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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Hygiene and Safety
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Administration of Mycotoxins in Food in Korea
Kang, Kil-Jin ; Kim, Hye-Jung ; Lee, Yeon-Gyeong ; Jung, Kyung-Hee ; Han, Sang-Bae ; Park, Sun-Hee ; Oh, Hye-Yeong ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 281~288
Total aflatoxin (
) maximum levels of 15
) were set for grain, beans, peanut, nuts & their processed food (grinding, cutting etc.), processed cereal product & processed bean product, confectionaries (peanut or nut-containing food), soybean paste, red pepper paste, dried red pepper, processed com products for popcorn and steamed rice. The maximum levels for aflatoxin
for raw milk and milks before manufacturing processing. The patulin maximum level is 50
in apple juice and apple juice concentrate (including concentrate to use as raw material and converted by concentration multiple). The ochratoxin A is managed at the maximum levels of 5
in wheat, barley, rye, coffee beans and roasted coffee, 10
in instant coffee and raisin, 2
in Grape juice, concentrated grape juice as reconstituted and wine. The fumonisins (
) maximum levels are 4000
in com, 2000
in com processed food (grinding, cutting etc.) and com powder, 1000
in processed com products. Standards for mycotoxins in food have been established and the mycotoxin risk in food is managed reasonably and scientifically, based on risk assessment and exposure analysis.
Survey of Contaminants of Bound 3-MCPD in Food
Kong, Young-Woon ; Park, Sung-Kug ; Seo, Jung-Heok ; Kim, Dong-Sul ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 289~293
3-MCPD created in manufacture process was regulated in our country about soy sauce and HVP. The latest paper reported that Bound 3-MCPD is created as intermediate. Germany common risk assesment reported that Bound 3-MCPD must be reduced because Bound 3-MCPD can be created in estimation circle when this is hydrolyzed in human body, but the data about the toxity of Bound 3-MCPD is lack. Therefore, We analysis about 209 items food such as soy sauce, seasoning food and meat-eating manufactured goods using bound 3-MCPD analysis method developed recently. As result of survey, bound 3-MCPD detected in 8 items among 44 traditional sauce (0.02~0.28ppm), 8 of soup 12 items (0.01~0.96ppm), in 22 items of sauce 60 items (0.01~0.55ppm), in 16 items of meat-eating manufactured foods 30 items (0.04~0.18ppm), in 20 items of snack cookies 28 items (0.09~1.43ppm), in 8 in roasted oil foods 10 items (0.04~1.22ppm), in 6 items of peanut processed food 10 items (0.06~0.25ppm), in 1 of vegetable cream 15 items (0.05ppm). Detected level was lower than the result of monitored by other countries.
Analysis Method Development for Bound-MCPD
Woo, Sung-Min ; Oh, Jae-Ho ; Jang, Young-Mi ; Kim, Mee-Hye ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 294~302
Toxicity of 3-MCPD that comes from food manufacture and processing is well-known. Recent studies reported that 3-MCPD fatty acid ester which is formed by metabolic material was 10~2000 times as much as 3-MCPD in food. This study made analysis method of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters by recent research and laboratory work, and determined the content of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD fatty acid esters in sources and meat processing products. 3-MCPD fatty acid esters were analysed by GC/MS, which were hydrolyzed from fatty acid and then transferred 3-MCPD was extracted and reacted with derivative subject. As a result of analysis method validation, LOD was 5.4ppb, LOQ was 9.0ppb.
Study of Sulfur Dioxide Contents in Various Fresh Vegetables During the Drying Process
Ha, Sung-Yong ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Woo, Sung-Min ; Lee, Jun-Bae ; Cho, Yu-Jin ; Kim, Yang-Sun ; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo ; Park, Jong-Seok ; Kim, Hee-Yun ; Jang, Young-Mi ; Kim, Mee-Hye ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 303~309
This study was planned to monitor the change in the content of sulfur dioxide during the drying process of fresh vegetables. The analysis of sulfur dioxide was conducted by the Optimized Monier-Williams Method based on the Korea Food Code. The samples were kinds of vegetables which consisted of naturally-originated sulfur compounds (green onion, onion, cabbage, garlic, radish leaves, radish). Fresh vegetables (n = 182) and dried vegetables (n = 41) purchased from different local areas were investigated for the content of sulfur dioxide. The fresh vegetables were dried at 50~
using hot-air dryer. The moisture contents of dried samples were adjusted to keep 10 percents. The contents of sulfur dioxide in self-dried vegetables were 104.6 mg/kg in green onion, 75.4 mg/kg in onion, 129.1 mg/kg in cabbage, 197.6 mg/kg in garlic, 23.0 mg/kg in radish leaves and 52.5 mg/kg in radish, respectively. The increase of sulfur dioxide content according to the moisture content reduction was different from the expected. It means that the contents of sulfur dioxide can be altered by other factors except moisture contents. This results can be utilized as materials for the safe management of sulfites of dried vegetables.
A Survey on Safety of Dried Foods
Seo, Kye-Won ; Cho, Bae-Sick ; Gang, Gyung-Lee ; Kim, Jong-Pil ; Yang, Yong-Shik ; Hong, Sam-Jai ; Moon, Yong-Woon ; Kim, Eun-Sun ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 310~319
This survey was conducted to monitor the food additives, heavy metals, and microbial contamination of the dried marine products like squids, pollacks, and shrimps, including jerked beef. They were purchased from supermarkets and traditional markets in Gwangju from February to December 2009. A total of 101 samples were tested. Sorbic acid, one of the additives, was detected in 29 samples of them (32.2%) and the contents were from 21.4 to 244.2 mg/kg. Among heavy metals, lead was detected, ranging from 0.000 to 0.594 mg/kg and cadmium, from 0.000 to 0.679 mg/kg and mercury, from 0.001 to 0.947 mg/kg. Sodium was detected, ranging from 0.6 to 1.7%. Aerobic bacteria were detected from 81 samples (80.2%), coliform bacteria, from 10 samples (9.9%) and Bacillus cereus, causing food poisoning, was isolated from 3 samples (3.0%).
Comparison of Common Enrichment Methods for Recovery of Yersinia Enterocolitica from Artificially Inoculated Swine Feed Samples
Kim, Joo-Sung ; Draughon, F.A. ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 320~324
Five different enrichment methods were studied to find an optimal method to recover Yersinia enterocolitica from swine feed samples. When the recovery of Y. enterocolitica GER-C (serotype O:3) strain was studied at 1000 CFU/g feed, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) enrichment at
and PBS plus sorbitol and bile salts (PSB) enrichment at
were not effective (< 22%). In contrast, both irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) and tryptic soy broth plus polymyxin B sulfate and novobiocin (TSBPN) enrichment methods showed a full recovery (100%) at 100-1000 CFU/g feed. At 10 CFU/g feed, both ITC and TSBPN methods still recovered the strain (> 50%). In recovery of ATCC 9610 (serotype O:8) strain, TSBPN method was more sensitive than any other methods (P < 0.05) at 1000 CFU/g feed. Using TSBPN method, the strain was still recovered at 100 CFU/g feed, but not at 10 CFU/g feed. With its sensitivity and relatively simple recipe, TSBPN was most desirable method to recover Y. enterocolitica from swine feed samples.
Efficacy of Sanitizers Due to the Changes of Contact Time and Temperature
Kim, Hyung-Il ; Park, Sung-Kwan ; Kwak, In-Shin ; Sung, Jun-Hyun ; Lim, Ho-Soo ; Kim, Hoo-Jung ; Kim, So-Hee ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 325~332
The bactericidal efficacy of three common sanitizers (100 or 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite, 100 or 200 ppm of n-alkyl(
)benzyldimethyl ehloride, and 50 or 100 ppm of peroxyacetie acid) against Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was studied using the suspension test method at various exposure temperatures (4~
) and times(1~60min) under both dirty and clean conditions, respectively. During the suspension tests, sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm) showed higher bactericidal activity than the other sanitizers under clean conditions, with 5 log reductions against E. coli as well as S. aureus in the first 1 min of treatments at
, However, the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite decreased markedly under dirty conditions due to its susceptibility to interfering substances. The efficacy of the n-alkyl(
)benzyldimethyl chloride increased considerable as the exposure temperature and time increased. The bactericidal efficacy of the n-alkyl(
)benzyldimethyl chloride might be less effective on low temperature, however, the longer time the sanitizer is in contact, the more effective the sanitization effect. Treatment with peroxyacetic acid (100 ppm) showed at least 5 log reduction against E. coli and S. aureus for 5 min at
under both clean and dirty conditions. The efficacy of the peroxyacetic acid was not much altered by interfering substances and aflected by changes in temperature or time.
Evaluation of the Level of microbial Contamination in the Processing Company of Nuroong-ji
Do, Yu-No ; Choi, Jeong-Sik ; Jung, Yu-Kyung ; Park, Ji-Hyun ; Roh, Kyong-Hwan ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Choi, Shin-Young ; Lee, Kyoung-Yun ; Han, Eui-Jeong ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 333~340
This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial contamination levels in the processing company of Nuroong-ji. Microbial contamination levels were examined for sanitary indication bacteria such as aerobic plate count, coliforms and fungi, and pathogenic bacteria such as Escherchia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Contamination levels were detected differently according to handling materials and purposing work-space. The equipments and raw materials were not seriously contaminated but there were necessary to attend the cross-contamination. A high contamination level was detected at the process where the interference of the employees was relatively higher than the other process. Standardization of the roasting process (l20~
, about 10 min) could be necessary to control the microbial organism effectively on Nuroong-ji manufacturing process. At small/medium size foodstuff manufacturers, it is the most important to improve the recognition level of individual hygiene but also expand a hygiene facility.
Potential Pathogen Monitoring of Powdered Infant Formula Milk and Related Products in Korea
Kim, Young-Jo ; Moon, Jin-San ; Park, Hyun-Jung ; Heo, Eun-Jeong ; Kim, Ji-Ho ; Lee, Hee-Soo ; Wee, Sung-Hwan ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 341~345
Three-hundred samples of powdered infant formula milk and related products from four different manufacturers in 2010 were collected and surveyed their contaminations for aerobic bacteria, coliform, Enterobacter(Cronobacter) sakazakii, and food-borne pathogens. Fifteen samples of sterilized infant formula milk were all negative on these microorganisms. In all collected products of un sterilized infant formulas and follow-on infant formulas, aerobic bacteria were detected at 239 (83.9%) among 285 samples, and they all were found below
cfu/g. Coliform bacteria were also detected at four among 285 samples. Salmonella spp. and Ent. sakazakii, weren't detected at the all samples. Bacillus cereus was detected at 24 (8.4%) among 285 samples. The level of B. cereus was below 100 cfu/g but it was suitable for the range of specification of B. cereus in infant formulas. Clostridium perjringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes weren't also detected. In consequence, it was suitable for total viable count, coliform and potential pathogen to the specification of infant formulas and related products.
Cleaning Effects of Environmental-Friendly Washing Detergent on Milking Installation in Dairy Farms
Kim, Chang-Hyun ; Park, Joong-Kook ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 346~353
This study was conducted to determine cleaning effects of environmental-friendly washing detergent on milking installation in dairy farms. Milking machine, cooling machine and milking liner were washed by alkaline detergent and acid detergent for first three weeks and alkaline detergent and environmental~friendly detergent for next three weeks and the results get through microorganism and physico-chemistry analysis at the five district dairy farms different from environment. E-coli, coliform, fecal coliform, staphylococcus aureus, fecal streptococcus, prsudomonas aeruginosa and yersinia were not found in all of the dairy farms, and total colony counts were no difference compared with chemical detergent. The water for washing exceeded the determining acceptable level of nitrate nitrogen in the Anseong, Onyang and Cheonan and the remaining substance of washed water was also high levels. The cause of the result was that the level of nitrate nitrogen of water is basically high. Therefore, this study indicated that washing effect is no differences between environmental-friendly detergent and chemical detergent by washing for milking machine and cooling machine. Above all, producing high quality milk is to manage the water quality as well as using detergent.
Component Analysis and Antioxidant Effects of Youngia sonchifola Max.
Kim, Mee-Jeong ; Park, Hee-Suk ; Lee, Chang-Il ; Kim, Sung-Hwan ; Kim, Pil-Nyeon ; Huh, Wan ; Lee, Do-Yeong ; Son, Jin-Chang ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 354~359
In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, antioxidant activities and nitrite scavenging ability in leaf and root of Youngia sonchifolia Max. The leaf powder contained 4.3% of water, 53.9% of crude carbohydrate, 21.6% of crude protein, 3.5% of crude fat and 16.7% of crude ash. The root powder contained 4.8% of water, 65.9% of crude carbohydrate, 17.4% of crude protein, 3.2% of crude fat and 8.7% of crude ash. The major mineral elements both in leaf and root powder were potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Contents of unsaturated fatty acids were higher than those of saturated fatty acids both in leaf and root powder. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract in leaf were 3,922.4 mg/100 g and 1,903.2 mg/100 g respectively. In comparison, total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of methanol extract in root powder were 1,898.4 mg/100 g and 359.8 mg/100 g. The antioxidative activities of several solvents extract of leaf and root powder were investigated by measuring electron-donating ability using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of the each extracts, ethyl acetate extract of leaf and root powder showed relatively higher antioxidant activity; 94.3% in the leaf powder and 92.9% in the root powder. Nitrite scavenging ability was also highest in the ethyl acetate extract of leaf (45.4%) and root powder (28.8%). These results suggest that ethyl acetate extract of Youngia sonchifolia Max. can be used as a functional materials.
On Chemical Characteristics of Sour Doenjang (Fermented Soybean Paste)
Shin, Dong-Hwa ; Kang, Keum-Sung ; Lee, Ji-Young ; Jeong, Do-Youn ; Han, Gum-Su ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 360~366
Doenjang (fermented soybean paste) is one of the korean traditional fermented soybean product which is consumed with cooked rice as a soup or paste. During the fermentation, soybean protein hydrolyzed into amino acids and various peptide, and various organic acids by mirobes related and enzymes produced by meju fermentation. Some commercial products locationally samples give more sour taste than normal due to abnormal fermentation which the reasons are not clear. Three samples that gave sour taste organoleptically were collected and analyzed their characteristics such as pH, moisture content, acidity and microbial counts. The pH of the sour sample were lower than the normal with higher acidity as pH 5.39 (normal) to pH 4.36 (S2) and 15.80 ml of(0.lN NaOH consumed) to 21.80 ml (S1) respectively. Salt and moisture contents were different with sour and normal Doenjang as 16.38% (normal) to 8.92% (S3) in salt and 55.94% (normal) to 49.34% (S1) in moisture content. Total viable counts were
(S2) in acid producing microbes at BCP plate. Yeast and mold were not detected. The composition of acids as mainly lactic acid and acetic acid of sour Doenjang. Total free amino acids content were lower the sour Doenjang than the normal.
Sanitary Characteristics of Seawater and Sediments in Tongyeong Harbor
Park, Jun-Yong ; Kim, hhhYeong-In ; Bae, Ki-Sung ; Oh, Kwang-Soo ; Choi, Jong-Duck ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 367~375
The bacteriological and physiochemical analysis of sea water and sediments in Tongyeong harbor was conducted to evaluate sanitary conditions. The samples were collected at 8 stations established once a month from June, 2008 to May, 2009. During the study period, the range of temperature was from 6.7 to
, transparency ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 m, chemical oxygen demand ranged from 1.90 to 2.92 mg/L, dissolved oxygen ranged from 6.2 to 10.5 mg/L, dissolved nitrogen ranged from 0.052 to 0.098 mg/L, phosphate ranged from 0.044 to 0.065 mg/L, respectively. Seafood, if eaten raw, carries the risk of food poisoning. Seafood poisoning is often cause by pathogenic microorganism originating from fecal contamination, such as Salmonella sp., Shigella sp. and norovirus. Fecal coliforms are an important indicator of fecal contamination. Therefore, data on fecal coliform are very important for evaluating the safety of fisheries in coastal areas. So, we investigated the sanitary indicate bacteria. The coliform group and fecal coliform MPN's of sea water in Tongyeong harbor were ranged from < 1.8~22,000/100 mL (GM 164.9 MPN/100 mL) and < 1.8~7,900 MPN/100 mL (GM 33.7 MPN/100 mL), respectively. Total coliform were detected 97.0% in 96 of samples and 68.9% of total coliforms were fecal coliforms. These results similar to another seawater detection ratio of total coloforms and fecal coliforms. The Vibrios was isolated and identified with VITEK system. Four hundred eighty strains that were obtained from sea water samples in Tongyeong harbor Detection ratio Vibrio alginolyticus, 34.2%, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 13.8%, Vibrio vulnificus 10.0%, and V. mimicus 12.5% respectively. Vibrio cholerae O1, was not detected. During the study period, the ranges of water content, ignition loss, COD, and acid volatile sulfates in sediments in Tongyeoung harbor were 41.0~57.4%, 7.8~10.5%, 6.51~9.30 mg/g, 0.04~0.09 mg/g, respectively. Heavy metals in sediment of Tongyeoung harbor were Cd,
Trends in Rapid Detection Methods for Food-borne pathogenic Microorganisms by Using New Technologies
Kim, Hyun-Joo ; Kim, Yong-Soo ; Chung, Myung-Sub ; Oh, Deog-Hwan ; Chun, Hyang-Sook ; Ha, Sang-Do ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 376~387
Recently, speedy, convenient and easy detection technologies have been developed rapidly and on the contrary, studies on development of traditional detectors applying biochemical characteristics has gradually been decreased. This review examined trend in current studies on detection of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms in the fields of selective media, immuno-assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), microarray, terahertz spectroscopy & imagination and so on. Most traditional methods to detect the organisms from food matrix rely on selective media and such a method have disadvantages like long time requirement and distinguishing one species only from each selective medium although they are highly economical. Various new convenient methods such as Enzyme Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (ELISA), paper-strip kit, fluoroimmunoassay etc. have been developed. The most ideal method for detecting food-borne pathogenic microorganisms in foods should be accurate, convenient, rapid and economical. Additionally, it is needed that capabilities of quantitative analysis and automation to be applied to industries.
Method Development for the Profiling Analysis of Endogenous Metabolites by Accurate-Mass Quadrupole Time-of-Flight(Q-TOF) LC/MS
Lee, In-Sun ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Cho, Soo-Yeul ; Shim, Sun-Bo ; Park, Hye-Jin ; Lee, Jin-Hee ; Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Hwang, In-Sun ; Kim, Sung-Il ; Lee, Jung-Hee ; Cho, Su-Yeon ; Choi, Don-Woong ; Cho, Yang-Ha ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 388~394
Metabolomics aims at the comprehensive, qualitative and quantitative analysis of wide arrays of endogenous metabolites in biological samples. It has shown particular promise in the area of toxicology and drug development, functional genomics, system biology and clinical diagnosis. In this study, analytical technique of MS instrument with high resolution mass measurement, such as time-of-flight (TOF) was validated for the purpose of investigation of amino acids, sugars and fatty acids. Rat urine and serum samples were extracted by selected each solvent (50% acetonitrile, 100% acetonitrile, acetone, methanol, water, ether) extraction method. We determined the optimized liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS) system and selected appropriated columns, mobile phases, fragment energy and collision energy, which could search 17 metabolites. The spectral data collected from LC/TOFMS were tested by ANOVA. Obtained with the use of LC/TOFMS technique, our results indicated that (1) MS and MS/MS parameters were optimized and most abundant product ion of each metabolite were selected to be monitorized; (2) with design of experiment analysis, methanol yielded the optimal extraction efficiency. Therefore, the results of this study are expected to be useful in the endogenous metabolite fields according to validated SOP for endogenous amino acids, sugars and fatty acids.
Monitoring of Lead and Cadmium Contents of Vegetables in Korea
Shim, Jee-Youn ; Oh, Hyun-Suk ; Jang, Mi-Ran ; Lee, Yoon-Ae ; Lee, Ryun-Kyung ; Kim, Min-A ; Lee, Hyo-Jung ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Cho, Tae-Youg ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 395~401
This research was carried out as a survey on the contents of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in 5 type agricultural products unestablished safety guideline in Korea. The average levels of Pb: onion 0.010 mg/kg, cucumber 0.018 mg/kg, garlic 0.012 mg/kg, green pepper 0.027 mg/kg, sesame 0.029 mg/kg. The average levels of Cd: onion 0.006 mg/kg, cucumber 0.002 mg/kg, garlic 0.008 mg/kg, green pepper 0.011 mg/kg, sesame 0.024 mg/kg. The present result of this study showed that Pb and Cd contents in the whole samples were less than the maximum residual levels of the codex standard. The levels of exposure assessment for Pb and Cd by intake from vegetables and sesame were merely at
g/kg bw/day for Pb,
}g/kg bw/day for Cd. The data from this research will be valuable source for database construction for science-based safety control and management for the trace metal contamination in food including agricultural products.
Survey of Heavy Metal Contents and Intake Rates After Decoction in Herbal Medicines Classified by Parts
Jung, Sam-Ju ; Kang, Sung-Tae ; Han, Chang-Ho ; Kim, Su-Jin ; Ko, Suk-Kyung ; Kim, Yun-Hee ; Kim, Yoo-Kyung ; Kim, Bog-Soon ; Choi, Byung-Hyun ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 402~409
The study was conducted to estimate the contents of heavy metal in commercial herbal medicines (1047 samples of 132 species) which were collected from markets in Seoul and to analyze the contents of heavy metals of herbal medicines by classifying them by parts. The samples were digested using microwave method. The contents of heavy metal (Pb, Cd, and As) and Hg were determined using Inductively coupled plasma-Mass spectrometer (ICP/MS). And the contents of Hg were obtained by Mercury analyzer. The average values of heavy metal in herbal medicines were as follows [mean (minimum-maximum), mg/kg]; Pb 0.870 (ND-69.200), As 0.148 (ND-2.965), Cd 0.092 (ND-2.010), and Hg 0.007 (ND-0.B7). And the average values of heavy metal by parts in herbal medicines were as follows [mean (minimum-maximum), mg/kg]; Ramulus 2.046 (0.065-4.474), Herba 1.886 (0.048-10.404), Flos 1.874 (0.052-5.393), Cortex 1.377 (0.011-4.837), Radix 1.165 (0.012-70.111), Rhizoma 1.116 (0.016-5.490, Fructus 0.838 (0.017-4.527), Perithecium 0.729 (0.013-4.953), Semen 0.646 (0.006-4.416). The average values of heavy metal of imported herbal medicines except Radix were higher than domestic ones. By decoction of herbal medicines exceeding the tolerances, average intake rates of Pb, As, Cd and Hg were obtained as 6.1%, 40.3%, 4.7%, and 2.2%, respectively.
Research Direction for Functional Foods Safety
Jung, Ki-Hwa ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 25, issue 4, 2010, Pages 410~417
Various functional foods, marketing health and functional effects, have been distributed in the market. These products, being in forms of foods, tablets, and capsules, are likely to be mistaken as drugs. In addition, non-experts may sell these as foods, or use these for therapy. Efforts for creating health food regulations or building regulatory system for improving the current status of functional foods have been made, but these have not been communicated to consumers yet. As a result, problems of circulating functional foods for therapy or adding illegal medical to such products have persisted, which has become worse by internet media. The cause of this problem can be categorized into (1) product itself and (2) its use, but in either case, one possible cause is lack of communications with consumers. Potential problems that can be caused by functional foods include illegal substances, hazardous substances, allergic reactions, considerations when administered to patients, drug interactions, ingredients with purity or concentrations too low to be detected, products with metabolic activations, health risks from over- or under-dose of vitamin and minerals, and products with alkaloids. (Journal of Health Science, 56, Supplement (2010)). The reason why side effects related to functional foods have been increasing is that under-qualified functional food companies are exaggerating the functionality for marketing purposes. KFDA has been informing consumers, through its web pages, to address the above mentioned issues related to functional foods, but there still is room for improvement, to promote proper use of functional foods and avoid drug interactions. Specifically, to address these issues, institutionalizing to collect information on approved products and their side effects, settling reevaluation systems, and standardizing preclinical tests and clinical tests are becoming urgent. Also to provide crucial information, unified database systems, seamlessly aggregating heterogeneous data in different domains, with user interfaces enabling effective one-stop search, are crucial.