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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 1994
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 1994
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 1994
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 1994
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 1994
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 1994
Selecting the target year
Lecithin : Cholesterol Acyltransferase Activities in Rats Fed Cow량s Milk with Different Levels of Cholesterol
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 371~379
The effect of milk in low and high cholesterol diets were investigated on serum cholesterol esterification. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into low(0.01% w/w) and high (1.01% w/w) cholesterol-diets groups. Bothlow and high cholesterol groups were consisted of three groups : control , LM(low heat milk), and HM (high heat milk) groups. After feeding these experimental diets for six weeks, serum cholesterol (free cholesterol and cholestryl ester) concentration and activity of lecithin.: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) were measured, and serum lipoprotein profile was examined using gel column chromatography. According to the result, activity of LCAT was elevated independently by intakes of high cholesterol and milk , which resulted in the increase of daily turnover of serum cholesteryl ester. However, the turnover of HDL-cholesteryl ester increased only by milk. LCAT activity was moderately correlated with levels of total-and HDL-free choelsterol. It is concluded from the present study that milk had the cholesterol-lowering effect which partly appears to be mediated through facilitated reverse cholesterol transport.
Alleviating Effects of Vitamin C on the GRamoxone Toxicity in Rat Liver
Un-Bock Jo ; Sung-Ro Kim ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 380~386
The behavior of glycogen and histological changes of hepatic tissues in the liver of rats, aged 6 to 7 weeks, fed 18% casein diet under control, gramoxone and gramoxone + vitamin C(Vt. C) diets has been investigated in a comined histropathological and histochemical studies. Cloudy swelling and fat changes of hepatic cells were observed in the gramoxone group with the duration of feeding time. Fat changes of hepatic cells were observed more obviously than cloudy welling, especially in the hepatic cells of periportal area. The number of Kupffer's cells increased signifciantly in the gramoxone group fed for 4weeks. The cloudy swelling and fat changes decreased obviously in the gramxone + Vt. C group. Glycogen content of heaptic cells tended to increase slightly in the gramoxone group as compared with the control group . moreover, glycogen depositons were higher in the hepatic cells where fat changes were obvious. It seems to be that Vt.C alleviating effects on the gramoxone toxicity in the patterns of glycogen distribution and histological structure of heaptic tissues.
Alleviating Effects of Vitamin C on the Gramoxone Toxicity in the Mucosubstances of Rat Duodenum
Jo, Un-Bock ; Kim, Sung-Ro ; Park, Byung-Tae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 387~395
The effect of vitamin C on th egramoxone toxicity in the duodenal globlet cells of rats were investigated suing histochemical methods. Rats in control, gramoxone and gramoxone+vitmain C (Vt.C) group, aged 6 to 7 weeks, were fed 18% casein diet. In th egramoxone group, neutral and acid mucins of the globlet cells in villi and crypts of duodenum tended to decrease as compared with the control group. And the globle cells secreting nonsuphated mucins tended to increase in number, being usually accompanied by a decrease of the globlet cells secreting suphated mucins which are prominent in the duodenal mucosa of control group. However, the goblet cells secreting nonsuphated mucins tended to increase in the gramoxone + Vt.C group. Morphological changes of the globlet cells in the gramoxone group were noted vacuolation and demolition of globlet cells, while those changes were not significant in the gramoxone +Vt. C group. It seems to be that Vt. C has alleviating effects on the gramoxone toxicity in secretion and production of the duodenal goblet cells.
The Effect of Dietary Pectin on the Absorption of Vitamin
in Rats in Various Vitamin
Kim, Jung-In ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 396~401
The effect of vitamin B12 status and pectin feeding on vitamin B12 absorption in rats were studied. Rats in low, medium, and high vitamin B12 status were fed either fiber-free or 10% pectin diet and absorption of a single oral dose of vitamin B12 status of rats was verified by urinary methylmalonic acid and liver vitamin B12 measurements. Absorption of vitamin B12 tended to increase as the rats became deficient in vitamin B12 , although the difference was not significant . Pectin inhibited absorption of vitamin B12 regardless of the vitamin B12 status of the rats. The results demonstrated that inhibition of vitamin B12 absorption by pectin would be a possible mechanism for the impairment of vitamin B12 status due to chronic pectin feeding.
Fatty Acid Composition and Functional Properties of Low Density Lipoprotein and Oxidized LDL from Human Plasma
Jae-Hoon Choi ; Hyun-Mi Cho ; Heung-Soo Son ; Tae-Woong Kim ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 402~408
Human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) is the major factor of coronary heart disease.But recent studies suggest the normal LDL can be realdily oxidized by oxygen free radicals and not interact with LDL receptors.Lipoprotei particles consist of lipid and protein, and fatty acids are prone to oxidatioin.The fatty acid compositions of LDL from Koreans was compared with that of Westerners.From the results, the raio of unsaturated fatty acids of korean and Westerner approximately 30 and 70%, respectively.which means Westerners are more labile in the lipid oxidation of LDL than Koreams.Normal LDL was incubated with
in PBS to lead for the peroxidation of LDL, and it was tested by the detection of TBARS and free radicals.Then, ascorbate,
and hyaluronic acid were found to have effects of antioxidants on LDL oxidation.The amount of free radical increased as the extent of oxidation increased.The time course of free radical formation was similar to TBARS.Therefore, determination of free radical by Luminometer was much more convenient than that of TBARS.
Fundamental Study on Nutritional Evaluation for Rapeseed Meal
Tadahiro Tadokoro ; Kazuhiro Kubo ; Kazuhiro Yamada ; Toru Ota ; Akio Maekawa ; Han, Yang-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 409~413
This fundamental study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional value of Canola rapeseed meal which has been increasingly used as a by-product with the demand for the food oil resource. To compare the nutritive values among rapeseed meal and soybean meal, two experiments were carried out by using rats. One was a digestibility test of rapessed meal and the other was the growth rate of rats for 21 days. The chemical compositions , blucosinolate and amino acids of defatted repeseed meal and defatted soybean meal were analyzed. After one week feeding, nitrogen excretion in rats was measured to study FER, PER , TD , BW , and NPU of the meals. The amount of crude proteins in defatted rapeseed meal and defatted soybean meal were 45.5% and 37.9%. The glucosinolate content of defatted rapeseed meal was 0.04% . The body weight gain of defatted rapeseed meal was not signficantly different from that of defatted soybean meal (p>0.01). After one week feeding, there was no significant differencess in organ weight and serum components between two groups(p>0.01). It was presumed that the rapeseed meal has enough possibility for developing food to use as a protein source like a soybean meal protein. However, more careful experiments are needed to clarify the nutritional value of rapeseed meal of Canola since the lipids composition of blood tended to be different when the rapeseed meal and soybean meal were used.
Binding Capacity of Human Serum Albumin with Estrogen and Other Ligands
Park, Geum-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 414~419
This study was trying to find what physical changes occurred to albumin when it reacted with estrogen and other ligands. Each concentration of human serum albumin with 100
l estradiol reacted at the highest binding capacity of 280nm. In addition, 1 hr of reaction time showed the highest binding rate. Conformational changes in human serum albumin with dietylstillbesterol and N-ethyl-maleimide produced strong binding capacities. The changes were immediate and they did not increase or decrease over time. Effects of human serum albumin with estriol induced no interaction each other. The binding capacity of human serum albumin with vitamin D
was lower than estradiol. and the highest binding rate showed 1 hr of reaction time. Vitamin D
was very similar to the binding capacity of estradiol.
Milk and Beverage Preference of College Students
Kim, Hyun-Dae ; Kim, Dong-Soo ; Kim, Song-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 420~428
The purpose of this study was to determine relationship among the observed frequencies of 12 beverages selected by college men and women according to sex, age, race and academic classification and to estimate consumption of milk according to sex, age, race and academic classification. The instrument consisted of a check list and four questions. The sample of 282 subjects, 149 college men and 133 college women, was made by the accidental choice method. Observations occurred in the university center cafeteria at the dinner meal. The significant relationship s were sex and race in association with beverage selections by all subjects. The proportion of men in the distribution who selected regular , carbonated soft drinks and the proportion of white students who selected any of the carobnated soft drinks were the influencies. The result of the study indicated that carbonated soft drinks were the most preferred items followed by milk, water, iced tea, fruit juices, coffee, cocoa, and tea.
Effect of Methionine Supplementation on Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Young and Old Murine Tissues
Cha-Kwon Chung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 429~435
The effect of methionine (Met) supplementation on glutathione peroxidase(GSHPx) activity in young and 14 month-old rat and mice was investigated. GSHPx activity was more enhanced by methionine supplementation in young rats when selenium (Se) was given as selenite than given in the form of selenomethione (Se-Met). However, GSHPx activity was not influenced by Met supplementation in the old rats. When diets were low in Se, the biopotency of ht eenzyme by Met was facilitated. No significant differences in GSHPx activity was observed with Met supplement in growing mice when Met was given 0.3% and 0.8% iin the diet at high levels of Se (2 ppm). The peak GSHPx in liver and kidney occurred at day 18, thereafter it decreased. Particularly, the liver GSHPx at day 18 increased 4.2 times than that at day 4 by 0.5% Met supplementation, while the unsupplemented group remained only 2.5 times increase. It is considered that in some tissues Met requirement may be met by Se-Met when rats were fed a diet suboptimal in Met. In addition, at lower levels of Se the utilization of Se is more enhanced by Met than at higher levels of dietary Se. Therefore, GSHPx activity may be influenced greatly by Met status along with dietary Se.
Effect of Garlic (allium sativum) on Glutathione S-Transfer Activity and the Level of Glutathione in the Mouse Liver
Kim, So-Hee ; Park, Kun-Young ; Suh, Meong-Ja ; Chung, Hae-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 436~442
The effect of garlic on glutathione S-transferase activity and the level of glutathione in the mouse liver was studied. the intraperitoneal injection of the methanol extract of garlic and ally sulfide which is one of possible active compounds in garlic to ICR mouse before the injection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) increased the levels of glutathione and nonprotein-SH in microsomal fraction of the livers. The injection of the chloroform fraction 2 which revealed the highest antimutgenic activity in our previous research in the increase of the activity of glutathione S-transferase and the levels of glutathione and nonprotein -SH. The glutathione itself also had the antimutagenic effect on AFB1 and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 in vitro.
Effects of a New 1,25(OH)
Anglog on Proliferation and Differentiation of the Human Histiocytic Lymphoma Cell Line U937
Jung, Soo-Ja ; Suh, Myung-Ja ; Rhu, Beung-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 443~452
This study describes the effects of novel1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D
] on proliferation of the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 in vitro. We also examined the expression of c-myc oncogene in U937 cells was apparently inhibited to 62% and 87% of the control level after 4 days in the presence of 10-8M and 10-7 M of this analog, respectively. This compound morpholgically and functionally differentiated U937 cells to nonocyte-macrophage phenotype showing the increase of adherence ability to surface and a decrease of N/C ratio in Giemsa staining . Especially, nonspecific esterase activity which is a marker of cell differentiation to monocyte-macrophage was positive, and production of the positive stained cells increased in a dose dependent fashion . The expression of c-myc oncogene by 1, 25(OH)
analog(10-7 M) was reduced by 60% at the mRNA level as determined by Northern blotting. The effects of this novel analog on cell proliferation and cell differentiation may open op new therapeutic strategies for human disorders such as psoriassis and may provide a tool to understand the mechanism of action of vitamin D
seco-steroids in malignancy.
Nutrient Composition and Protein Quality of Giant Snail Products
Mi-kyung Lee ; Jeung-hye Moon ; Hong-Soo Ryu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 453~458
The nutrient content and protein quality of Giant snalil (Acchatina ) meats (white, yellow, and gray) were determined for fresh and processed products. Fresh snail meats contained 81~82% moisture, 11~14% protein, 0.9~1.3% fat, and 1.2-1.4% ash. Proximate composition of fresh meat varied (p<0.05) with meat colour and gray meat had the lowest protein and highest ash content among samples. The major minerals of fresh snail meats were calcium (318~570mg%), potassium (170~190mg%), and magnesium (74~103mg%).Gray meat showed the higher calcium and lower sodium level than the other snail meats. No differences were found between fresh snail meats on amino acid profile, and total essential amino acid was 46% of total amino acids in all snail meats. In vitro protein digestibility of fresh snail meats were ranged from 76 to 81% which were lower than that of marine moulusks. Processing resulted in some increase(1.7~5.7%) in protein digestibility but no differences were found in C-PER after processing. The 25% saline water extractable mucous materials from fresh snail meat influenced in decreasing digestibility of other protein sources from 2% (casein) to 11% (filefish protein).
Continuous Cocurrent Extraction of Milk Fat by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Lim, Sang-Bin ; Syed S.H.Rizvi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 459~465
Performance of a continuous cocurrent supercritical fluid extraction column for processing of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) was determined. The extract loading increased and the extraction yield decreased as the superficial velocity of AMF increased. The maximum solubility of AMF in
/3,500 psig was 0.0195g/g. The increase of the carbon dioxide density enhanced the solubility of milk fat and decreased the cholesterol concentration in the extract. Three operation conditions, such as recycle , reflux, and temperature gradient of extraction column, were tested. More short-chain fatty acvids were extracted by the reflux operation . Longchain fatty acids and thehighest ratio fo long-chain unsaturated to saturated fatty acids were also obtained in the raffinate phase with refluex.
Further Screening for Antioxidant Activity of Vegetable Plants and Its Active Principles from Zanthoxylum schinifolum
Mun, Sook-Im ; Ryu, Hong-Soo ; Lee, Hee-Jung ; Park, Jae-Sue ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 466~471
The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of thirty plants was tested using the methol of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-pi-cryl hydrazyl (DPPH) reactivity. Four methanol extracts from Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum , Zanthoxylum schinifolium and Capsocum annuum were found to be the most effective on DPPH radical scavenging activity. The next effective ones were Perilla frutescens , Sedium sarmentosum , Raphnus sativas, aArctium lappa, Beta vulgaris. Brassica oleracea var. Acephala, bBrassica juncea inorder, and the others did not show a considerable activity. The methanol extract obtained from the seed coats of Zanthoxylum schinifolium was fractinated with several sovlents. The interphase materials exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity and was further purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chormatography. Two active principles were isolated and identified as quercetin -3-O-
-L-rhamonopyranoiside(quercitrin) and quercetin 3-O-
-D-galactopyranoside (hyperoside) by ultraviolet(UV), proton nuclear magetic resonance (1H-NMR) and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR). Its antioxidative activity was a little higher that that of L-ascorbic acid.
Characterization of Allicin Transformation Products and Determination of Allicin
Jung, Joo-Yeon ; Kim, Sung-Jin ; Hur, Moon-Hye ; Lee, Eun-Yup ; Kim, Myoung-Soo ; Ahn, Moon-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 472~480
Allicin was synthesized for the purpose of identification an dquantitation of a pharmaceutical dosage form in soft capsules. The identified transformed products fro allicin were dially disulfide , 3-vinyl-[4H]-1, 2-dithiin and 2-vinyl-[4H]-1, 3-dithiin in gas chromatrographic conditions and dially disulfide and ajoene in HPLC. Allicin is thermally unstable , it may be completely decomposed to vinyl dithiin isomers in GC conditions. For that reason, allicin was not found directly in the pharmaceutical dosage forms. In HPLC conditions, mobile phase was methanol /water containing 0.1% formic acid(65/35) and column was
-Bondapak C18. Detection wa-velength was 254nm. The retention time of allicin was 6.98min. The calibration ranger for allicin was 10
/ml to 200
/ml and correlation coefficient(r) was 0.987.
Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Low-Salt-Fermented Anchovy Paste by Adding Koji
Yong-Jun Cha ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 481~489
Volatile flavor compounds in low salt-fermented anchovy pastes by adding koji(Koji), compared with Control, were analyzed by simultaneous steam distillation -solvent extraction /gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Volatile compounds (106) were detected inboth samples during fermentation. Among these, 79 compounds were positively identified and were composed mainly of aldehydes, esters, alcohols, ketones, nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, and furans. Aldehydes and esters were found higher amounts that other compounds in both samples. Alkylpyrazine, such as 2, 6-dimethylpyrzine, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazie, 2-ethyl-3, 5-dimethylpyrazine and tetramethylpyrazine, and also 2-phenylethanol were identified only in Koji.
Characterization of Acid Phosphatase from Carrots
Kim, Gi-Nahm ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 490~495
Acid phosphatase (EC220.127.116.11) from carrots was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation (30%-80%), Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration, cm-Sepharose CL-6B and DEAE -Sephacel ion exchange chromatography. The optimum ph and temperature of acid phosphatase from carrots were pH 5.5 and 55
, respectively. The enzyme was most stable at ph 6.0 and relatively unstable below pH 4.0 . The activation energy of the enayme was determined to be 10.6kcal/mole. The enzyme utilized p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a substrate among tested possible substrates, whereas it hydrolyzed 5' -IMP and 5'-GMP poorly. The Michaelis -Menten constant(Km) of the enzyme with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a substrate was identified as 0.55mM. Amongtested metal ions and inhibitors, Al+++ Zn++, Cu++ , fluoride, metavanadate and molybdate ions inhibited the enzyme activity drastically.
The Synthesis of Ester Compound by Lipase in Organic Solvents
Kim, Boo-Chul ; Lee, Jae-Dong ; Lee, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 496~501
The synthesis of lauryl palmitate from palmitic acid and lauryl alcohol was investigated in organic solvents using lipase. Water-immiscible organic solvent such as hexane, toluenem cyclohexane, and isooctane were found to be suitable of ester synthesis . The effect of water content on the initial rate of conversion was examined . As the content increased, the reaction rate increased. But addition of water in organic solvent decreased therostability of enzyme . The best lauryl palmitate synthesis was achieved with water content of 0.2-0.4% reaction temperature of 4
for Candida cylindracea lipase porcine, pancreatic lipase, respectively. when ester synthesis was carried out under the optimum conditions, the conversion yield of palmitate into lauryl palmitate after 70hrs reached 85% and 69 % for the Candida cylindracea lipase and porcine opancreatic lipase, respectivley.
Tetrodotoxin in a Pufferfish, Fugu xanthopterus (Korean Name, Ggachibog)
Hyun-Dae Kim ; Yeung-Ho Park ; Dong-Soo Kim ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 502~508
A total of 24 specimens of the pufferfish, Fugu xanthopterus, purchased at a fixhmarket in Pusan, korea were examined for toxicity using the assay method of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Also, the toxins isolated from the puffer liver were partially purified and analyzed for their chemical composition by instrumental behaviors. On the whole, when the level of toxicity in each organ was analyzed compared to that of liver, they were 100 % of the lover, 92 % for the intestine, 75% for the skin, 17% for the muscle, 785 for the testis, 87% for the ovary, and 71% for bile. The highest and average scores of toxicity for the liver were 917 and
liver, respectively. The toxins of the puffer gave four peaks in HPLC whose retention times (10, 20, 22 and 25 min) were close to those of TDA, TTX, 4-epi-TTX, and and -TTX, respectively.
Production of Mannooligosaccharides by the Penicillium purpurogenum Mannanase
Park, Gwi-Gun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 509~514
Penicillium purpurogenum , which produces a copra galactomannan degrading enzyme extracellularyl, was isolated from soil , and its properties and formation condition of mannooligosaccharides were investigated. The optimum ph and temperature for the activity of the mannanase were 5.5 and 55
, respectively. The mannanase was stable in between pH 3.5 and 7.0 after 2 hr incubation at 3
lost 90% of the original activity after incubation at 55
and pH 5.5 for 2 hr. With two different substrate concentration, hydrolysis of white coprameal proceeded rapidly at the early stage of the reaction, but gradually solwed thereafter especially at a higher concentration of copra meal (20 %). The enzyme hydrolyzed white copra meal to monosaccharides, mannobiose and mannotriose at the final stage of the reaction.
The Comparative Studies on the Lectins from Kintoki Bean and Taro Tuber
Young-Ju Seo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 515~519
The ComparativThe comperisons of Kintoki bean lectin (KBL) and Taro tuber lectin (TTL) which have been studied in our laboratory are summerized. The recoveries of pure lectins are 0.12% and 0.014%, respectively. They seems to have slight differences in isoelectric points(pH) ; 5.19~5.67 for KBL and 6.41~7.42 for TTL. The minimum concentrations of HA are
. The enzymatic modification on HA, growth inhibition, inhibition of nutritional absorption and binding capacities (FITC,
) of KBL are demonstrated to be much greater than those of TTL.
The Role of Ingredients and Thermal Setting in High-Ratio Layer Cake Sytems
Kim, Chang-Soon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 520~529
High-ratio cakes made from the formulas with more sugar (140% based on flour weight) than flour have come to be preferred recently. To produced good light cake structure, cake batter must retain the many finely divided gas bubbles formed during mixing . Thermal setting of cake structure is mainly caused by starch gelatinization . The formula controls the temperature at which the cake batter changes from a fluid to a solid. Especially, the relatively large amount of sugar used in the formula delays gelatinization, so that air bubbles can be properly expanded by carbon dioxide gas and water vapor before the cake sets. To get a non collapsing high ratio cake structure after baking , the proper degree of gelatinization of the starch granule, the control of gelatinization temperature, and sufficient gel strength ar all important. The role of ingredients (flour , sugar, proteins, chemical leavening agents, water shortening , and emulsifiers) is reviewed with relation to the formation of satisfactory cake structure.
Function Properties of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Oxidized-LDL
Tae-Koong Kim ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 23, issue 3, 1994, Pages 530~539
All lipoproteins are made up of three major classes of lipids : triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids. Lipoproteins vary in their relative content of these lipids as well as in size and protein content. Human low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a main carrier for cholesterol in the blood stream, and it is well established that cholesterol deposits in the arteries stem primarily from LDL and that increased levels of plasma LDL correlated with in increased risk of atherosclerosis. Various lines of research provide strong evidence that lDL may become oxidized in vivo and that oxidized-LDL is the species involved in the formation of early atherosclerotic lesions. the most crucial findings in this context are the following : (1) Oxidized -LDL has chemotactic properties and if present in the intimal space of the arteries would recruit blood monocytes which then can develop into tissue macrophages ; (2) marcrophages take up oxidized-LDL unregulated to from lipid laden foam cells ; (3) Oxdized-LDLis highly cytotoxic and could be responsible for damage of the endothelial layer and for the destruction of smooth muscle cells.