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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 1993
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 1993
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 1993
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 1993
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 1993
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 1993
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Nutritional Evaluation of Tofu Containing Dried Soymilk Residue(DSR) 1. Evaluation of Protein Quality
Kweon, Mi-Na ; Ryu, Hong-Soo ; Moon, Jeung-Hye ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 255~261
The effect of dried soymilk residue (DSR) on protein quality of tofu was studied. The amount of added DSR into soybean water extract was corresponding 10% (dry basis) of soybean used in tofu manufacturing. Proximate composition and in vitro protein qualities of soybeans at different stages of the conversion into tofu have also been investigated. Partially substituted tofu with DSR (TDSR) had higher moisture content (80.6%) than that of tofu prepared in traditional manner (TT). TDSR contained lower content of protein (38.9%) and total lipid (26.9%) compared to 45.8% of protein and 34.3% of total lipid for TT. A large amount of trypsin inhibitor (TI) in raw soybeans was diminished and extracted through tofu processing, and only 10~13% of TI in raw soybean remained in both tofu products (TDSR and TT). There was not a considerable difference in amino acid profiles between TT and TDSR, but TDSR had a higher content of lysine than that in TT. in vitro studies showed that TDSR and TT were comparable in terms of both in vitro digestibilities (90% over for four-enzyme digestibility and predicted digestibility) and discriminant computed protein efficiency ratio (2.07~2.14, DC-PER). Unlike those in vitro indices for protein quality, computed protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of TDSR was much lower (1.4) than that of TT (1.95). It was revealed that C-PERs of tofu products were not in agreement with rat-PERs (1.7~1.9) in previous reports except for TT. However, DC-PER assay was more recommendable for protein quality of tofu products than C-PER assay.
Nutritional Evaluation of Tofu Containing Dried Soymilk Residue(DSR) 2. Evaluation of Carbohydrate Quality
Kweon, Mi-Na ; Ryu, Hong-Soo ; Mun, Sook-Im ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 262~265
Dietary fiber content and carbohydrate digestibility of dried soymilk residue (DSR) and tofu containing DSR were evaluated. Insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) content was 37.4 and 49.8% (%, moisture free basis) for common soymilk residue and DSR, respectively. Both soymilk residues contained 12.5% of soluble dietary fiber (SDF, dry basis). Tofu containing DSR, which is partially substituted with DSR corresponding to 10% weight of soybean used, had higher dietary fiber content (30% more for RDF and 45% more for SDF) than tofu manufactured in traditional manner. Carbohydrate digestibility was much lower in all tofu products ranging from 11% to 21%, and there was a negative correlation( r = -0.9243) between carbohydrate digestibility and total dietary fiber content.
Influence of Some Flavonoids on N-Nitrosoproline Formation in vitro and in vivo
Lee, Ji-Hyeon ; Park, Jae-Sue ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 266~272
Some compounds including flavonoids were tested as scavenger of nitrite which is believed to participate in the formation of N-nitroso compound. Many were found to be potent scavengers and the most potent ones were ascorbic arid, potassium thiocyanate, chlorogenic acid, catechin, morin, luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, and naringenin. To evaluate the influence of the above compounds on the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compound, the amount of nitrosoproline (NPRO) was examined by co-incubation of nitrite, proline, and test compounds at various concentrations. The analysis of NPRO by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was newly developed. Most compounds except ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid were found to be no effects or activatory effects on NPRO formation. From the results obtained, it was suggested that most flavonoids which are contained in our customary diets were not associated with the inhibition of NPRO formation.
Hydrolytic Patterns of 11S Globulin (Glycinin) by Soymilk-Clotting Enzymes I and II
Park, Yang-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 273~279
Hydrolytic patterns of 11S globulin (glycinin), storage protein of soybean, by soymilk-clotting enzymes Iand IIfrom Bacillus sp. K-295G-7, which was the first soymilk-clotting enzyme to be found in a bacteria, was investigated. The clotting time of about 4~5 min is revealed by the Enzymes Iand II(0.025 units at 35
) on the acidic subunit. In electrophoresis, acidic subunit (A
, M.W. 45,000) disappeared almost completely within 2 min and new products corresponding to the molecular weight of 16,000 and 20,000 were formed by the action of Enzymes I and II. Furthermore, Enzyme II produced a degradation compound having a molecular weight of about 30,000. In contrast, the hydrolytic patterns of basic subunit (M.W. 20,000) by Enzymes I and II were similar, but Enzyme II produced low molecular weight products slower than that of Enzyme I.
Inhibition of Lipoxygenase Activity by the Extract of Various Processed Garlic - Inhibitory Effect of Garlic Extracts on Soybean Lipoxygenase Activity -
Kim, Mee-Ree ; Mo, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Seong-Hee ; Sok, Dai-Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 280~285
The bioactivity of garlic extract was evaluated, based on the inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase. While the inhibition of lipoxygenase by the chloroform extract (1
value after 10min precirculation, 55mg/
) of garlic homogenate shows the property as irreversible inhibitors, the aqueous extract (1
) appeared to contain mainly reversible inhibitors. In the related study, diallyldislufide and dimethyldisulfide inhibited the enzyme with 1
value of 1.3mM and 18mM, respectively. These disulfides demonstrated both irreversible and reversible patterns of inhibition. In addition, synthetic alliin(allylcysteine sulfoxide) was found to inhibit the enzyme at high concentration (approximately 22%, at 10mM), and its decomposition products showed the irreversible property in the inhibition, in contrast to S-ethyl cysteine sulfoxide which expressed no significant inhibition. Thus, it is suggested that the garlic macerate contains both irreversible and reversible sulfur inhibitors.itors.
Changes in the Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipid in the Dried and Salted Mullet Roe during Processing and Storaging
Joe, Sang-June ; Jo, Jung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 286~290
Mullet roe was salted and dried by the conventional processing method. Mullet roe was first salted with soybean sauce containing 10% NaCl and then pressed down to be a 1.2cm of thickness. It was dried at 2
under 3m/sec of aeration for 20 days. The lipids of the processed roe were fractionated by free and bound phospholipids. The contents of free and bound phospholipids were 9.30mg/100mg and 13.0mg/100mg respectively. The content of bound lipids were rapidly decreased than that of free fatty acids during processing and storaging. The major fatty acids of phospholipids were
whose contents were 6.64mg/100mg that occupied 72% of the total phospholipids. The ratio for the unsaturated fatty acids to the saturated ones of free phospholipids in fresh roe was 1.53 and it was decreased down to 0.34 in 9 weeks of storage. But the ratio of bound phospholipids was 1.04 of fresh roe and zero in 6 weeks. The content of essential fatty acids in bound phospholipids was 3.85mg/100mg occupying 75% of total essential fatty acids of the fresh roe, but they were totally destroyed during processing.g.g.g.
Fatty Acid Compositions of Three Species of Marine Invertebrates
Jeong, Bo-Young ; Moon, Soo-Kyung ; Jeong, Woo-Geon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 291~299
The lipid components of the gonad of sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, ark shell Scapharca bro-ughtonii and "Gaebul" (Korea name, a worm) Urechis unicinctus were investigated. The total lipid (TL) contents of the sea urchin, the ark shell and the "Gaebul" were 6.10, 0.67 and 0.79%, respectively. The percentages of phospholipid (PL) in TL were higher in the "Gaebul"(72.4%) and ark shell(64.9%) compared to the sea urchin (41.7%). The major lipid classes of PL were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and the former was rich in the sea urchin (56.2%) and the latter in the "Gaebul"(34.4%). In the class of non-polar lipid (NL), the major lipid classes were different from species ; the sea urchin was rich in triglyceride(TG, 89.0%), the ark shell rich in TG (69.2%) and cholesterol (ST 26.8%) and the "Gaebul"rich in ST (70.7%). The prominent fatty acids of the sea urchin were 16 : 0, 14 : 0, 20 : 5n-3, 20 : 4n-6 and 20 : 4n-6 and 20 : 2NMID(non-methylene interupted dien). The percentage of 20 : 4n-6 was the highest of the investigated invertebrates, accounting for 19.8% in PL, but 22 : 6n-3 was not detected in the sea urchin. In case of the ark shell, the prominent fatty acids were 16 : 0, 18 : 0, 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and 22 : 2NMID, especially 22 : 6n-3(9.58%) was richer compared to that of the "Gaebul". The prominent fatty acids of the "Gaebul"were 20 : 5n-3, 16 : 0, 18 : 0 20 : 1n-9, 16 : 1n-7 and 14 : 0. The percentage of 20 : 5n-3 (22.0%) was highest in the PL of the "Gaebul"among the three invertebrates. These differences in the lipid components of all the sample is considered to be due to the different food habits and environmental condition of the invertebrates.
Role for Volatile Branched-Chain and Other Fatty Acids in Species-Related Red Meat Flavors
Jeong-Ok Kim ; Yeong L. Ha ; Robert. C. Lindsay ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 300~306
Speries-related meat flavors were investigated for red meats (bovine, porcine, caprine, and ovine). Volatile branched-chain fatty acids (VBCFAs) including 2-methylbutanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, 4-methylpentanoic, 2-ethylhexanoic, 4-methylhexanoic, 4-methyloctanoic, 6-methyloctanoic, 4-ethyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic, and 2-ethyldecanoic acids were identified in the meats from cow (bovine), pig (porcine), goats (caprine ; American white goat and Korean black goat), and lamb (ovine). Beef flavor of bovine meat was characterized by the basic meaty flavor, lacking in goaty and muttony flavor impacts due to low or absent in 4-methyl.octanoic and 4-ethyloctanoic acids. Porcine meat contained the least number of VBCFAs among sample species tested, and 3-methylbutanoic acid contributed to the unclean sweaty odor of pork. Caprine meat from Korean black and American white goats lacked in short VBCFAs (C5, C6, and C7) and contained 4-methyloctanoic and 4-ethyloctanoic acids contributing to the characteristic goaty flavor of caprine meat. Caprine meat flavor was distinctively characterized by 4-ethyloctanoic acid, while 4-methyloctanoic acid provides sweaty-muttony flavor to ovine meat. Although kinds of VBCFAs are same in two different varieties of caprine meats, meat sample from Korean black goat had stronger goaty odor and contained higher concentration of 4-ethyloctanoic acid than the meat sample from American white goat did.
Antimutagenic Effects and Compounds Identified from Hexane Fraction of Persimmon Leaves
Moon, Suk-Hee ; Kim, Jeong-Ok ; Rhee, Sook-Hee ; Park, Kun-Young ; Kim, Kwang-Hyuk ; Rhew, Tae-Hyong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 307~312
Methanol extract of dried persimmon leaves was fractionated to hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous tractions. Hexane, butanol, and aqueous fractions had high yields of extracts. Hexane fraction among these fractions showed the highest inhibition rate on the mutagenicities of aflatoxin (AFB
), dimethyl-amino-bi-phenyl (DMAB), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) in Salmonella typhimurium TA100. Hexane fraction was further fractionated into eight fractions by silica gel column c-hromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The fraction 5 on TLC exhibited the highest antimutagenic activity on AFB
, DMAB, and MNNC. 1'-oxocannabinol, 3B-acetoxy-17-methyl-5a-18 (13-17) abeoardrost-13-one, 4-methoxy-2'6'-dinitro-3, 5-di-t-butylbiphenyl, 8, 9-dihydro-5, 6-dimethoxy-dibenz ［c, h］isoquino ［2, 1, 8-1 ma］carbazole-11, 16-dione were tentatively identified from this antimutagenic fraction by GC-MS.
The Structures of Two Diosgenin Glycosides Isolated from the Subterranean Parts of Allium fistuiosum
Jung, Keun-Young ; Do, Jae-Chul ; Son, Kun-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 313~316
The structures of dioscin(1) and saponin P-d(2), isolated from the subterranean part of Allium fistulosum, were determined as diosgenin 3-O-
-D-glucopyranoside (1, ) and diosgenin 3-O-
-D-glucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic and chemical degradational methods. The prosa-pogenin(4), which was provided on partial hydrolysis of 2, was not reported in previous literature.
Mass Transfer during Salting and Desalting Processes of Chinese Cabbage
Kim, Dong-Kwan ; Kim, Myung-Hwan ; Kim, Byung-Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 317~322
The diffusion phenomena of water, solid and reducing sugar in Chinese cabbage during salting (5
, 25% salt solution) and desalting (5
, distilled water) were investigated. Water loss and solid gain during salting were rapid in the first 6hrs and then almost leveled off. After 24hrs of salting, water loss and solid gain in 100g of initial wet Chinese cabbage were 33.35g and 6.26g respectively. Moisture content was changed from 94.29% to 83.11% during 24hrs of salting. The reducing sugar concentration was also changed from 29.2 mg/
, which was linearized as a function of the square root of salting time and showing that Y=30.1841-5.0269√t. After 24hrs salting, water gain and solid loss during desalting were rapid in the first 4hrs and then increased linearly. After 12hrs of desalting, the water gain and solid loss in 100g of initial wet Chinese cabbage were 20.82g and 9.14g respectively. The amount of solid loss after 12hrs desalting was higher than that of solid gain after 24hrs salting due to the diffusion of solute presented initially in the Chinese cabbage during salting and desalting. The concentration of salt in Chinese cabbage after 12hrs desalting was 2.98% which was a suitable salt concentration for the preparation of Kimchi. At this time, the concentration of reducing sugar was only 1.6mg/
. The linear regression equation of reducing sugar concentration during desalting was Y=6.7854-1.5992√t.
The Thermotropic Phase Behaviors of Artificial Phospholipid Liposomes Incorporated with Soyasaponin
Kim, Nam-Hong ; Roh, Sung-Bae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 323~327
The effect of soyasaponin on the liposomal phospholipid membrane was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Soyasaponins were obtained and the enthalpy changes and the sizes of cooperative unit of the transition were calculated. The thermograms of L-
-dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) incorporated with soyasaponin showed that the phase transition temperature was significantly lowered and the peak was broadened. This was attributed to the possibility that incorporation of soyasaponin into the lipid bilayers reduced the cooperative unit of phospholipid bilayers. These results indicate soyasaponin might have significant effect on the fluidity of biological membrane.
Physical and Functional Properties of Several Extrusion-Texturized Oilseed Protein Products Containing Beef Muscle
Kim, Byong-Ki ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 328~333
The effect of defatted and dehydrated beef muscle on the physical properties of thermoplastically extruded defatted soybean, cottonseed, peanut and sunflower seed flours were investigated. To minimize the adverse effect of meat fat and to increase the mixing efficiency of the meat with defatted oilseed flours at a given moisture level, beef muscle was extracted with chloroform-ethanol(2 : 1) at 2
and air dried. The variety of oilseed flours used had greater effects on color, expansion, bulk density, water absorption rate and textural strength of the extrudate than did the added level of defatted, dehydrated beef muscle (0 to 20% on a dry weight basis).
Effect of Selected Persimmon Leaf Components against Sarcoma 180 Induced Tumor in Mice
Kim, Byeong-Gee ; Rhew, Tae-Hyong ; Choe, Eun-Sang ; Chung, Hae-Young ; Park, Kun-Young ; Rhee, Sook-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 334~339
Antitumor activities of tannin extract and chloroform fraction extract from the persimmon leaves, and 2, 4-decadienal identified as an antimutagenic compound in persimmon leaves were examined in sarcoma 180 implanted tumor in mice by using both light and transmission electron microscopes. Among them, tannin extracted from the persimmon leaves delayed the progression of malignant tumor but the other two did not show any noticeable effect. The antitumorigenic activity of tannin extract might not come from the selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells, but might be, in an anaerobic environment, from the inhibitory action against oncogenic protein synthesis or from the proteolysis of the preformed oncogenic proteins by autophagocytic granules. therefore, the tannin from persimmon leaves might protect cells from fast progression of malignant tumorigensis.
Cross-Synergistic Interactions between Trichoderma viride and Penicillium funiculosum Cellulase
Hong, Jeong-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 340~348
Cross-synergistic interactions were evaluated with purified enzymes from Trichoderma viride and Penicillium funiculosum cellulase. Different synergistic patterns between enzyme components were observed. Exo-exo type synergism was found to be the most effective for degrading Avicel in all cases. Exo-endo type synergism was found to be slightly less effective. Extended hydrolysis of Avicel was carried out using mixtures of purified enzyme components with the crude cellulase from a different source. Addition of
-glucosidase from P. funiculosum cellulase to T. viride cellulase provided the great enhancement of Avicel hydrolysis. In addition, exoglucanase from T. viride cellulase was found to enhance P. funiculosum cellulase in degradation of Avicel. In conclusion, it was possible to enhance the hydrolysis of Avicel by altering the proportions of enzyme components by supplementing enzyme components from a different source. Different types of synergisms acted together to achieve maximum conversion.
Nonheme Iron Absorption and Dietary Factors
Kim, Yun-Ji ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 349~358
Iron deficiency is still a common nutritional disorder in the world. In developing countries, the bioavailability of dietary iron is often very low, mainly due to a low content of factors facilitating nonheme iron absorption. The iron content of the diet, iron status of subjects, and the actual composition of the diet are the major factors that influence the absorption of food iron. Inadequate dietary intake of iron often results from low-calorie diets, food restrictions, or single food diets. Ascorbic acid and MFP (meat, fish and poultry) are the quantitatively most important enhancers of nonheme iron absorption found in the diet. Ascorbic acid and meat have consistently been shown to enhance iron bioavailability. Major inhibitors of nonheme iron absorption are dietary fiber, phytate, and polyphenols. The availability of nonheme iron can be highly influenced by components of foods ingested concomitantly, Therefore, consumption of food in combinations can either enhance or inhibit nonheme iron absorption.
Biology and Health Aspects of Molds in Foods and the Environment
Bullerman, Lloyd-B. ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 3, 1993, Pages 359~366
Molds are eucaryotic, multicellular, multinucleate, filamentous organisms that reproduce by forming asexual and sexual spores. The spores are readily spread through the air and because they are very light-weight and tend to behave like dust particles, they are easily disseminated on air currents. Molds therefore are ubiquitous organisms that are found everywhere, throughout the environment. The natural habitat of most molds is the soil where they grow on and break down decaying vegetable matter. Thus, where there is decaying organic matter in an area, there are often high numbers of mold spores in the atmosphere of the environment. Molds are common contaminants of plant materials, including grains and seeds, and therefore readily contaminate human foods and animal feeds. Molds can tolerate relatively harsh environments and adapt to more severe stresses than most microorganisms. They require less available moisture for growth than bacteria and yeasts and can grow on substrates containing concentrations of sugar or salt that bacteria can not tolerate. Most molds are highly aerobic, requiring oxygen for growth. Molds grow over a wide temperature range, but few can grow at extremely high temperatures. Molds have simple nutritional requirements, requiring primarily a source of carbon and simple organic nitrogen. Because of this, molds can grow on many foods and feed materials and cause spoilage and deterioration. Some molds ran produce toxic substances known as mycotoxins, which are toxic to humans and animals. Mold growth in foods can be controlled by manipulating factors such as atmosphere, moisture content, water activity, relative humidity and temperature. The presence of other microorganisms tends to restrict mold growth, especially if conditions are favorable for growth of bacteria or yeasts. Certain chemicals in the substrate may also inhibit mold growth. These may be naturally occurring or added for the purpose of preservation. Only a relatively few of the approximately 100,000 different species of fungi are involved in the deterioration of food and agricultural commodities and production of mycotoxins. Deteriorative and toxic mold species are found primarily in the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Trichothecium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor and Cladosporium. While many molds can be observed as surface growth on foods, they also often occur as internal contaminants of nuts, seeds and grains. Mold deterioration of foods and agricultural commodities is a serious problem world-wide. However, molds also pose hazards to human and animal health in the form of mycotoxins, as infectious agents and as respiratory irritants and allergens. Thus, molds are involved in a number of human and animal diseases with serious implication for health.