fresh Raw Fish Manufacturing
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 19, issue 2, 2004, Pages 84~96
This study aims at developing an easily-applicable Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure(SSOP) program for Fresh raw-fish manufacturing. It compares the sanitation inspection results of SSOP-program-applied procedure and non-applied procedure. The samplings for bacteriological examination were collected from the touching surface of food and from the personal workers. The sanitation status was recorded in the check-up list. The results were statistically analyzed to ascertain the efficiency of the SSOP program. The present official KFDA check-up list for sanitation inspection is composed of 51 items. Each item is judged to be fit or unfit to the standards. When the unfit items are more than 6, the work-place is judged to be insanitary. But in this study, the results of sanitation inspection are scaled in points in the 70％ allotment, and the results of bacteriological examination are scaled in points in 30％, totaling 100％. Below 60 scores are judged to be insanitary and administratively punished; 61-75 scores are judged to be average; 76-85 good; above 86 excellent. The sanitation inspection scores by the improved check-up list went up by two grades from 71.8 (before SSOP program) to 88.6 (after SSOP program). The results of bacteriological examination also improved from 57.5 to 98.2. The total scores of both results converted in the allotment of 70％ and 30％ also showed an improvement by two grades from 66.4 (before SSOP program) to 93.4 (after SSOP program). The above results show that the manufacturers participated in this study are following the 8 essential sanitary procedures which are needed to anchor the HACCP system.
Photodegradation and Degradation Product of Piperophos
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 19, issue 2, 2004, Pages 97~103
The present study was performed to investigate photodegradation rate constants and degradation products of piperophos by the USEPA method. The pesticide was very stable in 16 days exposure of sunlight from October 3 to 22, 2003 and humic acid had no sensitizing effect on the photolysis of each pesticide in sunlight. In the UV irradiation test, piperophos was rapidly degraded as increasing UV intensity. In case of UV irradiation with TiO
and with TiO
powder amount, degradation of piperophos was slower than UV irradiation. In order to identify photolysis product, the extracts of degradation product was analyzed by GC/MS. The mass spectrum of photolysis product of piperophos was at m/z 166. It was suggested that the photolysis products of piperophos was O, O-dipropyl phosphorodithioate.