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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 1993
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 1993
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 1993
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 1993
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 1993
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 1993
Selecting the target year
A Study on Energy Expenditure in Korean Adolescent Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 367~373
A 4-week energy balance study was conducted to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) of 7 high school age girl, 15 to 16 year age, by measurement of energy intakes and changes in body energy (BE) content (intake/balance technique), keeping their normal living pattern and eating behavior. Gross energy intake (GE) and fecal energy (FE) loss was measured by bomb calorimetry. Urinary energy (UE) loss was calculated from nitrogen excreted. Fat mass (FM) was determined from body density estimated from skinfold thickness. Mean constitutional ratio of carbohydrate, protein and fat for the total energy intake was 70.1
0.7% and 17.7
2.0%, respectively, Fecal energy loss was 2.8% proportion of the gross energy intake. Mean daily metabolizable energy estimated by subtract fecal and urinary energy loss was 2022
50㎉. Total body energy change estimated from body composition change over 28days was increased 2400
950㎉ . Mean daily energy expenditure was 1958
2㎉ /kg of body weight).
Effect of Green Tea on the Anti-Duodenal Ulcer in Cysteamine- Administrated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 374~380
Effect of green tea extract, on duodenal ulceration was studied in male Sprague Dawley rats treated with cysteamine, a drug, which causes duodenal ulcers in experimental animal. As a result, in the proximal duodenum, a significant decrease of ulceration was detected twenty four hours after cysteamine injection in rats raised in green tea extract for 63days. Special reference to duodenal alkaline phosphatase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates. In control rats raised in tap water Riven saline, significant decrease was observed in proximal duodenal alkaline phosphataes activity. The decrease effect seems site specific, since the enzyme in the distal duodenum remains. Moreover the effect cysteamine in control rats alkaline phosphatase is specific, because, in rats raised in green tea extracts did not show significant change in activity. It is suggested that green tea extract acts in ideal properties as an anti-duodenal ulcer agent.
EHen of Flavonoid(+)-Catechin as Stabilizer in Rat Fed Fresh and Peroxidized Fish Oil
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 381~391
To evaluate the antioxidizing effect of flavonoid on fish oil and peroxidized fish oil, rats were fed with diets containing 5% corn oil (CO), 5% corn oil and 15% fresh fish oil (FO) or peroxidixed fish oil (PFO) for 4weeks. An half of FO and PFO group rats were injected with 10mg flavonoid (+)-catechin (a day per kg body weight) (FO-C and PFO-C). FO and FO-C group rats showed higher increase in body weight as compared to PFO, PFO-C group rats. Whereas, the opposite result was obtained in case of liver weight increase. In addition, catechin apparently reduced liver weight by 12~17%. Phospholipid, cholesterol, triglyceride and lipid peroxide content in serum and cholesterol, lipid peroxide content in liver and adipose tissue of PFO, PFO-C group rats were significantly higher than those of FO, FO-C one. These results suggested that catechin reduced the synthesis of lipid and protected effectively against lipid peroxidation. In fatty acids profile of neutral lipid and phospholipid, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) versus saturated fatty acids (SFA) in PFO, PFO-C were lower than that of FO or FO-C because of ruduced PUFA. Contrary to our expectation, the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in rat liver of FO and FO-C group were lower than those of PFO and PFO-C group. These results were quite interesting and might be explained in terms of homeostasis. In case of total lipid in liver,
fatty acids were decreased in rat fed peroxidized fish oil. In conclusion, catechin was considered to be an antioxidative and hepatoprotective drug and hypolipidemic agent.
Protective Effect of Oenanthe javanica Extract on the Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 392~397
The present work was undertaken to investigate the protective mechanism of Oenanthe iavanicu n-butanol extract on the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. It was observed that a striking enhancement of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic lipid peroxide content after carbon tetrachloride administration were markedly decreased by the presentment of Oenanthe javanica extract for 5 days. It was also observed that the hepatic aniline hydroxylase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase activity and glutathione content were not changed by the injection of Oenanthe javanica extract for 5 days. Whereas, hepatic xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited by the treatment of Oenanthe javanica extract for 5 days. After treatment with Oenanthe javanica extract, xanthine oxidase activity was decreased with dose and time-dependent manner as compared to control group. However, hepatic xanthine oxidase activity was not affected by the addition of Oenanthe javanica extract in vitro. These results suggest that the inhibition of hepatic xanthine oxidase activity by the injection of Oenanthe javanica extract is believed to be a possible protective mechanism for the carbon tetrachloride-indured hepatotoxicity in mice.
The Anticarcinogenic Effect of Garlic Juice against DMBA Induced Carcinoma on the Hamster Buccal Pouch
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 398~404
In order to examine the anticarcinogenic effects of garlic juice on the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis induced by 9, 10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA) totally 135 hamster.0.5% DMBA in mineral oil were painted onto the hamster buccal pouch three times a week on 50th, 70th and 90th day, while normal saline, 1% and 3% garlic juice were forced to oral tube feeding. Tumor cell induction could be seen on 50th experimental day, presumed to early carcinogenic inductive stage. And the tumor cells proliferated rapidly thereafter, so 70th and 90th experimental day were chosen for the comparison of anticarcinogenic effect of garlic juice. The every specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for routine histopathological observation and also fixed in Carnoy's solution for the BrdU immunohistochemital detection of S-stage tumor cell distribution during the carcinogenesis. There showed more or less increased anticarcinogenic effect of garlic juice against DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinoma, increased comparing to the control group showing invasive tumor growth after all histopathologically, BrdU immunoreactivity on normal pouch mucosa epithelium, representing the mitotic status, more decreased in the garlic juice feeding group than the control group. Meanwhile the neoplastic epithelium of all experimental groups showed much increased BrdU immunostaining irregularly.
Effects of Phytol and Small Water Dropwort Extract on the T Subset in the Sarcoma 180-Transplanted Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 405~411
Several studies have shown that phytol isolated from perilla leaf and small water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica (BL) D.C., wild type) extract reveal antirumor activities. In the present study we investigated the effect of phytol and the small water dropwort extract on the T subset in the sarcoma 180-transplanted mice in order to elucidate the immunological mechanism of antiturmor activity of these substances. The results obtained from the experiment were as follows : When phytol was injected into the sarcoma-180 transplanted mice (control), the levels of T cell and T subset by inoculation of the tumor cells were enhanced, but that of T cells in case of small water dropwort extract was similar to the control. Asialo GM1
cells were increased when phytol or small water dropwort extract with injected into tumor-transplanted mice. In normal mice the number of asialo GM1
cells increased with phytol injection and decreased with small water dropwort extract injection. L3T4
cell ratios were decreased when phytol was injected into tumor-transplanted mire, but increased in case of small water dropwort extract injection. In normal mice the ratios showed large decreases with phytol or small water dropwort extract injection. These results indicate that phytol or small water dropwort extract ran activate the proliferation of natural killer cells that are effector cells in tumor-bearing mice.
Effect of Old Antler Extracts on the Benzo(a)pyrene-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 412~417
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of old antler extracts on the hepatic detoxifying enzyme activities of the benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-induced rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed either AIN-76 diet or modified AIN-76 diet with old antler extracts (Water-ext, Neutral-ext, Ether-ext) four weeks. B(a)P treatment significantly decreased growth performance of rats. But this decrement was prevented by supplementation of old antler extracts. B(a)P treatment elevated glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of rats, but this increment was reduced by old antler extracts supplementation. There was a tendency of lower cytochrome P-450 contents in B(a)P treated rats. However administration of old antler extracts increased this enzyme activity. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels were not affected by the old antler extracts administration. Lipid peroxide (LPO) levels were higher in the B(a)P treatment than in the control group and lower by old antler extracts supplementation. Present data showed that old antler extracts influenced on B(a)P-treated rats, and also the degree of antihepatotoxic effect was greater in water extract supplemented rats.
Inhibitory Effect of Condensed Tannins Isolated from Korean Green Tea against Xanthine Oxidase
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 418~422
For the purpose of utilizing tannins in the functional foods and crude drugs the xanthine oxidase inhibition of tannins isolated from Korean green tea was determined. Acetone extract from Korean green tea showed inhibitory effect against the xanthine oxidase. The galloyl tannins showed higher inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase than the nongalloyl tannins. In terms of stereo isomers, (-)-epicatechins had higher inhibitory activity than the (+)-catechins. The synergistic activity was also observed. Tannins isolated from Korean green tea appeared to be incompetitive inhibitor against the xanthine oxidase.
A Study on Sensory Characteristics of Soybean Jeolpyon Differing in Soybean Content
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 423~427
Various kinds of jeolpyon (cubed rice cake) differing in soybean content were prepared. By the sensory and instrumental analysis, it seemed that addition of soybean powder for jeolpyon should be less than 5%. Jeolpyon with 5% soybean powder was not significantly different from the control.
Studies on the Juice Manufacturing Properties of Various Tomato Varieties
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 428~432
For the elucidation of some informations on juice manufacturing properties of tomato, physical, chemical and sensory characteristic were analyzed for two groups of cultivation pattern-nonproped cultivation (5 varieties) and proped cultivation (4 varieties). The proped cultivation showed higher sugar content of juice than the nonproped on. Among the proped Jeokpung and Master 2 showed high value of sugar content. The lowest value of sugar content was observed in 79078
ARC of the nonproped. There was no difference in acidity between cultivation groups but high value was observed in TM103, Jinhong from the nonproped and Jeokpung from the proped. There was no difference in pH between tomoto juice. High content of vitamin C was observed in 79078
CL1561 from the nonproped and 76Moll-3-2-2 from the proped. High viscosity was observed in 79078
CL1561 from the nonproped and Horgju from the proped. The nonproped showed greater value in dominant wavelength than the proped. Good Hope showed the greatest value in dominant wavelength, color score of panel test and yield. It was found that Good Hope from the nonproped and Jeokpung from the proped were suitable for juice processing. But better quality of juice can be possibly made by using various varieties rather than using single variety because each variety has each goodness of juice preparation separately.
Quality Changes of Kochuiang with Different Mixing Ratio of Raw Starch Materials during Aging
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 433~436
To evaluate the quality of Kochujang with starch syrup (SS), mixture of wheat flour (WF) and SS were used as a source of starch. Moisture content was no great difference between samples and was slowly increased during aging. pH of Kochujang was slowly decreased and that of C group (using mixture of WF 50% and SS 50%) was the lowest in 50days. Titrable acidity was increased at initial stage, but mostly decreased about 40~50 days. The content of reducing sugar was increased till 25days. The content of amino nitrogen was increased till 60 days and sample with more WF was showed high value.
Effects of Cow에s Milk Addition on the Quality of Soybean Curd
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 437~442
Soybean curds were made from the mixture of soybean milk and cow's milk (raw milk) at the ratio of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50% (v/v), and then the general composition and mineral content, pH, yield, firmness by sensory evaluation and amino acid composition were investigated. As cow's milk addition increased, total sugar crude fat, crude protein, ash content, firmness, weight and volume of the soybean curd were increased. Whereas moisture content decreased,
, and Na
were increased, but
decreased. In sensory evaluation, color (white), firmness, flavor, and taste were higher than those of control as cow's milk increased. By adding cow's milk at the ratio of 10, 20, 30, 40%, and 50%, sulfur containing amino acid content such as methionine and cystine were enriched 1.31, 1.58, 1.67, 1.85, and 1.95 times, respectively.
Effects of Dehydration Methods on Physical Properties of Reconstituted Instant Rice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 443~447
The physical properties of reconstituted instant rice produced by three different dehydration methods were evaluated. The rehydration ratios of reconstituted instant rice produced by air dehydration at 9
(process A) had higher values than those produced by freeze dehydration (process C) during entire range of rehydration. After 4min of rehydration time at 95
, the moisture contents of reconstituted instant rice produced by process A and C were higher values than those of control(151.47%, dry basis) which was cooked by electric cooker. Regardless of dehydration method, the sizes of reconstituted instant rice (6min, 95
) had larger values than those of control. The values of hardness (H), stickiness (S) and S/H ratio of reconstituted instant rice (6min, 95
) produced by high temperature (7min, 15
) air dehydration (process B) as the first stage prior to air dehydration at 9
were almost the same as those of control. The H of reconstituted instant rice decreased, while S and S/H ratio increased with increasing rehydration time. The higher values of whiteness(L) and lower values of yellowness (b) represented in reconstituted instant rice (6min, 95
) than those of control.
Trypsins from the Dark Fleshed Fish(Anchovy, Mackerel, Yellowfin Tuna and Albacore) 1. Purification and Optimal Reaction Conditions
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 448~457
Deterioration of fish muscle is known to occur more quickly in the dark fleshed fish than in the white fleshed fish, causing by their high intestinal proteolytic activity. Muscle degradation which suffer post-mortem autoproteolysis is affected by trypsin with its unique activation function towards other enzymes. To compare physicochemical and enzymatic properties for the trypsins of the dark fleshed fish, trypsins from the viscera of anchovy (Engraulis japonica), and the pyloric caeca of mackerel (Scomber japonicus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores) and albacore (Thunnus alalunga) were purified through ammonium sulfate fractionation, benzamidine-Sepharose 6B, DEAE-Sephadex A-50, and Sephadex G-75 chromatography Two trypsins from mackerel (designated mackerel trypsin A and mackerel trypsin B), and one each from anchovy, yellowfin tuna and albacore were isolated as electrophoretical homogeneity, The purities of anchovy trypsin, mackerel trypsin A and B, yellowfin tuna trypsin, and albacore trypsin increased to 78.1, 4.8, 9.3, 120, and 160-fold, respectively, compared to crude enzyme solutions. Molecular weights of the trypsins from the dark fleshed fish estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis were ranged from 22kDa to 26kDa. The trypsins contained higher amount of glycine, serine and aspartic acid, and less amount of tryptophan, methionine, lysine and tyrosine. Optimal conditions for amidotici reactions of the enzymes were pH 8.0 and 45
for anchovy trypsin, pH 8.0 and 5
for mackerel trypsin A and B, pH 9.0 and 55
for yellowfin tuna trypsin, and pH 9.0 and 5
for albacore trypsin. It was supposed that the habitat temperature of the dark fleshed fish is slightly connected with the optimal reaction temperature of the trypsins of the fish.
Trypsins from the Dark Fleshed Fish(Anchovy, Mackerel, Yellowfin Tuna and Albacore) 2. Enzymatic Properties and Thermal Stabilities
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 458~464
In the present paper enzymatic properties of the trypsins from the four dark fleshed fish were compared with each other and thermal stabilities of the enzymes were also investigated. The trypsins from the dark fleshed fish showed their activity only in BA-p-NA substrate of the amide substrates such as BA-p-NA and SP-p-NA, and BAEE and TAME of the ester substrate such as ATEE, BAEE, BTEE, and TAME. The enzymes were strongly inhibited by the serine protease inhibitors such as antipain, leupeptin, TLCK, DFP and SBTI, and were also inhibited by such metal ions as Cu
, but fairly activated by
. Denaturation constants of the enzymes were 13.4
for anchovy trypsin, 47.18
for mackerel trypsin A, 34.06
mackerel trypsin B, 42.28
for yellowfin tuna trypsin and 16.6
for albacore trypsin at 55
. The activation energies of the trypsins at a temperature range of 3
were estimated to be 13.91 ㎉/mole for anchovy trypsin, 11.61㎉/mo1e and 8.43㎉/mole for mackerel trypsin A and for mackerel typsin B, 4.35㎉/mole for yellowfin tuna trypsin, and 3.76㎉/mole for albacore trypsin.
Fatty Acid Composition of Salt-Fermented Seafoods in Chonnam Area
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 465~469
This study was designed to investigate fatty acid composition of salt-fermented seafoods in Chonnam area. The seven samples were analyzed for fatty acid composition. The contents of lipid was highest in salt-fer-mented anchovies and followed by salt-fermented small mullets, salt-fermented oysters, salt-fermented sea-arrows and salt-fermented small shrimps. The ratio of fatty acid composition depended on the samples but the major fatty acids were
among all samples. The composition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was highest in salt-fermented sea-arrows (39.11%) and followed by salt-fermented small shrimps, salt-fermented oysters, salt-fermented anchovies and salt-fermented small mullets. In n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids,
was relatively abundant in salt-fermented oysters (17.71%) and salt-fermented sea-arrows (16.38%), and
in salt-fermented sea-arrows (22.22%) and salt-fermented small shrimps (15.13~21.50%). However,
was very little in salt-fermented small mullets.l mullets.
Preparation of Imitation Sauce from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Cod Skin Gelatin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 470~475
The imitation sauce was prepared by using the enzymatic hydrolysate of cod skin gelatin and its product quality was also compared with three kinds of soy sauce on the market sensually. The major molecular weight of the hydrolysate used in this study was 5, 800Da and glycine, proline, serine, alanine, hydroxyproline, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid having sweet taste accounted for 65.9% of the total amino acid being in the hydrolysate. The imitation sauce was prepared the mixture of the liquor and fermented sauce (8 : 2 = v : v), where the liquor was prepared by dissolving with 10.0g the hydrolysate, 10.0g NaCl, 3.0g sucrose, 0.5g monosodium glutamate, 0.1g caramel powder, 3.0
fermented vinegar, 0.05g garlic powder, 0.1g black pepper powder, and 0.2g licorice powder in 100.0
water, boiling for 5min and filtrating with cheesecloth. From the result of sensory evaluation, the imitation sauce was at least equal to three kinds of soy sauce in product quality.
Study on the Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Seasoned Dried Laver
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 476~483
The moisture sorption characteristics of commercially produced seasoned dried layer (Porphyra yezoensis) was investigated by measuring sorption isotherms. The laver and two kinds of desiccant (silica gel and zeolite based desiccant) were used at temperatures of 30, 40 and 5
respectively using the method of saturated salt solution. Time to reach the equilibrium moisture content at each temperature and relative humidity varied from 4~6hr for the laver to 20~25hr for the silica gel and 43~46hr for the zeolite. The isotherms of the layer and the desiccants showed the characteristic sigmoidal curve. Monomolecular layer moisture content calculated using the BET equation at each temperature (30, 40, 5
) were 5.26, 4.46 and 3.49% (d.b.) for the laver, 17.32, 15.24 and 12.89% (d.b.) for the silica gel, 16.89, 14.92 and 14.44% (d.b.) for the zeolite, respectively, Both desiccants showed higher values of the monomolecular layer moisture content than the laver. In all cases, the monomolerular layer moisture contents were decreased linearly as the temperature was increased in the experimental ranges. Water vapor transmission rate of the packaged material was also influenced by the temperature, which could be explained by the Arrhenius equation.
A Study on the Heavy Metal Contents in Carassius auratus of Jeonlabuk-do Areas
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 484~488
The heavy metal contents in Carassius auratus, that were sampled from Nov.1 to Nov. 31, 1991 at 6 areas in Joenlabuk-do. The mercury contents was determined by mercury analyzer using the combustion Goldamal-gamation method. The arsenic contents were determined by spectrophotometry using silver diethyl ditiho carbamate method. The contents of other heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer method. The levels of total mercury, arsenic, cadmium, lead, cupper, manganes, and zinc were determined and the results were summarized as follows : The 6 areas over all range(ppm) were Hg : 0.0167~0.0407, As : N.D.~0.0018, Cd : 0.1256~0.1935, Pb : 0.3536~0.6593, Cu : 0.2094~0.3792, Mn : 2.9059~6.9335, Zn : 14.3095~48.1615ppm. Among the seven heavy metals contents, the higest was zinc and the lowest was arsenic. The results show that contents of Hg As, Cd, Pb, Mn and Zn in Carassius auratus were lower than the FAO/WHO maximum allowance.
H-Lectin from Kintoki Bean and Taro Tuber to Small Intestine of the Mouse
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 489~493
The major objective of this study carried out was to compare the binding of Kintoki bean lectin (KBL) and Taro tuber lectin (TTL) to the mouse intestinal segments using
H-labeled lectins and to assess the effect of such binding on the ability of the small intestine. Binding of
H-TTL was studied under various conditions of time course, temperature, concentration, pH and additives of sugars, EDTA or unlabeled native lectin. The interaction of the lectins to intestinal tissue was stronger in KBL than in TTL, which was supposed to be the major reason for the stronger antinuritional enen of KBL. The optimal binding conditions were at 37
for 60mins and at pH 7. The binding of both lectins were inhibited by fetuin and EDTA.
Light and Electron Microscopical Observation of the Binding of Lectin to Mouse Intestine
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 494~499
The morphological and histochemical observation of the lectin binding to intestine in vivo or in vitro was investigated. Our finding demonstrates the validity of semi-quantitative estimates of lectin binding to mouse intestine. The fluorescence patterns obtained after treatment of intestine sections with FITC-conjugated lectin revealed that Kintoki bean lectin (KBL) and Taro tuber lectin (TTL) were localized on the cell membrane, especially the top and upper sites of the villi and showed that KBL was more strongly located than TTL under various conditions. In the reverted intestine of mice fed lectin, the villi were considerably disordered and conspicuously disrupted.
Purification and Analysis of Pectins
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 22, issue 4, 1993, Pages 500~509
Pectins present in the primary cell walls and middle lamellae of plant cell walls are extracted by water, cheating agents, acid or alkali solutions. However, some neutral contaminating components are extracted in conjunction with pectins during the extraction process. Thus, the accurate characterization of physi-cochemical properties of pectins necessitates to get rid of the impurities. In this review, dialysis, alcohol precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and metal precipitation were compared as procedures to purify the pectin extracts. In addition, the chemical methods to analyze pectins are discussed in terms of three major chemical constituents, i.e., anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl groups and neutral sugars.