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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 1993
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 1993
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 1993
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 1993
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 1993
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 1993
Selecting the target year
Effects of Dietary Protein and Calcium levels on Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mg Level of the Tissues of the Pb-administered Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 109~115
This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary protein and calcium levels on Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mg accumulation of the tissue of the Pb-administered rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to a 3
2 factorial design with 3 levels of protein (40%, 15%, 6%), 3 levels of Ca (1.2%, 0.6%, 0.12%) and 2 feeding periods (3 and 7 weeks). The control group was included separately. The rats were exposed to the drinking water containing 2,000ppm of lead. Calcium contents in serum, liver and femur were decreased with Pb administration. Calcium contents in serum and femur were reduced with dietary protein and Ca levels. Level of serum Fe showed no significant difference with Pb administration in the rats fed the high Ca diet. Iron content in liver was not affected by the lead when the rats fed the diet containing high protein and Ca. Level of serum Cu was lower in the Pb added groups than in the control group and tended to be reduced with decreasing dietary protein and Ca levels. Copper content in liver was not affected by the lead when the rats fed the high Ca diet. Level of serum Zn was decreased in the low protein-low Ca group. Magnesium content in serum was decreased with Pb administration when the rats fed the diet containing low protein and Ca. However, magnesium content in liver was reduced with Pb administration and affected only by dietary protein level.
The Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E on Activity of Enzyme Related to the Lipid Peroxidation in Rat with Alcohol Administration
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 116~126
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of seleniumc (Se) and vitamin E on activity of enzyme relevant to lipid peroxidation in alcohol administrated rats. Seventy two male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighing about 58~62g were divided into 12groups. The dietary Se levels were 0, 0.4 and 10mg and the dietary vitamin E levels were 0 and 150mg per kg diet, respectively. Alcohol-administrated groups received drinking water solution containing 10% of ethanol from the 3-weeks of experimental periods. The obtained experimental results are summarized as follow: The
-GTP activity in plasma was higher in alcohol administrated groups and high selenium group (HSe) and low selenium group (LSe) than in control groups (CSe). The
-GOT and GPT activities were higher in alcohol groups. The
-GTP activity was significantly influenced by alcohol in LSe groups than in other groups. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of plasma was significantly lower in LSe groups than HSe and CSe groups. The GSH-Px activity of microsomal and cytosolic fraction was slightly lower in alcohol groups and was about a half value lower in HSe and LSe groups than CSe groups. There was negative correlation between plasma Se level and GSH-Px activity of cytosolic fraction in HSe groups (r=- 0.662, p<0.001) and positive correlation in LSe groups (r=0.640, p<0.001). The GSH S-transferase activity in microsomal and cytosolic fraction was slightly higher in alcohol administrated but vitamin E nonadministrated groups, and significantly higher in LSe groups than in other groups. The catalase activity in mitochondria was lower in HSe than CSe groups, but rather higher in LSe groups. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in cytosolic fraction of liver was not found any effect in all groups. The cytochrome P-450 was higher in alcohol groups, but significantly lower in HSe groups. In conclusion, the deficiency of Se and vitamin E develops the hyperoxidation of liver lipid through the increase of activity of enzyme related to the lipid peroxidation and alcohol administration appears to further increase of hyperoxidation of liver lipid.
Effect of Dietary Protein on the Changes of Lipoprotein Fractions in Carbon Tetrachloride-Treated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 127~131
To evaluate an effect of dietary protein on lipoprotein profile serum of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats, carbon tetrachloride (50% in olive oil) was twice given at 0.1ml/100g body weight at intervals of 24hours to the male rats and then the degree of liver damage in carbon tetrachloride-treated animals fed a low protein diet was compared with that fed a high protein diet. The increasing rate of liver weight/body weight and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats to the control group were higher in rats fed high protein diet than those fed low protein diet. In the serum levels of lipid (total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride) remarkable differences were not found between low protein diet group and high protein diet group. But these serum lipids in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats were decreased and the decreasing rate of serum lipids to control group were higher in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats fed high protein diet than those fed low protein diet. Under the animal model as identified by the present data herein, serum pre
-lipoprotein fractions were decreased in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats, but the serum levels of
-lipoprotein were rather increased in the both group by the injection of carbon tetrachloride. Especially, the decreasing rate of
-lipoprotein fraction was higher in
-treated rats fed a high protein diet than those fed a low protein diet to its control group and the increasing rate of serum
-lipoprotein fraction was also higher in
-treated rats fed high protein diet than those fed low protein diet.
Effects of Ascorbate and
-Tocopherol Administration on Liver Function in Chronically Ethanol-Treated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 132~137
These studies were carried out to investigate the effects of ascorbate and
-tocopherol administration on the biochemical parameters of liver function and hydroperoxidation in liver of chronically ethanol-treated rats. Forty healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing about 120g were used for this experiment and divided into the following 5 groups: control group (CON), ethanol control group (ECON), ascorbate treated group (EASC),
-tocopherol treated group (ETOC) and ascorbate.
-tocopherol mixture treated group(EASC + ETOC). Ethanol was administered orally by 5ml per kg, body weight per day for 8weeks. Antioxidants treated groups were administered orally by 5mg per kg body weight per day in saline solution for 3 weeks. Lipid hydroperoxides were analyzed by using chemiluminescense-high performance liquid chromatography (CL-HPLC) method phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide value (PCOOH) in liver tissues. Ethanol treatment significantly (p<0.05) resulted in an increase in GPT and GOT activities and liver hydroperoxide values comparing with the untreated control, while administration of
-tocopherol and ascorbate+
-tocopherol to the chronically ethanol-treated rats significantly (p<0.001) decreased GPT and GOT activities and liver hydroperoxide value. These results indicate that dietary
-tocopherol combined with ascorbate administration may inhibit the formation of liver lipid hydroperoxidation in vivo and were very effective in recovering the liver function in chronically ethanol-treated rats.
Effects of Onion Juice on Toxicity of Lead in Rat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 138~143
In this study the onion juice (2%) in diet fed rats simultaneously ingested lead acetate 100mg/ kg (OP group) showed more increased weight gain than single lead treated rats (P group). The OP group had also improved in the hemoglobin contents and biochemical analyzed values of blood including GPT, blood urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase, which were elevated in case of P group rats. The Pb content in the rats liver of OP group was lower than in the rats liver of P group. In the histopathological findings of liver cell OP group rats did not show any signs of liver damage as observed in P group rats that had degenerated hepatocytes, followed sinusoidal dilatation, perivascular hemorrhage and some necrosis of hepatic cells accompanied by increased Kuffer cell bearing dark brown pigment. In conclusion 2% onion juice diet in rat have somewhat antidotic effects on the lead intoxicated rats.
The Effect of Lithospermi Radix on Benzo(a)pyrene-Induced Hepatotoxicity
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 144~148
The present study was undertaken to compare the pharmacological activities of crude Lithospermi radix reported with the clinical uses in the oriental medicine. Crude Lithospermi radix uesd for the treatment of burn, eczema, blister, diuretic, scarlet fever and septicemia as antipyretic, antidotic and antiphlogistics. Therefore we tested the effects of Lithospermi radix water extract on the liver-protective activities in the rats. The results obtained from enzyme assay, measurement of serum and liver alanine. aspartate aminotransferase(ALT, AST) and lipid composition indicated that Lithospermi radix water extract showed significant liver-protective activities against benzo(a)pyrene-induced hepatotoxicity.
A Study on Daily Energy Expenditure of Co-eds in a University
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 149~153
Daily energy expenditures (DEE) of 82 co-eds in a University were estimated simultaneously by use of calorie counter and 15-min check list diary for 3 days, including a weekend day. The results are summarized as follows. The mean values of DEE from 15-min check list diary and calorie counter were 1967kcal and 1649kcal, respectively. DEE obtained with 15-min check list diary seems to be consistent with the results made by others concerning DEE of college female in Korea, but DEE by calorie counter was lower than that. However, DEE by calorie counter show high correlations with anthropometric indices of subjects and DEE by 15-min check list diary. Therefore, DEE by 15-min check list diary was taken as standard and regression equation for predicting DEE of subjects were developed: DEE by 15-min check list diary =3.31186 + 1.18837
DEE by calorie counter. This technique for measuring DEE permits us to have more accurate estimate of DEE and acceptable to the subjects. When the subjects classified as underweight, normal, overweight according to relative body weight(RBW), DEE and DEE per kg of body weight were significantly different from each other between three groups based on RBW. The frequency of 15-minute periods with a categorical value of 1 was significantly higher in overweight than underweight and normal groups and the frequency of a categorical value 3 was significantly lower in overweight than underweight group. From the results shown above, physical activity level of overweight group was lower than that of normal and underweight groups.
The Strategic Plan of the Nutrition Education Intervention for Improving Nutritional Status and Reducing Nutrition-Related Diseases
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 154~160
The strategic plan of nutrition education intervention was established to improve nutritional status and reduce nutrition-related diseases for Korean adults. Nutritional problems and risk factors of the nutrition-related diseases were identified to set the long-term goal and objectives for the intervention. The social learning theory and theory of diffusion of innovation served as theoretical basis for this plan. Mass media and interpersonal channels were used to educate the whole adult population and specific target groups. The outline of the educational contents was developed for the whole adult population and slightly modified according to characteristics of the target groups. This plan can serve as a guideline for the operational plans for the future nutrition education intervention.
Contents of Nitrogen Fractions and the Degree of Whey Protein Denaturation in Market Milks
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 161~164
To find out the effective indicators for identification and classification of different heat treatment, the contents of nitrogen fractions and the degrees of whey protein denaturation in market milks were investigated by Kjeldahl method. The contents of nitrogen fractions per 100ml raw milk were total nitrogen (431.3mg), casein nitrogen (341.0mg) and non-casein nitrogen(90.3mg), in which non-protein nitrogen (31.6mg) and denatured whey protein nitrogen (58.8mg), while those of LTLT, HTST, UHT pasteurized and UHT sterilized showed different values. The degrees of whey protein denaturation were 26.7%(LTLT), 32.9%(HTST), 60.7%(UHT pasteurized) and 38.4%(UHT sterilized), respectively. As the higher temperature was applied for the treatment of milk, the degree of the whey protein denaturation was higher. Remarkable differences in the degree of whey protein denaturation according to the heating methods were observed.
Fermentation of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi Soaked with L. acidophilus and Cleaned Materials by Ozone
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 165~174
This work was conducted to study the use of L. acidophilus, which exists in humun intestine for the fermentation of Chinese cabbage kimchi. The changes in vitamins, the number of microflora and sensory quality were observed during fermentation after the microflora which was not related to kimchi fermentation was eliminated by treatment with ozone water or ozone gas. The growth rate of L. acidophilus in the cabbage juice was higher than that in MRS broth. The growth of L. acidophilus was slightly promoted by adding 1~2% hot pepper powder while that was inhibited by ginger and garlic. Therefore, it was shown that the regulation of fermentation was possible by addition of spices. The result of treating spice with ozone gas and ozone water 6mg/L/sec for 1 hour was that the survival ratio of total microflora was 6~20%. When L. acidophilus was added to materials after ozone treatment, the fermentation rate was improved and the polysaccharides in the cell wall were used when the usable free sugar was all consumed. The contents of vitamin B
and C in the ozone treated kimchi was higher than in the control.
Antimutagenic and Antioxidative Effects of Perilla Leaf Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 175~180
The methanol extracts of perilla leaves reduced the mutagenicities mediated by of aflatoxin B
), 3-amino-l-methyl-5H-pyrido (4,3-b) indole (Trp-P-2) and Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)p) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The methanol extracts were more fractionated, and the fractions of hexane and butanol revealed the antimutagenic activities against AFB
and B(a)p. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased when the methanol extracts of perilla leaves were added to the system. The significantly higher antioxidative activity was observed in the butanol fraction. 2-Propyl furan, ethanedioic acid, dibutyl ester, benzaldehyde, 2-methyl-2-ethyl-3-hydroxy-propanoic acid and octahydro-3a-methyl-2H-inden-2-one were identified tentatively as major compounds from the butanol fraction.
Flow Properties of Gelatinized Cowpea Flour Dispersion
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 181~185
The effects of concentrations (6~9%), heating temperatures (80, 85, 90 and 95
) and heating methods (continuous, method A and instantaneous, method B) on the flow properties of cowpea flour (air-dried sediment) at 6
were studied. The gelatinized cowpea flour dispersions by method B had higher values of yield stress and consistency index but lower value of flow behavior index compared to those values of method A. The log values of consistency index were positively correlated with the concentration and heating temperature for both methods. The rate of increase in the consistency index value by method B at the same concentration was greater in all heating temperatures than that by method A.
Quality Properties of Yu-kwa by the Frying Time of Soybean Oil
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 186~189
The effect of soybean oil on frying time and number of frying treatment on quality of Yu-kwa (Korean traditional rice cookie) were examined. As the frying time increased, acid value and POV were increased from 0.08 to 0.23 and 1.78, respectively. But the quality of Yu-kwa was not influenced by the frying time. And as the frying time increased, unsaturated fatty acid (oleic and linoleic acid) was decreased, while saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid) was increased. The color was drastically changed on frying oil which showed a dark brown color, but there was no difference in Yu-kwa. As the frying time increased, acceptability was decreased on sensory evaluation, but significant difference among samples tested within significant level 5 % was not revealed.
Changes in Chemical Components during the Maturation of Vitis vinifera Red Grapes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 190~195
In order to investigate the changes of some chemical components during the maturation of Vitis vinifera red grapes, brix, total sugar, organic acids, total acid, pH and free amino acids were analyzed by HPLC etc. Brix, pH and total sugar content during the maturation of red grapes were increased rapidly but total acidity was decreased between 12~14 days after the formation of sugars. Its compositions were 16.5~17.9 of brix, 14.8~16.4g/100ml of total sugar, 3.24~3.25 of pH and 0.81~0.92g/100ml of total acidity. The ratio of brix/acid was increased gradually during the maturation. Glucose and fructose were contained more than 99% of total sugar and the content of sucrose were 0.03~0.04g/100ml in three varieties (Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Malbec). The ratio of fructose/glucose in maturated three red grapes was ranged 1.04~1.06. Organic acids during the maturation, when sugars increased, were decreased rapidly and the ratio of tartaric/malic acid showed 0.83~1.00. Free amino acids during the maturation were increased and these content were 256.8mg~290.9mg/100ml in three varieties. The content of proline was the highest content of free amino acids in three red grapes, the next ones were arginine, alanine and glutamic acid in the other with 73.2~77.2% of total free amino acids. Especially, content of arginine was higher than others in Malbec variety.
Isolation and Identification of Volatile Compounds from Red Wine Manufactured with Vitis vinifera grapes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 196~201
In order to investigate some chemical components, higher alcohols, ethyl acetate and volatile compounds of Vitis vinifera red wines were analyzed by HPLC, GC and GC-MS. During the process of ripening for the content of wine and acids were much changed, particurally the content of tartaric acid was decreased largely. Content of total phenolics and phenol flavonoid in wines which manufactured with Malbec varieties as 470mg/L and 245mg/L respectively, was higher than those in Cabernet sauvignon (310mg/L, 135mg/L) and Cabernet franc (425mg/L, 125mg/L) wines, and nonflavonoid was higher in Cabernet franc wine(300mg/L) than in others. Content of acetaldehyde was higher in Malbec wine (33mg/L) than in Cabernet sauvignon (26mg/L) and Cabernet franc (28mg/L) wines. Amount of methyl alcohol, propanol and isoamyl alcohol were higher in Cabernet sauvignon wine than in others, and isobutanol was more in Malbec wine(64mg/L), ethyl acetate was more in Cabernet franc wine as 35mg/L than in Malbec(28mg/L) and in Cabernet sauvignon (23mg/L) wines. Volatile compounds were isolated about 87~91 varieties from concentrates of three red wines by GC, and thirty-five compounds including terpine-4-ol were identified by GC-MS.
Ginseng-Whey Beverage Production and Sensory Properties
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 202~207
Ginseng-whey beverages were prepared with rennet whey, ginseng extract, sweetener, honey and Japanese apricot, inoculated with different strains of lactic acid bacteria and unfermented partly. The samples were stored at 4
and the sensory evaluations were carried out at 1st, 3rd and 5th week. As a result of sensory test, unfermented ginseng-whey beverage (A) with sweetener and honey (storage at cold temp.) in overall eating quality obtained the best score (8.64~8.86) due to stronger sweetness and weaker sourness, bitterness, astringent taste and aftertaste. The fermented ginseng-whey beverage (C) which was stored at 4
with inoculation of Lac. acidophilus and Lac. delbrueckii sub-sp. bulgaricus and the unfermented samples stored at room temperature with sweetener, honey and Japanese apricot received a good evaluation. But, the fermented beverages (E, F) stored at room temperature obtained the lowest score (2.92~3.58).
Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Ginseng-Whey Beverages
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 208~214
Ginseng-whey beverages were prepared with rennet whey, ginseng, sweetener, honey and Japanese apricot, inoculated with different strains of lactic acid bacteria or unfermented partly. The samples were stored at 4
and then physicochemical and microbiological properties were investigated. The yield of whey was 78.8%. The pH-values reduced and acidities increased during the storage period. The contents of solid-substances, ash and lipid in ginseng-whey beverages were 7.90~8.20%, 0.62~0.66% and 0.16%, respectively. The protein contents of ginseng-whey beverages were 0.42~0.56% and the contents were not changed during the storage period. The lactose contents of fermented beverages were higher than those of unfermented beverages. During the storage period (1~5 weeks), the ranges of D(-) - and L(+)- lactic acid contents in fermented ginseng-whey beverages (17.3~156.1 mg/100g, 347.3~1894.2mg/100g) were higher than those of unfermented ginseng-whey beverages (6.2~82.8mg/100g, 7.1~885.5mg/100g). The contents of total saponin in unfermented sample and fermented sample (Lac. casei sub-sp. casei+Str. salivarius sub-sp. thermophilus) were increased during the storage period. But, those of the fermented sample(Lac. acidophilus+Lac. delbrueckii sub-sp. bulgaricus) were reduced. In the electrophoretic results of ginseng-whey beverages, an
-lactalbumin and a
-lactoglobulin bands were shown apparently and there were no changes observed during the storage period. During the storage period (1~3 week) the coliform was not detected and total plate counts and psychrotrophs were increased according to the storage period.
Thermal Koji Hydrolysis for Rapid Fermentation of Soy Sauce
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 215~221
This study aims to construct the conditions of thermal hydrolysis (40, 45, 5
) of koji for the purpose of rapid soy sauce fermentation. Koji hydrolysate was stable for fermentation, when koji hydrolyzed at 4
with 12% NaCl or at 45
with 8% NaCl. The highest extracted total nitrogen was 1.75%, when the salt level was 9% and at 45
. The amount of reducing sugar was 7.2% and that of formol nitrogen was 0.9% when NaCl concentration was 12% and at 45
. The viscosity of koji hydrolyzate was in good condition with 15% NaCl and at 45
until after 12days. On the other hands, free amino acid extracted from koji hydrolyzates showed the highest levels of 3268mg% at 45
. Free amino acids consisted of glutamic acid, leucine, arginine, aspartic acid, lysine, valine and phenylalanine which dominated 50% of total amino acids.
Prediction of Thermal Diffusivities of Pork Meat Products
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 222~225
To obtain a thermal diffusivity predicting equation for meat products, minced pork meat was mixed with some additives such as lard, isolated soybean protein, 1.5% of table salt and 2% of polyphosphate to control the composition and texture of the products and then stuffed in a model can. Heat penetration curves were measured in the temperature range of 80.76~121.03
by using a thermocouple fixed at the cold point of the model can and the thermal diffusivities were calculated from the plotted heat penetration curves. At constant heating temperature, the thermal diffusivities of pork meat with water content of 49.01~77.55% increased linearly with increasing water content. The thermal diffusivities of the products with constant water content also increased linearly with increasing heating temperature and the values could be predicted by following equation:
). The maximal difference of the values predicted with this equation on the basis of the practical measured values were less than 1.7%. 1.7%.
Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Food Proteins
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 226~233
Enzymatic hydrolysates of food proteins (defatted soybean cake, egg albumin and casein) were tested for inhibitory activity against angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE). Food proteins were hydrolysed with complex enzyme, bromelain, alcalase,
-chymotrypsin, trypsin, papain and pepsin by heating method. The hydrolysates obtained from the treatment of complex enzyme and bromelain showed the higher ACE inhibitory activity. ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysates exhibited a tendency to be increased until 8hrs and increased with increment of concentration. The activity was also stable by heat treatment at 10
for 20min. Molecular weight of active fraction was about 1, 400 and defatted soybean cake hydrolysate below 1, 400 in case of defatted soybean cake hydrolysate treated with alcalase. Amino acid of the active fractions was abundant in Asp, Glu, Lys, lle, Leu, Ala and Val.
Purification of Extracellular Enzyme Produced by Vibrio sp. AL-145
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 234~239
The alginate degrading bacteria have been screened from the marine environment. Sodium alginate and NaCl were required for cell growth and enzyme production of 145-C strain and the adequate concentrations were 0.7 and 2.5%, respectively. The effective nitrogen source was peptone and adequate temperature was 28
. The 145-C strain was identified as Vibrio sp. from biochemical and biological experiment. The extracellular enzyme produced by Vibrio sp. was purified and the molecular weight was estimated to be 27, 000.
Characteristics of the Extracellular Enzyme Produced by Vibrio sp. AL-145
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 240~245
The optimum pH and temperature for the purified extracellular enzyme activity were 8.0 and 37
, respectively. NaCl was required for the activation of the enzyme and optimum concentration was 0.5M. This enzyme activity was inhibited by HgC
and stimulated by CaC
. The activity of enzyme was increased by L-cysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol, but decreased by ο-phenanthroline,
-CMB, EDTA and iodoacetate. The
values of extracellular enzyme appeared as 0.717% and 15.39U/mg, respectively.y.
Antioxidative and Antimutagenic Characteristics of Melanoidin Related Products
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 2, 1993, Pages 246~252
Melanoidins, as brown colored polymers, are formed through the diversified reaction systems of Maillard type and other reactions. Melanoidins are important components in relation to food quality and also are known to have antioxidative, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities. Since these aspects have been extensively reviwed elsewhere, only the recent studies regarding to their antioxidative and antimutagenic activities are discussed in this review. Even though their mechanisms are not clearly identified, melanoidins or specific fractions isolated from their mixtures have shown varied antioxidative activities depending on the reaction systems and reaction conditions. Those activities presumely are derived from the complex functional properties of hydrogen / electron donors and metal chelating power, which are originated from their reductone structure and others. It is considered that pyrolysate and other mutagens are formed by the given conditions in some cases during browning reaction, whereas melanoidins and their fractions have antimutagenic effects on chemical and other mutagens. There are positive correlationship among the color intensity, antioxidative activity and antimutagenicity of melanoidins or their fractions. These suggest that the antimutagenicity of melanoidins could be attributed to their antioxidative properties, however, it might also be due to other factors, because the relevant responses for antimutagenicity are very complicate and not clear. Accordingly, further studies are required to determine the actual acitivities and mechanisms involved in antioxidation and (anti)mutagenicity of melanoidins by reaction systems / conditions and by the isolated fractions. And also, additional studies are needed to evaluate the applications of melanoidins and their relevant effects to food and human health.