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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Hygiene and Safety
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Food Allergy, a Newly Emerging Food Epidemic: Is the Current Regulation Adequate?
Lee, N. Alice ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 325~331
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.325
Food allergy refers to an immunologically mediated adverse reaction to food, mainly to proteinaceous constituents. Health implications vary between those individuals who experience mild physical discomforts to those with fast-acting, life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. The prevalence of food allergy is higher in children than in adults, estimated around 4-8% and 1-2% respectively in developed countries. Food allergy has no effective cure at the present time and total avoidance of causative foods is the most reliable prophylactic method currently recommended by the medical community. To help food allergic patients to make informed choices of their foods, mandatory labeling of selected food allergens has been introduced in several countries. All food allergen labelling provisions specify a set of allergens common to the regulated countries. Policy divergence, however, exists between countries by inclusion of additional allergens unique to specific countries and enforcement of specific labelling requirements. Such variations in food allergen labelling regulations make it difficult to manage allergen labeling in imported pre-packaged food products. This paper addresses two current issues in food allergen regulation: 1) an urgent need to determine true prevalence of food allergy in the Asia-Pacific region. This will enable refinement to the food allergen regulation to be more country-specific rather than simply adopting CODEX recommendations. 2) There is an urgent need for harmonization of food allergen regulation in order to prevent food allergen regulation becoming a trade barrier.
Development and Validation of Analytical Methods for Picoxystrobin Determination in Agricultural Products by GC-ECD and GC-MS
Do, Jung-Ah ; Lee, Min-Hye ; Park, Hyejin ; Kang, Il-Hyun ; Kwon, Kisung ; Oh, Jae-Ho ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 332~338
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.332
A simple and sensitive analytical method was developed using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for determination of Picoxystrobin in agricultural products (apple, hulled rice, mushroom, pepper, soybean, and mandarin). Picoxystrobin residues were extracted with acetonitrile, partitioned with saline water, and then they were cleaned up on a florisil solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to obtain an extract suitable for analysis by GC-ECD and GC-MS. The method was validated using 6 agricultural product samples spiked with Picoxystrobin at different concentration levels (0.02, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/L). Average recoveries of Picoxystrobin (using each concentration three replicates) ranged 64.0~98.3% with relative standard deviations less than 10%, calibration solutions concentration in the range 0.1~5 mg/L, and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The result showed that the developed analytical method is suitable for Picoxystrobin determination in agricultural products.
A Prospect for Growth and Economic Size of Foods-for-Elderly Industry -Focused on Health Functional Foods and Foods for Special Dietary Uses-
Jin, Hyun Joung ; Woo, Hee Dong ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 339~348
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.339
The purpose of this study is to predict the economic size of foods-for-elderly market, which will be valuable information for establishing related policy and backup system. After setting the scope of related industry, detailed information for current market situation was investigated and a systematic forecast for market changes in the future was performed. Economic growth, changes in consumer expenditure and economic status of the elderly, current subscription of medical insurance and saving for pension were reflected. In addition, a survey toward related firms was completed and changes in aged population and incidence of chronic disease in the elderly were taken into account. Results show that the annual growth rate of the market was predicted to be the minimum 4.54% through the maximum 8.32% from 2010 to 2025 and its market size was forecasted to be the minimum 7,073 ten million won through the maximum 10,976 ten million won. It is expected that the market of foods-for-elderly will grow rapidly with development of foods technology and fast increase of aged population. Especially, growth of health functional foods and foods for special dietary uses for elderly will be distinguished. However, it seems that related firms are on the hedge, watching current trend of the related industry. This may results in insufficient supply against the demand. Therefore, policy for foods-for-elderly should be introduced and systematically administered, including R&D support, standardization and authentication for foods-for-elderly, construction of related database system.
Prioritizing Management Ranking for Hazardous Chemicals Reflecting Aggregate Exposure
Jeong, Ji-Yoon ; Jung, Yoo-Kyung ; Hwang, Myung-Sil ; Jung, Ki-Kyung ; Yoon, Hae-Jung ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 349~355
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.349
In this study, we configured a system which ranks hazardous chemicals to determine their management priorities based on experts' opinions and the existing CRS (chemical ranking and scoring). Aggregate exposure of food, health functional food, oriental/herbal medicine and cosmetics have been taken into account to determine management priority. In this study, 25 hazardous chemicals were selected, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic, etc. These 25 materials were ranked according to their 1) risk (exposure or hazard) indexes, 2) exposure source-based weight, and 3) public interests, which were also formed based on the existing priority ranking system. Cadmium was scored the highest (178.5) and bisphenol A the lowest (56.8). Ten materials -- cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, tar, acrylamide, benzopyrene, aluminium, benzene, and PAHs -- scored higher than 100. Eight materials -- aflatoxin, manganese, phthalate, chromium, nitrate/nitrite, ethylcarbamate, formaldehyde, and copper -- recorded scores in the range from 70 to 100. Also evaluated as potential risks were 7 materials; sulfur dioxide, ochratoxin, dioxins, PCBs, fumonisin, methyl mercury, and bisphenol A, and these materials were scored above 50. Then we compared risk index and correlation coefficient of total scores to confirm the validity of the total scores; we analyzed correlation coefficient of parameter and indicator. We discovered that the total score and weight, which has incorporated public interests, were high and statistically significant. In conclusion, the result of this study contributes to strengthening risk assessment and risk management of hazardous chemicals.
Profiling and Priority Selection of Foodborne Pathogens in Fresh Produce
Lee, Chaeyoon ; Sung, Dongeun ; Oh, Sangsuk ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 356~365
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.356
There have been growing concerns among people about food safety due to insufficient information on foodborne pathogens. In this study, we developed a risk priority of 15 foodborne pathogens. For the priority determination we collected risk profile criteria information from CODEX Alimentarius Commission and developed countries. The basis for criteria we selected from information of surveillance were frequency and severity of disease, frequency of consumption and probability of cross-contamination. We also considered foodborne pathogens which have been managed in developed countries though those pathogens are not currently managed appropriately in Korea. Priorities were divided into three groups following these consideration. The first priority group includes Norovirus, pathogenic E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. The second priority group includes Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Stapylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and Bacillus cereus, and the third priority group includes Clostridium perfringens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella spp, Cronobacter sakazakii and Hepatitis A virus. Our results could be applied to prevent foodborne illness from fresh produce.
An Analysis of Epidemiological Investigation Reports Regarding to Pathogenic E. coli Outbreaks in Korea from 2009 to 2010
Lee, Jong-Kyung ; Park, In-Hee ; Yoon, Kisun ; Kim, Hyun Jung ; Cho, Joon-Il ; Lee, Soon-Ho ; Hwang, In-Gyun ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 366~374
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.366
Recently pathogenic E. coli is one of the main foodborne pathogens resulting in many patients in Korea. To understand the characteristics of pathogenic E. coli outbreaks in Korea, the epidemiological investigation reports of pathogenic E. coli outbreak in 2009 (41 reports) and in 2010 (27 reports) were collected in the web site of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reviewed and analysed in this study. The main places of the pathogenic E. coli outbreaks were food catering service area (64.8%) and restaurants (25.0%). The main type of the pathogens were EPEC (44.7%) and ETEC (34.2%). EAEC and EHEC was responsible for 10.5 and 9.2%, respectively. Eight of 68 outbreak cases were caused by more than 2 types of pathogenic E. coli which implicates the complicated contamination pathways of pathogenic E. coli. The incidence rate of pathogenic E. coli was
and the main symptoms were diarrhea, stomach ache, nausea, vomiting, and fever etc. The two identified food sources were identified as frozen hamburger pattie and squid-vegetable mixture. To improve the food source identification by epidemiological investigation, food poisoning notification to the agency should not be delayed, whole food items attributed the outbreak should be collected and detection method of the various pathogenic E. coli in food has to be improved. In conclusion, the characteristics between the EHEC outbreaks in the western countries and the EPEC or ETEC outbreaks in Korea needs to be distinguished to prepare food safety management plan. In addition, the development of the trace back system to find the contamination pathway with the improved detection method in food and systemic and cooperative support by the related agencies are necessary.
The Content and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Herbal Pills
Lee, Sung-Deuk ; Lee, Young-Ki ; Kim, Moo-Sang ; Park, Seok-Ki ; Kim, Yeon-Sun ; Chae, Young-Zoo ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 375~387
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.375
The objective of this study is investigation of contamination levels and assessment of health risk effects of heavy metals in herbal pills. 31 Items and 93 samples were obtained for this investigation from major herbal medicine producing areas, herbal markets and on-line supermarkets from Jan to Jun in 2010. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer method was conducted for the quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd and As. In addition, the mercury analyzer system was conducted for that of Hg without sample digestion. The average contents of heavy metals in samples were as follows : 0.87 mg/kg for Pb, 0.08 mg/kg for Cd, 2.87 mg/kg for As and 0.16 mg/kg for Hg, respectively. In addition, the average contents of heavy metals in different parts of plants, including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were 0.63 mg/kg, 3.94 mg/kg, 1.42 mg/kg, 1.05 mg/kg, 0.16 mg/kg, 22.31 mg/kg and 10.17 mg/kg, respectively. After the estimations of dietary exposure, the acceptable daily intake (ADI), the average daily dose (ADD), the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) and the relative hazard of heavy metals were evaluated. As the results, the relative hazards compared to PTWI in samples were below the recommended standard of JECFA as Pb 3.1%, Cd 0.9%, Hg 0.5%. Cancer risks through slope factor (SF) by Ministry of Environment Republic Korea and Environmental Protection Agency was
for Pb and
for As (assuming that the total arsenic content was equal to the inorganic arsenic). Based on our results, possible Pb-induced cancer risks in herbal pills according to parts used including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were
, respectively. Possible As-induced cancer risks in herbal pills by parts used including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were
respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that the majority of samples except for some samples with relative high contents of heavy metals were safe.
Risk Assessment of Arsenic and Mercury in Mushrooms
Choi, Hoon ; Park, Sung-Kug ; Kim, Meehye ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 388~394
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.388
The present study was carried out to assess the dietary exposure and the risk for arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) through mushrooms intake. Various samples (n = 536) covering 17 kinds of mushrooms were collected from retail outlets and markets in Korea. The contents of As were 0.003 (King oyster) ~ 1.952 (Matsutake) mg/kg in raw mushrooms and 0.015 (Fuscoporia obliqua) ~ 16.95 (Matsutake) mg/kg in dry mushrooms, respectively. The contents of Hg were 0.001 (King oyster) ~ 0.030 (Matsutake) mg/kg in raw mushrooms and 0.004 (Oyster) ~ 0.588 (Matsutake) mg/kg in dry mushrooms, respectively. The mean dietary exposures of As was
/day, taking 0.005% of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The mean dietary exposures of Hg was
/day, corresponding to 0.071% of PTWI. Therefore, the level of overall dietary exposure to As and Hg for Korean population through mushroom was far below the levels recommended by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additivies, indicating little possibility of concern.
Management Strategy For Health Functional Food Containing Several Functional Ingredients
Kim, Ji Yeon ; Kwon, Oran ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 395~400
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.395
In this study, we analyzed the database for items reported to Korea Food and Drug Administration as for manufactured health/functional food during 2010. There were 183 health functional food products manufactured in domestic having over 2 functional ingredients (hereinafter, combinational health functional food) among total 7319 products. Among 183 products, there were 177 products having over two kinds of functional ingredient and 6 products were over 3 ingredients. The most commonly used functional ingredients in the combinational health functional food were Garcinia cambogia extracts which were used in 41 products, Octacosanol and Saw Palmetto extract. When we searched the safety information for the pair of ingredients used in combinational health functional food using several database, there were no reports for safety concern. However, as there are still safety concerns when intake various functional ingredients at once, we suggested to enforce the reporting system of adverse event in order to strength safety management of health functional food. With these complement, the safety management of health functional food might be achieved including a combinational products.
Dual Effectiveness of Opuntia ficus indica Extracts for Enzymatic Browning Inhibition and Microbial Inactivation on Fresh-cut Apples
Seo, Young-Ho ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 401~405
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.401
The dual effectiveness of Opuntia ficus indica extracts for browning inhibition and microbial inactivation on fresh-cut apples was investigated. Prepared apple slices were treated with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/mL Opuntia ficus indica extracts, packaged in polyethylene bags, and stored for 10 days at 4,
. Results indicate that Opuntia ficus indica extracts significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the browning reaction of fresh-cut apples. This treatment also reduced peroxidase activities. The populations of Staphylococcus aureus significantly decreased with increasing extract concentration (p < 0.05). In particular, S. aureus was reduced to non-detectable levels after 2 days in 100 mg/mL treatment at
. Opuntia ficus indica extracts therefore have antibacterial and antibrowning effects. The results suggest that Opuntia ficus indica extracts could be useful as a natural food preservative.
The Effects of Fucoidan on the Activation of Macrophage and Anticancer in Gastric Cancer Cell
An, In-Jung ; Cho, Sung-Dae ; Kwon, Jung-Ki ; Kim, Hye-Ri ; Yu, Hyun-Ju ; Jung, Ji-Youn ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 406~414
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.406
This study was designed to investigate the effect of fucoidan on the activation of macrophage and on induction of apoptosis in AGS cell. To measure the activity of macrophages, NO and TNF-
assays were performed in Raw 264.7 cell. Treatment with fucoidan significantly increased production of NO and TNF-
, indicating activation of macrophages. The result of MTT assay shows that cell viability was significantly decreased in a dose and time-dependent manner. Fucoidan increased to enhance mitochondrial membrane permeability, as well as the cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. Fucoidan decreased Bcl-2 and XIAP expression, whereas the expression of Bax was increased in a time-dependent manner compared to the control. In addition, the active forms of caspase-9 were increased, and the inactivation of Akt was decreased in a time-dependent manner. Caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK, canceled the apoptosis of fucoidan, expression of Bax and caspase-9 were decrease. These results indicate that fucoidan induces activation of macrophage and apoptosis through activation of caspase on AGS cell.
Microbial and Physicochemical Characteristics on Raw Cereal for Sunsik by Hot-air Drying Methods
Kim, Jin Hee ; Yang, Ji Young ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 415~419
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.415
To know proper drying condition for making a safe Sunsik, uncooked food, microbial and physicochemical characteristics of cereal dried by hot-air drying was investigated. As moisture content of 3 Sunsik samples was reduced to about 8%, protein, carbohydrate, fat and ash content of those was increased. But approximate composition of black bean, black rice and glutinous millete and black bean showed little changes during hot-air drying (30, 40,
). Lightness (L value), redness (a value) and yellowness (b value) was increased after hot-air drying. In case of black rice and glutinous millet, b value and L value wasn't changed individually. When we measured a texture for 3 kinds of raw cereal for, hardness of dried cereals was lower than raw cereals. Hardness of dried cereals was increasd as drying temperature was increased. As results of mocrobiologicl experiment for 3 kinds of sunsik on hot-air drying conditions, total cell count was reduced 2 log - 3 log and other pathogenic microorganism wasn't detected except B. cereus.
Microbial Hazard Analysis of Manufacturing Processes for Starch Noodle
Cheon, Jin-Young ; Yang, Ji Hye ; Kim, Min Jeong ; Lee, Su-Mi ; Cha, Myeonghwa ; Park, Ki-Hwan ; Ryu, Kyung ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 420~426
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.420
The purpose of this study was to identify control points through microbiological hazard analysis in the manufacturing processes of starch noodles. Samples were collected from the ingredients, manufacturing processes, equipment and environment. Microbiological hazard assessments were performed using aerobic plate counts (APC), Enterobacteriaceae (EB), E. coli and five pathogens including B. cereus, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and S. aureus. The APC levels in raw materials were from 2.12 to 3.83 log CFU/g. The contamination levels after kneading were 4.31 log CFU/g for APCs and 2.88 log CFU/g for EB counts. APCs decreased to 1.63 log CFU/g and EB were not detected after gelatinization, but their levels slightly increased upon cooling, cutting, ripening, freezing, thawing, and separating. The reuse of cooling and coating water would be a critical source of microbial increase after cooling. After drying, APCs and EB counts decreased to 5.05 log CFU/g and 2.74 log CFU/g, respectively, and the levels were maintained to final products. These results suggest that the cooling process is a critical control point for microbiological safety, and the cooling water should be treated and controlled to prevent cross contamination by pre-requisite program.
Evaluation of the Level of Microbial Contamination in the Manufacturing and Processing Company of Red Pepper Powder
Woo, Hye-Im ; Kim, Jong-Bae ; Choi, Ji-Hee ; Kim, Eun-Hye ; Kim, Dong-Sul ; Park, Kun-Sang ; Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Eun, Jong-Bang ; Om, Ae-Son ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 427~431
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.427
This study was conducted to monitor and evaluate microbial contamination during manufacturing process in 6 red pepper powder factories. Red pepper powder samples were taken from manufacturing facilitates, working area and workers' hands to determine sanitary indicator bacteria (SIB) such as aerobic bacteria and coliform group as well as pathogenic indicator bacteria (PIB) such as Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus. The results indicated that SIB in primary materials was detected as low as 3 log units and E.coil and Staphylococcus aureus of PIB were detected. After grinding process, aerobic bacteria, fungi, and coliform group increased 52% and 108%, respectively. In final products, PIB was not detected except for one found Staphylococcus aureus by which workers' hands were contaminated. Moreover, UV detectors in all the manufacturers were not able to reduce bacteria. Thus, this data suggest that a stringent safety management be needed to prevent cross contamination, and also reconsider effectiveness of facility.
Analysis of Transfer Rate on Listeria monocytogenes Contaminated Pork Meat During Processing
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Kim, Gwang-Hee ; Park, Joong-Hyun ; Park, Bo-Geum ; Park, Myoung-Su ; Oh, Deog-Hwan ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 432~441
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.432
In this study, the transfer rate of wild type Listeria mon, ytogenes (LM) was investigated to establish the standard of safety management during pork meat pr, essing for meat to meat and meat to food contact surfaces contamination at 5 and
. The transfer rate of LM from meat to meat during the pr, essing increased from 0.02% after 30 min to 0.42% after 120 min at
, while for conveyor belt and stainless steel, it decreased from 0.015% and 0.013% after 30 min to 0.002% and 0.0003% after 120 min at
, respectively (p < 0.05). When temperature increased to
, the transfer rates of LM from meat to meat, conveyor belt and stainless steel were the highest at 60 min exposure, and all decreased after 120 min. In reverse, the transfer rate from food contact surface to pork meat was significantly higher than that from pork meat to food contact surface (p < 0.01). Also, the transfer rate to conveyor belt was significantly higher than stainless steel (p < 0.05) and it was highest at 30 min exposure time in both 5 and
. This study indicates that the transfer and adherence rates of LM are influenced by the contact time and temperature. Consequently, these results were utilized to develop a predictive model with a high level of confidence which can lead to prevent cross-contamination during pork meat processing.
Effects of LED Treatment on Microbial Reduction and Quality Characteristics of Red Pepper Powder
Yun, Hyejeong ; Park, Kyeonghun ; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul ; Kim, Se-Ri ; Yun, Jong-Chul ; Kim, Byung Seok ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 442~448
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.442
This study investigated reduction of microbial population, water soluble pigment, capsanthin content, surface color (Hunter L, a, b,
), and sensory properties of pepper powder by LED (red, yellow, blue, green) treatments. LED (red, yellow, blue, green) treatment were conducted in 1,000 lux storage at
for 10 days. The total aerobic bacteria was no significant difference among the control and treated with LED during 10 days. In yellow LED treatment, yeast and molds were decreased about 1.76 log. Surface color such as lightness (L), redness (a), yellowness (b) were showed a decreasing tendency as the storage period. In the overall color difference (
) of yellow LED treatment was lower less than 3.0. Water soluble pigment was no difference in control and LED treated samples during storage period. Capsanthin content was significantly decreased as storage period was increased, but no significant differences were observed among red and yellow LED treatments. Sensory properties of control was significantly reduced by storage period but yellow and green LED treatments were no significantly differences.
Inhibitory Effect of Organic Acids and Natural Occurring Antimicrobials Against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Various Origins
Kim, Bo-Ram ; Yoo, Jin-Hee ; Jung, Kyu-Seok ; Heu, Sung Gi ; Lee, Sun-Young ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 449~455
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.449
The purpose of this study is to evaluate antimicrobial effects of organic acid and some natural occurring antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various origins (vegetables, peanut, pea leaf, kim-bab, person, perilla leaf, and animal) and to calculate their MIC and MBC values. Five organic acids (acetic, lactic, citric, malic, and propionic acid), three essential oils (carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol), and two other natural antimicrobials (nisin and cinnamic acid) were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects against 113 strains of S. aureus using combination treatments. Propionic acid (7%), nisin (1%), thymol (1%), carvacrol (1%) showed antimicrobial activities against S. aureus strains in agar disc diffusion test. And, carvacrol, thymol, and nisin were found to be the most effective with the lowest MIC values of 0.0313%, 0.0625%, and 0.0625% against S.aureus, respectively. Propionic acid (0.2313%) and citric acid (0.6000%) were the most effective among organic acids tested. Therefore, these five antimicrobials were selected for next combination treatments. Combination of propionic acid and citric acid were showed the strongest inhibitory effectiveness against S. aureus among combination treatments. These results suggest that organic acid such as propionic and citric acid, and natural occurring antimicrobial such as nisin, carvacrol, and thymol might be possibly used as preservatives for inhibiting S. aureus in foods.
Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Vegetables in Korea
Go, Myoung Jin ; Lee, Jin Ha ; Park, Eun Heui ; Park, Sang Wook ; Kim, In Kyung ; Ji, Young Ae ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 456~460
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.456
This study was carried out as a survey on the level of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in 5 items of agricultural products (lettuce, pumpkin, head lettuce, cabbage and crown daisy) for which safety guidelines are not yet established in Korea. The 407 samples were collected from local markets in 9 regional places and the levels of metals were measured by ICP-MS and mercury analyzer. The average levels of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were 0.026, 0.018, 0.008 and 0.003 mg/kg for lettuce, 0.002, 0.001, 0.001 and 0.0006 mg/kg for pumpkin, 0.002, 0.005, 0.001 and 0.0005 mg/kg for head lettuce, 0.001, 0.002, 0.0002 and 0.0006 mg/kg for cabbage and 0.022, 0.014, 0.006 and 0.004 mg/kg for crown daisy. For risk assessment, the daily dietary exposures of Pb, Cd and Hg by intake of these agricultural products were calculated and compared with PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake) established by JECFA. The daily dietary exposure of heavy metals by intake of these agricultural products were 0.13, 0.56 and 0.09% of PTWI, respectively. These monitoring results will be utilized as fundamental data for the establishment of Korean standards of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in 5 items of agricultural products and valuable source for DB construction for science-based safety control of heavy metals in foods including agricultural products.
Effects of Broccoli on Anti-inflammation and Anti-oxidation According to Extraction Solvent
Jang, Min-Woo ; Ha, Bae-Jin ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 461~465
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.461
Broccoli has a functional substance, sulforaphane that has effects of anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory. Sulforaphane, one of the hydrolysis products of glucoraphanin in broccoli, cabbage and kale, was contributed to the role of antioxidant. Broccoli contains a number of bioactive compounds including glucosinolates, S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide and many antioxidants. The ethanol extract (BE), hexane extract (BH), propylene glycol extract (BP) and butylenesglycol extract (BB) of broccoli were used to investigate the antioxidation and anti-inflammatory effects of sulforaphane extracts from broccoli. The high scavenging abilities of DPPH,
were observed. Also sulforaphane extracts from broccoli showed the inhibition effect on NO rate. These results demonstrated that sulforaphane extracts from broccoli could be useful as an antioxidation and anti-inflammatory functional ingredient.
Detection Method for Identification of Pueraria mirifica (Thai kudzu) in Processed Foods
Park, Yong-Chjun ; Jin, Sang-Wook ; Kim, Mi-Ra ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ; Lee, Jae-Hwang ; Cho, Tae-Yong ; Lee, Hwa-Jung ; Lee, Sang-Jae ; Han, Sang-Bae ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 466~472
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.466
In this study, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL), RNApolymeraseC (rpoC1), intergenic spacer (psbA-trnH), and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) as identification markers for discrimination of P. mirifica in foods were selected. To be primer design, we obtained 719 bp, 520 bp, 348 bp, and 507 bp amplicon using universal primers from selected regions of P. mirifica. The regions of rbcL, rpoC1, and psbA-trnH were not proper for design primers because of high homology about P. mirifica, P. lobata, and B. superba. But, we had designed 4 pairs of oligonucleotide primers from ITS2 gene. Predicted amplicon from P. mirifica were obtained 137 bp and 216 bp using finally designed primers SFI12-miri-6F/SFI12-miri-7R and SFI12-miri-6F/SFI12-miri-8R, respectively. The species-specific primers distinguished P. mirifica from related species were able to apply food materials and processed foods. The developed PCR method would be applicable to food safety management for illegally distributed products in markets and internet shopping malls.
Nutritional Characteristics of Kochujang Added With Fermented Extracts of Hizikia fusiforme
Kim, Jin Hee ; Song, Ho Soo ; Yang, Ji Young ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 473~478
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.473
The nutritional properties of the Kochujang were investigated with Fermented Extract of Hizikia fusiforme. No big differences in proximate compositions(moisture, Crude protein, Crude fat, and Crude ash, Carbohyrate) were observed between Two kinds of kochujangs tested in this study, general kochujang purchased from a market(GK), kochujang added with Fermented Extract of Hizikia fusiforme(FGK). However, FGK showed higher level of Total free amino acid(15,929.5 ng/mg), amino nitrogen(1715.88 mg%) and mineral contens than GK. the analysis of volatile compounds using GC/MS revealde than the fermentation dramatically removed off-flavors such as Acetaldehyde, Silane rimethyl(2-methylphenyl)-, 1H-Indole 2-phenyl-1-(trimethylsilyl) in Fermented Extract of Hizikia fusiforme(FGK).
Quality Characteristics of Ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as the Ripening Periods
Lee, Myung-Hee ; Kim, Kyung-Tack ; Lee, Kyoung-Hae ;
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 27, issue 4, 2012, Pages 479~486
DOI : 10.13103/JFHS.2012.27.4.479
This study was conducted to demonstrate quality characteristics of ginger by making aged ginger( AG) with two methods, the frist method was that ginger was aged at constant temperature and humidity chamber for the duration of 10, 20 and 30 days, and the other method was drying the ginger just after steaming it for 3 hours. As the age was being processed, the volume of ginger's appearance decreased rapidly and its color seemed to be darker because of the decrease in moisture. In the case of general components, the content of crude ash was depended on aged periods while the content of crude fat was independent with aged periods, and according to the content of crude protein, there was not any significant differences. The main valuable ingredient which is 6-gingerol showed the decreasing trend as it was exposed to heat with more time, and 6-shogaol which is also one of the main valuable ingredients showed high content at T-II(AG-10days). Free sugar and free amino acid of AG decreased as aged period goes by, and this study found that there were lots of essential amino acid (threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, valine, leucine and tyrosine) in ginger. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid of AG was significantly higher than the amount of saturated fatty acid of AG with the approximate ratio of 60:40, and the amount of free fatty acid of AG did not seem any big differences between AG and none AG. Considering both valuable ingredients and nutritive components, T-I (steamed ginger, SG) and T-II which was aged for 10 days were evaluated excellently.