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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Hygiene and Safety
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Dec 1993
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Sep 1993
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 1993
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 1993
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Characteristics of Prostaglandin Synthesis Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Rat Alveolar Macrophages
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 8, issue 4, 1993, Pages 181~188
It is well known that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in various experimental system, but the mechanism and the detailed nature of its action are yet to be understood. Thus, this study was designed to characterize LPS induced PG synthesis in rat alveolar macrophage. Although results were not so much prominent, LPS stimulated PGE2 synthesis in macrophage with short term exposure, and this was thought to be mainly due to the activation of phopholipase A2+ But there was a burst in the PG synthesis 6 hours after the LPS treatment and this was accompanied with the increase of cyclooxygenase activity. This effect was not mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or platelet activating factor (PAF), and the existence of serum was prerequisite for its action. Growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) themselves did not stimulate PG synthesis and the showed stimulatory activities to some extent. Normal rat serum was more effective for the elicitation of the LPS action than growth factors. Thus, considering the amounts of growth fafctors contained in normal serum, it was suggested that another factors like LPS binding protein (LBP) might be involved in the serum effect on LPS action. Conclusively. it was thought that LPS could stimulate PG synthesis through interaction with serum factors such as EGF, PDGF and/or LBP.
Studies on the Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 8, issue 4, 1993, Pages 189~193
Cisplatin is useful for various cancers including advanced testicular and ovarian cancers. However, clinical use of cisplatin has been limited due to its dose-related neplrotoxicity. Transport studies across the membrane vesicles were performed to study the cisplatin nephrotoxicity. In these experiments, after cisplatin was administered to adult male New Zealand White rabbits, basolateral membrane (BLM) vesicles were prepared from the renal cortex. Para-aminohippurate (PAH) uptakes through BLM vesicles were measured to examine the interactioln of cisplatin on the transports of the substrates. As results of the uptake experiments using the vesicle systems, cisplatin had little effects on PAH transport through BLM vesicle. In conclusion, cisplatin did not cause the damage of basolateral membranes.
Development of a Novel Experimental Model for Nephrotoxicity Assessment Using Membrane Vesicles of Rabbit Renal Proximal Tubules
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 8, issue 4, 1993, Pages 195~204
Basolateral and brush border membrane (BLM and BBM) vesicles of renal proximal tubules were prepared from adult male New Zealand White rabbits to evaluate as a potential model for assessment of nephrotoxicity. PAH uptakes using BLMV, glucose and leucine uptakes using BBMV were measured in the rabbits treated cephaloridine. In addition, urinalysis and histopathological studies were performed to investigate the correlationship with membrane vesicle uptakes. The results were as follows: (1) the activite of Na+, K+ -ATPase was enriched 12.3-fold in vasolateral memvrane vesicles (BLMV) and the specific activity of alkaline phosphatase in purified brush border memvrane vesicles (BBMV) was enriched 10.1-fold compared with each of microsomal homogenate. (2) In the uptake experiments, cephaloridine decreased initial and probenecid-sensitive PAH uptakes in BLMV. (3) Cephaloridine tested decreased initial and phlorizin-sensitive glucose uptakes in BBMV. (4) Cephaloridine tested decreased initial and Na+-dependent leucine uptakes in BBMV. (5) Cephaloridine tested significantly increased the urinary excretion of glucose and activity of
-GTP. (6) Cephaloridine tested caused moderate necrotic changes in renal tubular cells and formation of urinary cast in the lumina of Henle's loop and collecting tubules besides the swelling of renal tubules.
Study on Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Screening of Chloramphenicol Residues
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 8, issue 4, 1993, Pages 205~214
The monoclonal antibody to chloramphenicol(CAP) was produced to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) for residual CAP. An immunogen(CAP-BSA) was prepared by immunogen, antibody titer was measured by indirect ELISA. Spleen cells form the immunized mouse were fused with SP2/OAg14 myeloma cells. Among hybridomas selected in HAT media, 6 clones shown high antibody titer to CAP were subjected to cloning by limit dilution, and all of the monoclonal antibodies(MCA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9) produced by each clone were identified as IgG1 by ELISA isotyping analysis. Competitive ELISA condition was established by using the purified monoclonal antibody MCA1 as primary antibody and CAP-HSA conjugate as coating antigen. Standard curve of CAP(n=28) showed that the lowest detection limit of CAP is 20ng/ml level. The cross-reactivities of the 6 monoclonal antibodies showed that CAP sodium succinate. CAP base, P-nitrophenol, and p-nitrobenzyl alcohol were 89∼178, 0.050∼2.237, 0.056∼0.794 and 0.013∼7.939%, respectively. No cross-reactivities were observed with phenylalanine, tyrosine, glutamine, thiamphenicol, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, chlortetracycline and p-aminobenzoic acid.
Microbiological Assay for the Detection of Chloramphenicol in Meat and Milk
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 8, issue 4, 1993, Pages 215~223
Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a very effective broad-spectrum antibiotic which had been widely used in animal production. However, the drug is not approved in many countries for use in food-producing animals because of its potential toxicity and the possibility of residues in food products. In this study, a modified microbiological assay was developed for the sensitive detection of CAP residues in meat and milk. The method was characterized by the extraction of CAP with ethyl acetate, addition of
oxytetracycline/ml in the phosphate buffer diluent (pH 6.0), a luteus ATCC 9341. The lowest levels of CAP detected in muscle tissues and milk were
, respectively. Recovery rates free CAP from milk were 68.5%, from bovine muscle 65.1%, from swine muscle 63.8%, and from chicken muscle 59.4%, respectively, and the coefficients of variation were 1.8~15.1%. The results showed that the detection limits of CAP residues in animal products could significantly be improved by the modified microbiological assay than the conventional ones.
Antimutagenicity of Small Water Dropwort Juice on the Microbial Mutagencity Induced by 2-Aminofluorene
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 8, issue 4, 1993, Pages 225~230
This study was conducted to examine the stages showing the antimutagenic effects on the microbial mutation by addition of the juice extracted from small water dropwort. It was not able to find out the signal showing the genic derepression or change of gene repair system by addition of the juice. And it was hardly possible to expect the conversion of 2-AF to inactive form by the juice. however the longer 2-AF and S-9 mix were contacted before addition of the juice, the stronger the microbial mutagenisity of 2-AF was, and after addition of the juice, the mutagenicity was decreased rapidly. It seems that some components in the juice act as inhibitor of a enzyme in S-9 mix, and block the conversion of 2-AF to the ultimate mutagen.
A Study on the Content of Heavy Metals of Marine Fish in Korean Coastal water
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 8, issue 4, 1993, Pages 231~240
This study was carried out to find out the content of injurious heavy metals, such as mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic of marine fish which had been captured in adjacent sea of Korea. From March, 1 to April, 30 in 1993. 60 sample of fishes were collected the adult fish and young fish. These samples were analyzed by the Mercury Analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectro Analyzer. The results of the study were summarized as follows: (1) The content of mercury in Therafra chalcograma was 0.112
0.034 ppm which was higher than other fishes, but Pseudosciaena manchurica and Pampus argenteus had lower (P<0.05). Although lead content of Trichiurus lepturus was 0.359
0.056 ppm, which was higher than other fishes. The lead content of Theragra chalcograma had lower to the almost same level. The cadmium content of the Theragra chalcograma was 0.069
0.010 ppm which was higher than other samples, but Pseudosciaena manchurica had 0.039
0.020 ppm to lower level. Though there was some fluctuation in the arsenic content which was 0.433~3.752 ppm, the arsenic content of Therafra chalcograma was 3.752
2.873 ppm which was the higher than any other fishes. But there are not statistical significances. (2) Heavy metal content by the maturity of the fishes: Mercury content of the old Pseudosciaena manchurica was 0.055
0.15 ppm comparing to the young's result of 0.030
0.009 ppm (P<0.05). Though there were some differences according to the maturity, but thee was no statistical significance. (3) In view of the correlation of the heavy metal content, for Pseudosciaena manchurica, high correlation was founded to r=0.6437 between mercury and cadmium (P<0.05). Though the content of mercury, arsenic cadmium and lead had positive correlation (r=0.2725) and negative correlation (r=-0.3958), but there was no significance at all. The other fishes were not found correlation between the heavy metal content. Positive correlation was found between age with mercury in Pseudociaena manchurica (r=0.7018, P<0.05). The negative correlation of age with lead content in the Pseudociaena Manchurica was signigicant (P<0.05). The correlation coefficient was r=-0.7623. The age with mercury content in Coloabis saira had high correlation (r=0.7201, P<0.05). Through the above analysis, it can get conclusion that injurious heavy metal content of the fishes in Korea such a mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic were at the level of natural content. At present, guidelines of maximum residue level allowed at foreign countries about the injurious heavy metal have been used according to the kinds of fish but our government guideline for the marine fishes in only total mercury below 0.7 ppm and lead below 2 ppm. So more aggressive guidelines for the allowance level of heavy metals in marine fishes are required for the safety of foods.
A Study on the Residual Surfactants and the Microbial Contaminants on Stainless dishes
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 8, issue 4, 1993, Pages 241~249
This study was performed to investigate the remainity of synthetic surfactant (LAS) by HPLC and the microbial contamination on stainless steel dishes. For the maintenance and the improvement of school lunch program's safety, the remainity of synthetic surfactants (LAS) on stainless steel dishes washed with auto dishwasher was investigated by HPLC, and the microbial contamination on same dishes was surveyed. The results were as follows: (1) The remainity of synthetic surfactant (LAS) a) The residue of LAS was very small because of the repeated washing of dishes by strong pressurized water. b) The remainity range of LAS on stainless steel dishes was 2.1~7.2
/dish. The remainity of general surfactants was higher in cold water then warm water. The amount of residual general surfatants was 5.95
/dish in cold water, and 2.95
/dish in warm water. There was no difference of the remainity of special surfactants by water temperature. The amount of residual surfactants was 3.9
/dish. c) There was no difference of residue amount by washing times. (2) The microbial contamination after washing with general surfactants. 1) The mean MPN of E. coli was 203(53~345) on 1 hr, 19(6~28) on 2 hrs, in cold water, and 1100(only 1 dish of 1 school) on 1 hr, 24(6~42) on 2hrs. 2) After washing with general surgactants the mean of contamination by general microbials was 956(25~2300)on 1 hr, 694(45~2500) on 2 hrs. in cold water and 803(5~2300) on 1 hr, 671(5~2500)on 2 hrs. After washing with special surfactants the mean of contamination by general microbials was 788(136~2900) on 1 hr, 1122(15~3000) on 2 hrs, in cold water and 537(5~2000) on 1 hr, 88(15~150) on 2 hrs in warm water. (3) Like the results of this study, the good washing methods of stainless steel dishes for school luch program were as follows. First, for washing stainless steel dishes, the use of special surfactants was recommended at 30~4
water. Second, at 7
water, the rinsing of dishes was recommended. Third, the final rinsing at 8
combined with simple disinfection and dry was recommended.
Comparative Study on the HPLC Determination of Aflatoxins Coupled with Extraction and Clean-up Methods
Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, volume 8, issue 4, 1993, Pages 251~254
Extraction and Clean-up procedures coupled with quantitation by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was evaluated for the detection of 4 aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 and G2, in peanut butter. The Sep-pak clean-up method showed poorer separation and repeatability than did the modified DeVries' and an immunoaffinity column clean-up methods. No significant difference of detected aflatoxins between the affinity column clean-up and modified DeVries' method. The coefficients of variation for the 4 aflatoxins were ranging from 6.3∼32.3 by the modified DeVries' method and 5.3∼9.8 by the affinity column clean-up.