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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 1995
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 1995
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 1995
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 1995
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 1995
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 1995
Selecting the target year
: Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of U937 Cells in vitro and on Clcium Metabolism of Rat in vivo
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 1~9
1, 25(OH)2-23ene-D3 is a novel vitamine D3 analog which has a double bond between C-23 and C-24. We describe the effects of this analog on cell differentiation and cell proliferation in vitro using the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937, and on calcium metabolism in rats in vivo. In the present investigation 1, 25(OH)2-23ene-D3 was compared to the natural metabolite of vitamin D3, 1
, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol[1, 25(OH)2-23ene-D3 was more potent than 1, 25(OH)2-23ene-D3 for inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation of U937 cells. Especially, its effect on induction of differentiation, as measured by superoxide production and nonspecific esterase(NSE) activity, was about 20-fold more potent that 1, 25(OH)2-23ene-D3. This analog morphologically and functionally differentiated U937 cells to monocyte-macrophage phenotype showing a decrease of N/C ratio in Giemsa staining and the increase of adherence ability to surface. Intraperitoneal administration of 1, 25(OH)2-23ene-D3 to rats showed that the compound had at least 50 times less activity than 1, 25(OH)2-23ene-D3 in causing hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. The strong direct effects of 1, 25(OH)2-23ene-D3 on cell proliferation and cell differentiation, coupled with its decreased activity of calcium metabolism make this compound an interesting candidate for clinical studies including patients with leukemia, as well as several skin disorders, such as psoriasis.
Nutrition Knowledge and Food Habit of Middle School Studient영s Mothers
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 10~18
Nutrition knowledge of mothers who had middle-school studients was investigated using questionnaire about nutrition knowledge and food habit. The results were summerized as follows ; The mean score of nutrition knowledge was 25.3 (out of possible-80-80points), which score was slightly lower than those of other studies. the percentage of perceived knowledge and accuracy of the knowledge were 77.7% and 79.6%, respectively. these scores were influenced by general characteristics such as age, education, occupation, income, food expense. With decreasing age and increasing education level, family income, nutritional knowledge score, the percentage of perceived knowledge and accuracy were significantly getting higher. The levels of both perceived knowledge and accuracy on the necessi쇼 of vitamins and minerals were above 90%. However, the accuracy on protein quality and dietary fiber was below 40%. The better food habit a subject had, the higher was the nutrition knowledge score.
A Study on Drinking, Smoking and Family Disease Histories in the Family Members of Normal and Hypertension Disease Patients
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 19~23
The purpose of this project was to investigate alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and family disease history in the family members of normal and hypertension disease, excluding patients themselves. Mean daily alcohol consumption in family members of hypertension disease patients was significantly higher, especially in the male with thirties, forties, and fifties, than those of normal subjects. Mean daily cigarette smoking in family members of hypertension disease patients was also significantly higher, especially in the male with forties and sixties than those of normal subjects. Cases of hereditary family disease was significantly higher in the family members of hypertension disease patients than those of normal subjects. Especially, a degree to be attacked with cerebrovascular disease was very higher in the family members of hypertension disease patients than normal family.
A Study on Correlation between Blood Pressure and Dietary Na, K Intakes Pattern in the Family Members of Normal and Cerebrovascular Disease Patients
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 24~29
Purpose of this study was to investigate correlation between blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and dietary sodium, potassium intake pattern in the family members of normal cerebrovascular (CVA) disease, excluding patients themselves. Both mean values of systolic (125.8
23.7 vs 119.3
19.2mmHg) and diastolic(76.1
16.7 vs 71.6
12.5mmHg) bllood pressure in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients were significantly higher than those of normal subjects. Systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with age, weibght, sodium in soybean paste, potassium in hotpepepr paste, soybean paste and meats in normal subjects group. In the family members of cerebrovascular patient, systolic blood pressure was possively correlated with age, weight, sodium in soy sauce, drinking water and potassium in soups. Interestingly, table salt intake was positively correlated with systosolic blood pressure in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients. Diastolic bolld pressure was positively correlated with age, weight, table salt intake potassium in hotpepper paste and soybean paste in normal subjects group. Diastolic blood pressure was positively correlated with age, weight and table salt intake in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients. Urinary potassium excretion was negatively correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients.
A Study of Dietary Intake and Vitamin/Mineral Supplement Usage among Adolescents
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 30~40
The relationship between dietary intake and vitamin/mineral supplement usage was examined in 706 adolescent girls who were high school students. 43.8% of subjects used vitamin/mineral supplements during one year. The higher the family income and parents education level, the higher percentage of vitamin/mineral supplement usage was. But there was no significant difference between grades and scores. And vitamin/mineral supplement usage was higher int he thin and obese groups than the average weight groups. Nutrition knowledge and food habit did not affect vitamin/mineral supplement usage. Calorie intakes of vitamin/mineral supplement users and nonusers were similar. However, independent of the supplements, the diets of supplement nonusers contained significantly more dietary protein, vitamin A, vitamin
, niacin, vitamin C, and calcium than the diets of the users. A considerable portion of both the users and nonusers had dietary intakes of less than 2/3 of the Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamin
, niacin, calcium, and iron. Vitamin/mineral supplement nonusers generally consumed a more vitamin, mineral from diet. Reasons for taking supplements were to take energy, advice and illness.
The Chemical Components and Nutritional Evaluation of Aspergillus fumigatus Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 41~47
This experiments was designed to evaluated the chemical components and nutrition of Aspergillus fumigatus cells. This dried fungal mycellia was consist of crude protein 48.5%, crude lipid 2.9%, carbohydrate 44.7% and total ash 3.4%, respectively. The major fatty acid of total lipid were 27.9% of linoleic acid, 24.6% of oleic acid, 15.4% of palmitic acid and 10.6% of linolenic aicd. Amino acid analysis indicated that the protein was rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine, lysine but poor in cystein, methionine, histidine. The fungal cake of Aspergillus fumigatus, when dried and specially processed, has been found to serve as a source of protein in place of soybean meal in the diet of experimental mice. Animal were fed a control diet first, and an incease in weight proved the formulation to be satisfactory. At the end of a 30-day period, the experimental mice showed increases in weight comparable to those of the control animals. The net protein efficiency ratio for the control diet was 3.42
0.15 and the fungal protein and succinylated fungal protein with DL-methionine they were 3.12
0.39 and 2.98
0.06 respectively. This supports the view that dried and succinylated fungal protein can be substituted as a protein source.
Changes in the Contents of Sugar, Organic Acid, Free Amino Acid and Nucleic Acid-Related Compounds during Fermentation of Leaf Mustard-Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 48~53
Changes in the contents of sugar, organic acid, free amino acid and uncleic acid-related compounds of leaf mustard-Kimchi during fermentation at 5~7
were investigated. The leaf mustard-Kimchi was formulated with 4kg leaf mustard, 120g garlic, 80g ginger, 540ml salted anchovies, 1kg green onion, 200g red pepper powder, 200g ground red pepper, 60g whole sesame and 600ml glutinous rice paste. Changes in pH and acidity were relatively slow. Major free sugars were glucose(0.13%) and maltose(0.42%), and residual sugars(0.03-0.04%) were also detected after 32 days of fermentation. Major free amino acids containing more than 26.5mg% were proline, glutamic acid, alanine and histidine. Contents of total free amino acids increased from 244.8 to 397.2mg% by 24 days of fermentation. Of non-volatile organic acid, lactic acid was the most abundant(119.3mg%), and its content increased markedly after 10 days of fermentation. Other organic acids(below 53.1mg%) observed were malic, oxalic and citric acid. Contents of nucleic acid-related compounds were high in the order of hypoxanthine(22.8mg%), IMP(8.3mg%) and GMP(6.9mg%). Hypoxanthine content increased by 10 days(27.3mg%) and decreased thereafter, while the others decreased gradually during the overall period of fermentation.
Changes in Pungent Components of Dolsan Leaf Mustard Kimchi during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 54~59
Compositional changes in pungent components of Dolsan Leaf Kimchi during fermentation were investigated. Major volatile compounds identified in the kimchi were 3-isothiocyanate-1-propene(allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) di-2-propenyl disulfide, 1-methoxy-2-butanol, 4-isothiocyanate-1-butene and dimethyl trisulfide. The contents of allyl isothiocyanate and 4-isothiocyanate-1-butene decreased, while dimethyl trisulfide increased during fermentation and storage. 1-methoxy 2-butanol increased at the initial stage of fermentation, showing highest at 2~3 days, and decreased thereafter. Di-2-propenyl disulfide decreased after 5 days and increased after 10days of storage. Total glucosinolate content increased by 3days and decreased from 4days of storage.
Effect of Tocopherols and Carotene on the Oxidation of Purified Pinenut Oil in the Model System
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 60~66
The oxidation of purified pinenut oil containing various concentration of tocopherols and β-carotene were studied. α-tocopherol revealed an antioxidant activity at the concentration of lower than 0.05%, however, it showed a prooxidant activity when the concentration was higher than 0.05%. The antioxidant activity of γ-tocopherol was not affected by the concentraitons in the range of 0.01∼0.10% in pinenut oil. γ -Tocopherol resulted in higher antioxidant activity than that of α-tocopherol. β -carotene seemed to be a prooxidant when 0.01% of β-carotene was added. The fatty acids composition of purified pinenut oil have been changed during autoxidation. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased readly while oleic acid seemed to increase. And the concentration of saturated fatty acid has'nt been changed much during autoxidation.
Effect of Tocopherols and
-Carotene on the Oxidation of Linoleic Acid Mixture in the Solid Model System
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 67~73
Effects of tocopherols and
-carotene on the oxidation of the solid model system of a free fatty acid mixture (64.5% of linolic acid ; 26.4% of oleic acid ; 5.0% of palmitic acid) with tocopherols and
-carotene were studied.
-tocopherol revealed an antioxidant activity at the concentration below 0.05%, however, it showed a prooxidant activity when the concentration was higher than 0.05%. The antioxidant activity of
-tocopherol was not affected by the concentrations in the range of 0.01~0.10% in the model and
-tocopherol showed higher antioxidant activity than that of
-tocopherol. It seemed that
-tocopherol was unstable compared to
-tocopherol during oxidation.
-carotene showed a weak antioxidative activity at the initial stage of this system while
-carotene showed a prooxidant activity in the presence of tocopherol.
-carotene was highly susceptible to autoxidative degradation during oxidation.
The Study on the Comparisions of Ingredients in Yam and Bitter Taste Material of African Yam
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 74~81
In the proximate composition of the yams of home product, wild yam was most abundant in crude lipid and crude protein, and those content in the cultivated yams, cultivated long yam and cultivated short yam were similar. Cultivated long yam is the richest in crude ash. African yam had more crude lipid and crude protein compare to those of home product yams. Especially, the amount of crude lipid in African yam was four-fold of home product yams. In the mineral content, Ca was the richest mineral in four kinds of yam. The rest of mineral were in order of Fe, Mn and Zn. Among the home product yams, the Ca content of wild yam was higher than that of cultivated yam. The contents of Fe, Mn and Zn were also high in wild yam compared to cultivated yam. In the composition of free sugars, the sucrose content is the highest in wild yam, cultivated short yam and African yam. in order The fructose content was the most abundant in cultivated long yam and the next was sucrose. The composition of free fatty acids were in order of lactobacillic acid, palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid. Crude saponin contents of the home products were almost similar levle, but crude saponin of wild yam was more abundant than that of cultivated yam. And crude saponin of African yam was much more abundant compared that of other home product yams. there is not much difference in the kinds of saponin from the home product yams. However, the amount of each saponin from the home product yams was different. In case of African yam, 'b' saponin did not appear and 'e' saponin was higher compared with home product yams. In African yam, the bitter taste from ethyl acetate layer was the strongest, and the next was n-butanol layer. It is possible that there was a powerful UV absorption material in the bitter taste of ethyl acetate layer and also supposed that there were saponin and phenol is material
Effects of Lysozyme, Clupeine, Sucrose, and Sodium Chloride on the Foaming Properties of Egg Albumen and Powdered Beef Plasma
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 82~91
This study was designed to elucidate the effects of lysozyme, clupeine, sucrose, and sodium chloride on the foaming properties of egg albumen and podered beef plasma. Surface tensions of egg albumen(5%, w/w) and powdered beef plasma(5%, w/w) adding to lysozyme, clupeine, sucrose, and sodium chloride were 46.8
0.416dyne/cm) and 54.6
0.153dyne/cm), respectively. Turbidities of the solutions were 77.0
0.153) and 90.3
0.115 (control, 82.7
0.100), respectively. Surface hydrophobicities of the solutions were 524~811(control, 485) and 5102~ 7128(control, 4665), respectively. The solution with high hydrophobicity revealed good foaming properties. Analysis of egg albumen and powdered beef plasma foam by electrophoresis showed that lysozyme was retained for a long time in foam. The optimal concentraitons of lysozyme and clupeine for foaming properties were 0.5% and 0.3% in egg albumen(5%, w/w) and 0.5% and 0.5% in powdered beef plasma(5%, w/w), respectively. In case of egg albumen, sodium chloride dominantly enhanced the action of clupeine. The addition of 0.3% clupeine with sodium chloride(2.0M) to egg albumen(5%, w/w) increased overrun and foam stability by 119.5% and 70.9%, respectively. The addition of 0.5% clupeine to powdered beef plasma(5%, w/w) also increased overrun and foam stability by 43.7% and 127.3%, respectively.
Production of Cholesterol Inhibitor, Monacolin Produced from Monasces pilosus M-15
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 92~97
The monacolin retard in vivo synthesis of cholestrol. This study was conducted to select the best strain of Monascus sp. for monacolin production among 21 strains. In addition, research on suitable condition for mass production was conducted. Monascus pilosus M-15 was selected as the best strain for production of monacolin. The appropriate substrate for the monacolin production seem to be as follow : glycerin 5%, glucose 2%, corn steep liquor 0.5%, sodium nitrate 0.5% and length of fermentation was at
for 10~12days, respectively. The monacolin obtained from this organism was compared with standard monacolin using UV, IR, and GC/MS system and it was very close to the standard monacolin.
Antioxidant Activity of Different Lipid Extracts from Mackerel Viscera
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 98~104
To utilize the mackerel viscera effectively, antioxidant substances were extracted and the effects on the oxidation were evaluated. Total lipid(TL) extracted from mackerel viscera were fractionated into hexane extracts, tetracarbon chloride(
)-methanol(1 : 1, 1 : 3, 1 : 9, v/v) extracts, phospholipid(PL), phosphatidylcholine(PC), and PC free fracitons(PCF). Inhibition of fish oil oxidation was investigated using these fractions. Hexane fraction showed lower antioxidant activity compared to the TL or
fractions(C-M) ; in addition, antioxidant activities increased as polarity of C-M increased. Significant antioxidant activities were observed with PL, PC, and PCF ; among them, PC was the most effective. To determine the antioxidant activity of PC, effects of natural or synthetic antioxidant were compared. Addition of PC to fish oil proved to enhance antioxidant activity the antioxidant activity of phospholipids was derived mainly from PC.
Isolation of Chitin from Crab Shell Waste
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 105~113
Procedures for isolatin of chitin have been developed from crab(Chionoecetes opilio) shell waste with 26. 65% chitin on a dry basis. Optimal conditions for demineralization of crab shell were 1N HCl at ambient temperature for 30min with a solids to solbent ratio of 1 : 15(w/v). Optimal deproteinization involved treatment with 5% NaOH at
for 1 hr with a solids to solvent ratio of 1 : 15(w/v). Effective decoloration was achieved by bleaching with 0.32% sodium hypochlorite solution for 3min with a solids to solvent ratio of 1 : 10(w/v). Particular attentin was given to characterization of the physicochemical properties of the crab chitin. Chitins, from four different mesh sizes of crab shell, did not show significant differences in nitrogen and ash compositions. Bleaching decreased the viscosity of chitin but did not affect its solubility.
Changes of Saccharides and Amino Acids in Natto Added with Spice during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 114~120
Natto is a Japanese traditional food made from whole soybenas by fermentation of Bacillus natto. This study was attempted to improve the taste of Natto. Natto was compared with the changes in the various chemical properties after it had been produced by the addition of garlic and red pepper oleoresin. the remained content of total sugar fo Natto added with red pepper oleoresin decreased than other groups during 24hours fermentation. The remained content of reduced sugar of Natto added with garlic, red pepper oleoresin increased than other groups. The amount of total free sugar showed almost no differences in the case of garlic and red pepper oleoresin added. Amino type nitrogen content increased gradually after 24 hour fermentation in all samples. Free amino acid content increased in conventinal Natto.
Effects of Spice Added Natto Supplementation on the Lipid Metabolism in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 121~126
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Natto supplementation on lipid metabolism in rats. Male rats were fed on casein(CON group), steamed soybean(SS group), conventional Natto(N-1 group), garlic(2%) added Natto(N-2 group), red pepper oleoresin(0.2%) added Natto(N-3 group) and galic(2%) and red pepper oleoresin(0.2%) added Natto(N-4 group) as a protein source for 4 weeks. Serum and liver cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the experimental groups than in the control group. Especially, dietary N-2, N-3 and N-4, compared with CON, reduced markedly the concentration of serum cholesterol. The concentration of serum HDL-cholesterol was higher markedly in the N-4 group than in the control group. The concentration of serum triglyceride was significantly lower in the N-1, N-2, N-3 and N-4 groups than in the control group. Garlic and red pepper added Natto fed groups(N-2, N-3, N-4) showed more excreion of fecal bile acid when compared with those values of casein fed group. The results indicate that spice added Natto supplementation may have more beneficial roles in lipid metabolism through reduced cholesterol levels and increased fecal bile acid excretion.
Effect of Jujube Methanol Extract on Benzo(a)pyrene Induced Hepatotoxicity
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 127~132
The protective effect of jujube methanol extract on benzo(a)pyrene(B(a)P)-induced liver injury was studied in rats in vitro and in vivo. Jujube methanol extract significantly recovered the enzyme activities(GOT, GPT, LDH and ALP) and lipid contents(total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol) changed by B(a)P to normal levels in vivo. in viro experiment jujube methanol extract didn't stimulate hepatocyte proliferation but significantly recovered the enzyme activities(GOT, GPT and LDH) in comparison to group Ⅱ administered B(a)P only. It was suggested that jujube methanol extract have a protective effect on liver injury by B(a)P.
Changes in Pectic Substances of Korean Pickled Cucumbers with Different Preparation Methods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 133~140
This investigation was undertaken for the purpose of studying the changes of pectic substances in alcohol insoluble solids(AIS) extracted from cucumbers pickled in salt. The preparation methods were brining the cucumbers in 10% NaCl solution (bolied, method A), 20% NaCl solution(bolied, method B) and 20% NaCl solution(cool to
after boiling, method C). The composition ratio of hot water soluble pectin(HWSP) in AIS decreased during brining, while that of 0.4% sodium hexametaphosphate soluble pectin(NaSP) increased remarkably. The contents of Ca and Mg in AIS increased regardless of preparation methods used. By DEAE-cellulose chromatography, HWSP from fresh and brined cucumbers were divided into six fracitons. 0.2M peak was the main fraction in fresh cucumber, whereas 0.05M and 0.2M peak were the main fraction in pickled cucumbers. On the other hands, NaSP from fresh and brined cucumbers were divided into five fractions and 0.4M peak was the main fraction. However, the composition ratios of galacturonic acid and neutral sugar of 0.4M fraction in brined cucumbers were higher than those of fresh cucumber.
Studies on the Optimum Fermenting Conditions of Dongchimi for Production of Ion Beverage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 141~146
The study was conducted for optimum fermenting conditions of Dongchimi(pony tailed chinese radish kimchi) in production of ion beverage. The changes of pH and total acidity were increased as the temperature increased. Non-volatile organic acids, such as lactic acid, citric acid, malic acid and succinic acid were produced in Dongchimi fermentation. The amount of lactic acid was increased higher, followed by citric acid and malic acid. However succininc acid was produced a little of amount at
. Lactic acid producing bacteria number increased in initial period and then decreased in last period of fermentation. During lactic acid producing bacteria was increased, the amouont of lactic acid was increased. The flavor components were tentatively identified as methyl pentane, ethyl thioethene 2, 3-diazaindolizine, dimethyl disulfide. The optimum fermenting conditions of Dongchimi for production of ion beverage were 24~29 days at
, 9~12dyas at
and 16~22days at
Studies on the Polysaccharide Extracted from Ganoderma Incidum
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 147~153
The cultured mycelial cells of Ganoderma lucidum was extracted by alkali, and then neutralized by acid. The extract was passed through the column of DEAE cellulose for more purification. The neutral fraction was concentrated and precipitated with 95% ethanol. The precipitate was lyophilized and then PSG(polysaccharides) was obtained. PSG was composed of 82.2% polysaccharide, 0.7% protein and 17.1% uronic acid. Sugar conjugates of its hydrolysates were produced using with fluorescent compound(7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonic aicd : 7-AGA), and then fluorescent labeled sugar conjugates were separated by reverse phase high perfomance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysates of PSG were composed of sixteen amino acids and 95.7% glucose, 2.7% xylose, 1.6% fucose and tract amount of galactose and mannose. The immunomodulating effects of PSG on macrophage were perfomed using murine macrophage cell line ATCC TIB 71 cells. PSG augumented the phagocytic activity of TIB 71 cells against fluorescent latex beads.
Inhibitin of Xanthine Oxidase by Tea Extracts from Green Tea, Oolong Tea and Black Tea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 154~159
Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by tea extracts obtained from non-fermented tea(steamed green tea and roasted green tea), semi-fermented tea(oolong tea) and fermented tea(black tea) were investigated. The crude catechin fraciton had a hgher inhibitory effect against xanthine oxidase, and the effect was increased with the addition of tea extracts. Their inhibitory effect were hardly influenced until extracted three times with hot water. According to the investigation of catechins in the crude catechin fraction obtained from tea extracts, (-)-epicatechin-(EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate(ECg). (-)-epigallocatechin(EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate(EGCg) were 80.1
/mg and 367.7
/mg in steamed green tea, and 75.6
/mg and 381.9
/mg in roasted green tea, and 69.4
.mg and 464.9
/mg in oolong tea, and 78.1
/mg and 51.4
/mg in black tea, respectively. Order of the content of these catechins was (-)-EGCg>(-)-EGC>(-)-ECg>(-)-EC in steamed green tea, roasted green tea and oolong tea, and was (-)-ECg>(-)-EGC>(-)-EC>(-)-EGCg in black tea. Also the concentration of catechins was hardly influeced until extracted three times. The inhibition ratio of xanthine oxidase by autherntic catechins was hardly influenced until extracted three times. The inhibition ratio of xanthine oxidase by authentic catechins was 94.9% and 87.6% by addition of 5.0
/ml of (-)-EGCg and (-)-ECg, respectively. the inhibitors of xanthine oxidase were supposed to be due to (-)-ECg and (-)-EGCg in tea polyphenol compounds.
Desmutagenicity of Tea Extracts from Green Tea, Oolong Tea and Black Tea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 160~168
Desmutagenicities against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b] pyridine(PhIP) and 2-amino-3, 8-dimethylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoxaline(MelQx) of tea extracts (steamed green tea, roasted green tea, oolong tea and black tea) were investigated. All the fractions obtained from tea extracts showed strong desmutagenic activity against PhIP and MeIQx toward S. typhimurium TA 98 in the presence of the S-9 mix. The crude catechin fraction exhibited the strongest desmutagenic activity. Among these tea extracts, black tea especially exhibited the strongest desmutagenic activity and the activity was 70.9~91.0% against PhIP and 92.2~98.8% against MelQx at a concentration(0.5~1.0mg/plate) for drinking. The activity of authentic catechins of (-)-EGC, (-)-EGCg, (-)-ECg and (-)-EC were 79.5%, 60.2%, 46.1% and 43.5% against PhIP, and were 52.3%, 11.6%, 8.2% and 22.1% against MelQx by addition of 1.0mg/plate, respectively. The desmutagenic activity was supposedly due to the (-)-EGCg, (-)-EGC and (-)-EC in tea polyphenols, and the browning materials. The desmutagenicity was stronger when mutagens were preincubated with S-9 mix after reaciton with black tea extracts than when preincubated with them after reaction with S-9 mix. The desmutagenicity of tea extracts was rather expressed by reacting directly with mutagens than by deactivating the activated forms of mutagens.
The Nutritional Evaluation, and Antimutagenic and Anticancer Effects of Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 1, 1995, Pages 169~182
The nutritional evaluation, and antimutagenic and anticancer effects of Kimchi were reviewed. Kimchi contains high levels of vitamins including vitamin C,
-carotene, vitamin B complex, niacin, and of minerals such as calcium, potassium, iron and phosphorous, etc. Kimchi is a low energy food, byt contains high quantities oforganic acids, dietary fiber and lactic acid bacteria in addition to the vitamins and minerals. Thus Kimchi could be developed as a protective food as it contains the various regulatory nutrients. The levels of NO3, NO2 and nitrosamines in Kimchi ingredients and Kimchi during theripening are not significant. However, high level of NaCl that could be used when prepared Kimchi in the warm region can be a problem, since high concentraitons of NaCl(>9.5%) in Kimchi could be comutagenic to themutagen of MNNG. The methanol extract of Kimchi, red pepper powder, garlic and lactic bacteria revealed antimutagenic or anticancer activities. The Kimchi extract also inhibited the growth of various human cancer cells.