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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jun 1981
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The Taste Compounds in Fermented Entrails of Trepang, Stichopus Japonicus
Chung, Seung-Yong ; Sung, Nak-Ju ; Lee, Jong-Mi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 1~16
Fermented trepang entrails, Stichopus Japonicus, is widely used and occupied an important position in foods of this country. But little study on its taste compounds has been reported. This study was attempted to establish the basic data for evaluating taste compounds of fermented trepang entrails. Changes of free amino acids, free sugars, nucleotides and their related compounds as taste compounds during the fermentation of trepang entrails were analyzed by amino acid autoanalyzer and high speed liquid chromatography. Glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and proline were dominant amino acid in the fresh extracts, having 32.3%, 16.4%, 12.0% and 10.5% of the total free amino acid content, respectively. The content of leucine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, methionine and tyrosine were low. The free amino acid were not changed in composition but changed in amounts during the fermentation of trepang entrails. Glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, proline, lysine, arginine and leucine were abundant in both fresh sample and fermented products. Free sugars in fermented trepang entrails, the results showed that galactose(933.7-988.0 mg%) was dominant and the content of arabinose, xylose were 78.7, 55.2-771mg% on moisture and salt free base respectively but glucose was detected in trace amount. Nucleotides and their related compounds were increased during the fermentation and hypoxanthine(47.1-
, on moisture and salt free base) were dominant, IMP was abundant in fermented trepang entrails. TMA was increased while TMAO was decreased during the fermentation. The content of TMAO nitrogen in fermented trepang entrails was 30.0mg% on moisture and salt free base. The content of betine was increased during the fermentation and was ranged from 734.2 to 934.2mg% on moisture and salt free base. It is believed that such amino acids as glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, lysine, proline, arginine, leucine, such free sugars as galactose, arabinose, xylose, glucose, such nucleotides and their related compounds as IMP, hypoxanthine play an important role as taste compounds in fermented trepang entrails.
Changes in the Lipid Components of Edible Oil (Sunflower Seed Oil) under Storage Conditions
Hwang, Joo-Ho ; Yoon, Hyung-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 17~25
The purpose of this study was to determine effects of thermal oxidation according to heating time and temperature, using sunflower oil from seed grown in Korea. To investigate these effects, the lipid components, fatty acid compositions, and chemical characteristics of crude oil from sunflower seed were determined. The content of nonpolar and polar in total lipids was 94.1% and 5.9%, respectively. The fatty acid compositions in the total lipids showed 6.21% palmitic, 4.50% stearic, 59.84% oleci and 29.48% linoleic acid. The concent of linoleic acid decreased during heating. However, the concent of oleic, palmitic and stearic acid increased during heating. The components of neutral lipid were found 6 fractions, including triglyceride, diglyceride and free fatty acid. The content of triglyceride decreased but diglyceride and monoglyceride increased during heating. The content of free fatty acid increased during the continuous heating period for 32 hours at
, whereas decreased in 16 hours at
. Iodine value decreased during heating, and peroxide value increased during the continuous heating period for 32 hours at
, whereas decreased in 16 hours at
Studies on the effect in degree of saturation of fats on serum cholesterol level in the rabbit
Nam, Hyun-Keun ; Sung, Ha-Chin ; Chang, In-Yae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 27~37
The effect in degree of saturation and unsaturation of dietary added oils on the serum cholesterol level in the rabbit was studied for a kperiod of 4 weeks using isocalories and isonitrogenous diets. The subject rabbits were divided into 10 feeding groups such as control-1 (Basal diet only), A group (Basal+sesame oil), B group (Basal+perilla oil), C group (Basal+soybean oil), D group (Basal+rice bran oil), Control-A(Basal+casein), A-1 group (Basal+sesame oil+ casein), B-1 group (Basal+perilla oil+casein), C-1 group (Basal+soybean oil+casein) and D-1 group (Basal+rice bran oil+casein). The results are summarized as follows: 1. Body weight gains per week of the perilla oil fed group were higher than anyother groups during the experimental period. 2. Food efficiency ratios for the group of perilla oil fed were 1.041, 0.781, 0.520 and 0.431 for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week, respectively. 3. In the group of perilla oil and Casein fed, food efficiency ratios for the experimental period were 0.887, 0.823, 0.489 and 0.437 for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week, respectively. 4. It is investigated that the food efficiency ratio for perilla oil fed groups was higher than the group of perilla oil and casein fed. 5. Calorie efficiency ratios for perilla oil fed group were 0.018, 0.036, 0.024 and 0.020 for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week, respectively. Calorie efficiency ratios for perilla oil and casein fed group were 0.028, 0.030, 0.024 and 0.020 for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week, respectively. 6. Serum cholesterol was 72.8mg% for the group of perilla oil (6gr) and casein(6gr) fed, and liver cholesterol was 460.5mg% for the same group. 7. Serum triglyceride was 130.7mg% for the group of perilla oil (6gr) and casein (6gr) fed. 8. Blood glucose was 40.34mg% for control-l and 96.4mg% for control-A, respectively. Blood glucose was 120.4mg% for group Band 1l0.7mg% for group B-1, respectively. 9. The degree of saturation/unsaturation for perilla oil (SFA/USFA) was 7.8/92.2 and nonessential fatty acid/essential fatty acid(NEFA/EFA) was 26.3/73.7. In this conditions, serum and liver cholesterol was lower than anyother conditions for this experimental period. 10. For the perilla oil fed group, serum cholesterol was 105.5mg% for pleic acid/linoleic acid(18.5/58.5) and 72.8mg% for linoleic acid/linolenic acid(15.2/58.5). In this group, triglyceride was 132.5mg% for oleic acid/linoleic acid and 130.5mg% for linoleic acid/linolenic acid. 11. There are positive correlation between serum cholesterol and saturated fatty acid
, and unessential fatty acid
. There are negative correlation between serum cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acid
and essential fatty acid
, respectively. 12. The range of most effective diet for serum cholesterol level lowering was nonessential fatty acid/essential fatty acid(26.3/73.7), saturated fatty acid/unsaturated fatty acid(7.8/92.2) and added oil (6gr)/added casein protein(6gr).
Studies on Nitrate and Nitrite in Foods (I) -Changes of Nitrate, Nitrite and Ascorbic Acid Contents during Soybean Germination-
Yoon, Hyung-Sik ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 39~45
The content of nitrate and nitrite in germinating soybean was studied in relation to ascorbic acid contents. Nitrate content during soybean germination gradually increased, and root was higher than cotyledon and hypocotyl. Nitrite content was relatively low and maintained under the 1 ppm during germination period. Ascorbic acid content was maximum around 4 days after germination.
Studies on Nitrate and Nitrite in Foods (II) -Relationship between Nitrate, Nitrite Contents and Nitrate Reductase Activity during Soybean Germination-
Yoon, Hyung-Sik ; Kwon, Joong-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 47~52
Changes of nitrate and nitrite contents in various parts (cotyledon, hypocotyl, root) of germinating soybean were studied in relation to activities of nitrate reductase (NR). The optimal pH and temperature of the NR were around pH 6.5 and
, respectively. The stable pH range of the enzyme was between pH 4.0 to 6.5. The enzyme was stable at
. Activities of NR in each part of germinating soybean increased in order of root, hypocotyl and cotyledon. Hypocotyl and root were maximum activity around 10 days after germination, and cotyledon around 9 days. Relationship between nitrate contents and NR activities was observed except the middle period of germination, and that of nitrite contents and NR activities was partially observed.
Kinetics of Drying Shiitake Mushroom, Lentinus edodes sanryun No. 1
Cho, Duk-Bong ; Kim, Dong-Pil ; Choi, Choon-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 53~60
Dehydration phenomena has been studied for the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes sanryun No.1, through which examine the effect of temperature and air velocity and derivation of its kinetics. Temperature effect for the dehydration rate constant were examined under the constant air velocity (1.5m/sec) with the variation of temperature from
. Water content were reduced exponentially with the course of time and calculated dehydration rate constant values varies with temperature with an Arrhenius-type relationship, which had been expected in the chemical reaction kinetics. Influence of air velocity for the dehydration rate constant under the constant temperature
showed interesting results. For the range 1.0m/sec to 2.0m/sec, dehydration rate constant values are increased with the air velocity, but for the 2.0 to 3.1m/sec, dehydration rate constant values are decreased which were caused by case hardening. One of the selected conditions in the optimal dehydration range, temperature
, air velocity 2m/see, and its measured humidity 38-41%, mathematical model of dehydration curve and dehydration rate equations were developed and the resulting kinetic models were X=6.94
and dx/dt = -2.39
A Study of the Diet-Pattern for Residents in Gwangju and Yeosu Area
Nam, Hyun-Keun ; Lee, Mi-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 61~65
The diets of Gwangju and Yeosu city residents, nutrition survey was carried out both 1979 and 1980 year. 1. Average intake of nutritional elements for an adult per day was 654.88 gr. 2. Average Calorie distribution of the nutritional elements per adult per day was 17.85% for protein, 79.35% for carbohydrate, and 2.81% for Fat in Gwangju; 22.22% for protein, 73.88% for carbohydrate and 3.91% for Fat in Yeosu. 3. The ratio of the animal protein to total protein consumed was 75.09% in average. The amount of ingested protein, animal protein and plant protein were 130.05gr., 97.65gr. and 32.39gr. respectively. 4. In aspect of Calorie, take-in calorie was 2749.38 cal. which was lower than the RDA (3000 cal.). 5. In aspect of the minerals(Fe, Ca), the intake of Ca was 608.47mg. in Gwangju, but 491.89mg. in Yeosu. The intake of Fe in Gwangju and Yeosu were 13.21mg. and 10.22mg. respectively. The RDA for Fe, Ca were 600mg. and 10mg. respectively. 6. The amount of intaked thiamine and riboflavin were 1.48mg. and 1.01mg. respectively. The RDA of thiamine and riboflavin were 1.5mg. and 1.8mg. respectively.
Affinity of Mercury to SH Compounds Compared by Using the Paper Chromatography
Kim, Young-Hee ; Lee, Man-Jeang ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 67~76
By using the paper chromatograph technique affinity of amino acids to the mercury was compared with that of sodium thiosulfate, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol(BAL) and inosinic acid. Among the amino acids of testment three acids (Cysteine, Cystine and Methionine) which posses sulfide or disulfide radical exhibited a spot which combined more apparently with the mercury than other amino acids. However, in the mixed solutions of thiosulfate, BAL or inosinic acid with those amino acid and mercury, the mercury was moved into thiosulfate, BAL or inosinic acid spot. It was clear from the results that affinity of sodiume thiosulfate, BAL and inosinic acid to the mercury is higher than that of amino acids.
A Study of Liver Lipid Accumulation, Free Amino Acid in Plasma and Liver on Rats Fed Wheat Flour Diet Supplemented With Lysine and Sesame
Lee, Myoung-Hi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 77~84
The effect of sesame of L-lysine HCI and sesame supplementing a wheat flour diet on growth, liver lilpid content, and on the free amino acid levels in the plasma and liver was studied in young male rats with an initial body weight of
. The free amino acids were analyzed by amino acid auto analyzer (JLC - 6HA, NO. 310). The results were as follows. The body weitht gain on L-lysine HCI and sesame supplemented diet was more than weight in the sesame added diet or wheat flour diet groups. Also the liver lipid contents of rats on a wheat flour diet supplemented with L-lysine HCI and sesame showed greater increases than the levels in rats on the wheat flour diets. The rate of liver lipid accumulation was depressed in rats fed L-lysine HCI supplemented wheat flour containing sesame than in rats fed soybean oil or shortening oil instead of sesame. The free phe. Tyr. Leu. Ileu. Val. Lys. levels in the plasma of rats administered the wheat flour diets supplemented with 0.25% L-lysine HCI were higher than those of rats without L-lysine HCI. The free phe. Tyr. Asp. His. Lys. contained in the liver were increased, but other free amino acids were decreased according to the L-lysine HCI amount.
Fractionation of the Cells of Staphylococcus aureus
Choi, Kyoung-Ho ; Hyun, Eun-Min ; Park, Kum-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 85~91
The growing cells of S. aureus were fractionated along the Schmidt-Thannhauser-Schneider's technique into several fractions such as TCA(trichloroacetic acid)-soluble, lipid, nucleic acid, protein and residue fraction. They were also fractionated according to their cellular structure into Sonic-supernatant, SDS(sodium lauryl sulfate)-soluble, Formamide-soluble and Residue fraction. Fractionation was carried out by orderly treatment of the Sonic pellet with 1.0% SDS and hot
formamide, and the pellet was prepared by centrifugation of the cells sonic osillated for 20 minutes at 150 watt. Sonic-supernatant fraction contained a 91.3% of total DNA while other fractions contained less than 9.5%. SDS-soluble fraction showed a high activity of malate dehydrogenase(13.67 unit/mg protein) and which was higher 22.3 times than the activity found from unsoluble fraction. Formamide-soluble fraction prepared from SDS-undoluble pellet by using the hot formamide exhibited a clear action of reducing sugars against the Anthronesulfate, while it exhibited no clear action against the ninhydrin. However, contrastly, the residue remainnning after extraction with formamide exhibited a clear action against ninhydrin and glucosamine was detected form the hydrolysate of residue by paper chromatography. From these results it is considered that the Sonic-supernatant fraction is mainly consisted of plasmic component of the cells. Other fractions, SDS-soluble, Formamide-soluble and Residue, should be consisted of plasma membrane, lipoplysaccharide and peptidoglycan of the cell, respectively.
Effects of catalysts on the Corn Sugar Molasses Caramel color properties
Ryu, Beoung-Ho ; Lee, Beoung-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 93~101
This study is designed to investigate the properties of caramel color made by corn sugar molasses, a new material. Com sugar refined and then caramelized in the solution of pH 2-10 ranges using catalysts such as ammonium carbonate, glycine and lysine. The control solution are 10% hydrochloric acid and sodium carbonate. The result were as follow; The caramelization showed the intensity of very strong color when added 0.4% ammonium carbonate as a catalyst. Color hue appeared to have the same color hue of the yellow belt and the red belt when compared with standard color hue in alkali, but the samples blue belt in all pH ranges showed a strong color hue than the standard color hue. Also, the stability of tannin, table salt and alcohol was transparent in all pH ranges, but the stability of acid appeared hazy at pH 9-10. In the case of glycine as a catalyst, caramelization showed the intensity of strong color when added 0.8% glycine at pH 9. Color hue showed in the yellow belt, strong in the red belt and very strong in the blue belt in all pH ranges when compared with standard color hue. Stability of tannin, table salt, acid alcohol was quite stable. In the case of lysine as a catalyst, caramelization showed strong color intensity when added 0.4% lysine in pH 9. Stability of tannin, table salt, acid and alcohol was quite stable.
Distribution of Cadmium in a Strain of Staphylococcus aureus Resistant Against the Metal
Hyun, Eun-Min ; Park, Chan-Seung ; Choi, Kyoung-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 103~106
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus resistant against cadmium was cultivated by using a liquid medium containing 10ppm cadmium ion, and then, it was fractionated into several fractions as described in the previous paper. Content of the metal in each fraction was determined through an atomic absorption spectrometery. The results are as follows; (1) A
cadmium was contained in one gram dry cell. (2) A 39.9% of total cadmium was easily extracted by TCA, however a 52.2% was unextractable even by series of extraction with TCA, ethanol-ehter, perchloric acid and ammonium water. (3) Among the fractions prepared along the cellular structure, plasma membrane fraction showed a highest content of the metal by containing a 59.1%. (4) The fraction of cytoplasm and cell wall contained a 26.8 and 14.1%, respectively. (5) More than 90% of the metal contained in the cell wall was detected from the fraction of lipopolysaccharide. It is considered from these results tht at least a 70% of the cadmium up taken by the resistant cell associates with membranous structure in the cell surface.
Determination of Inorganic Elements in Paddy Soils by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
Hwang, Jae-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 107~116
This experiment was attempted to establish the optimal condition, e.g., the effects of pH, interferences of other elements, for the determination of the inorganic elements in the paddy soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Inorganic elements of 100 paddy soils which were sampled in Jeon bug provincial farm land were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in that condition. The results obtained in this experiment are summarized as follows: 1) The optimal pH for determination of inorganic elements in paddy soils is about 7.0. 2) It was investigated that the absorbance of potassium was increased, and that of calcium, magnesium and zinc was decreased by adding of
in the sample. 3) It was shown that paddy soils in Jeonbug provincial farm land contain the normal amounts of inorganic elements (K, Ca, Mg, Zn,). But comparing to the results of 1976 year, it was known that the contents of inorganic elements in paddy soils considerably was changed.
The Effect of Gibberellin on the Content of Vitamin C during the Growth of Mung Bean Sprout
Ko, Mu-Suk ; Park, Bock-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 117~122
Mung bean sprout has been grown for 96 hours by soaking mung bean in such eight test divisions as Gibberellin 5-50ppm solution, well-water, and so on. Study on the charge of vitamin C an reducing sugar during its growth can be summarized as follows. 1. During the growth of mung bean sprout, the length and weight in the sample treated with Gibberellin 20ppm are highest of all Gibberellin divisions. 2. When mung bean sprout has grown for 24 hours, its vitamin C content reaches maximum in each sample. 3. There is little dehydro asscorbic acid in each sample during the growth period of 24-96 hours. 4. During the period of growth, the content of vitamin C in the sample treated with Gibberellin 5ppm are highest of all. 5. When mung bean sprout has been grown enough for cooking, in 48 hours, the content of vitamin C in the sample treated with Gibberellin 10ppm is highest but a significant difference is not recognized. 6. After 24 hours growth, vitamin C decreases but reducing sugar increases.
Study on Consumption and Nutrition of Marketing Fermented Milk
Rho, Sook-Nyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 10, issue 1, 1981, Pages 123~135
The purpose of this paper is investigation on the consumption and the nutrition of marketing fermented milk in Korea. The objectives were selected randomly from 3 cities in Jeonbug province, Jeonju, Iri, and Gunsan, and they were grouped into students, housewives, patients, and officers from July to September 1980. (male: 591, Female; 673, total: 1,264). Findings in detail are summarized in Table 1.15. Among the many kinds of marketing fermented milk in Korea, products from the five manufacturers, whose numbers of Lactic acid acid bacteria were standarized, were sampled and divided into groups, A,B,C,D,E. The constituents of nutrition of them were analyzed by HPLC and AAS.