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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 1995
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 1995
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 1995
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 1995
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 1995
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 1995
Selecting the target year
Effects of Vitamin E on the Metallothionein Synthesis in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 183~194
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on the synthesis of the metallothionein in the liver of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats(
) were randomly assigned to one control and three STZ-diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were classified to STZ-0E(vitamine E free diet), STZ-40E(40mg vitamin E/kg of diet) and STZ-400E(400mg vitamin E/kg of diet) according to the level of vitamin E supplementation. Blood glucose levels of STZ-diabetic rats were three times higher than that of control. The contents of vitamin E in liver were lower signifciantly STZ-0E, STZ-40E groups by 50%, 36% compared with that of control. Lipid peroxide values(LPO) in liver were higher 5.6 and 2.5 times in STZ-0E and STZ-40E groups than that of control. Plasma cortisol levels were higher STZ-0E and STZ-40E groups compared with those of control, but cortisol levels were lower significantly in STZ-400E group compared with those of the STZ-0E and the STZ-40E groups. The plasma insulin levels were lower in all three STZ-diabetic group compared with that of control, but were not affected by the level of dietary vitamin E. The metallothionein (MT) contents in liver, kidney and small intestine were five times higher in STZ-0E, STZ-40E and STZ-400E compared with that of control, but STZ-400E group was lower in the MT contents in tissues compared with that of STZ-40E group. Zn-MT peak in STZ-diabetic rats liver increased than that of control by Sephadex G-75, and Zn-MT peak divided into MTI and MTII peaks by DEAE Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. The present results indicate that STZ-induced diabetic rats are more sensitive to oxidative stress, leading to the acceleration of lipid peroxidation process, which can be more promoted low level of dietary vitamin E. And the result may that increase synthesis of MT induced in the liver of diabetic rats increased so it can be sure that the diabetes is one of the MT induce factor by free radical generation. And high vitamin E supplementation reduced total MT contents of liver, kidney and small intestine and the peak of purified Zn-MT. Through the results of these experiments, we can conclude that MT might be the free radical scavenger.
Effect of Taurine Supplement on the Lipid Peroxide Formation and the Activity of Glutathione-Dependent Enzyme in the Liver and Islet of Diabetic Model Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 195~201
In this study we wanted to investigate the effect of taurine supplement on the lipid peroxide formation and the activities of glutathione(GSH) dependent enzyme in diabetic model mice. We induce type I diabetes mellitus with alloxan injeciton in ICR mice and type II with high calorie diet in genetically hyperglycemic KK mice. Taurine was given in drinking water at the level of 5%(w/v) for seven days. In type I diabetic model, the malondialdehyde(MDA) of liver and islet significantly increased compared to control group and they significantly decreased by taurine supplement. In type II diabetic model, the concentration of MDA was not changed by taurine supplement. The activities of GSH-peroxidase(GPX) of liver and islet increased in type I diabetic group while decreased in type II. GPX activities were not changed by taurine supplement in the liver of both types but increased in the islet of type II. Taurine supplement has no effect on the activities of GSH S-transferase(GST) in both types. From these results, we suggest that taurine supplement protect against lipid peroxide formation in diabetic model of type I.
Effect of Lipoxygenase and Other Factors on the Co-oxidation of
-Carotene in Aqueous Model System
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 202~207
The effects of lipoxygenase, linoleic acid, tocopherol and pH on the co-oxidation of
-carotene in the aqueous system were studied. It showed that the co-oxidation of
-carotene was noticeable at both pH 7.4 and 9.0. As the concentraitons of linoleic acid and
-carotene increased, the rate of oxidation of
-carotene tended to be increased. However,
-tocopherol retarded the co-oxidation of
-carotene. As the concentrations of tocopherols increased,
-carotene was more stabilized, generally. But low concentration of
-tocopherol(10-4M) acted more effective antioxidant than high concentration of it(10-3M) at pH 7.4. The antioxidant effect of tocopherol greatly depended on pH ; it was outstanding at pH 7.4.
Organic Acids and Volatile Flavor Compounds in Traditional Andong Sikhe
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 208~213
Andong Sikhe in Korea was prepared and fermented at 5
and the taste and flavor compounds were evaluated. Major flavor components were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer as camphene, sabinene, 1-(1, 5-dimethyl-4-hexyl)-4-methyl-benzene, alpha-zingibirene, farnesene, 2, 6-bis(1, 1-dimethylethyl)-4-metethyl-phenol, beta-sesquiphellandrene, calalene, tetradecanoic acid, and 9, 12-octadecanoic acid. The concentration of nonvolatile organic acid such as lactic acid, oxalic acid and citric acid were 18.10mg/100g, 1.04mg/100g and 1.37mg/100g, respectively, and those of other nonvolatile organic acid were a little. The pH and acidity of Andong Sikhe were 4.06 and 0.32 during fermentation and storage.
A Study on Elimination of Captan Residues Sticked on Spinach
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 214~218
Elimination of residual captan during the storage and cooking process was investigated. The concentration of residual captan after sticking and drying fo captan on spinach was 2.938ppm. During storage of 5, 10, 15 and 20 days at 15
, the amount of residual captan decreased to 73.18, 80.80, 89.99 and 98.40% of the initial amount, respectively. When spinach was stored at 3
, the concentration of residual captan decreased to 58.20, 61.37, 72.84 and 76.31% and the storage was carried out at -17
, residual captan amount decreased to 7.18, 22.67, 34.58 and 40.91% of the initial amout, respectively according to the storage period. In the case of the residual captan of seasoned spinach, the storage of 2, 24 and 48 hours at 15
, the amout of residual captan decreased to 0.772(39.69%), 0.661(77.50%) and 0.063ppm(97.86%) of the initial amount, respectively. When spinach was stored at 3
, the amount of residual captan decreased to 2.344 (20.22%), 1.021(65.25%) and 0.329ppm(88.80%) and the storage was carried out at -17
, residual captan amount decreased to 2.428(17.36%), 1.520(48.26%) and 0.726ppm(75.29%) of the initial amount, respectively according to the storage period. In the case of the residual captan of spinach cooked with edible oil for 2, 4 and 6 minutes and then cooking oil was discarded, each decreasing rate of the captan sticked to thespinach was 96.29, 97.86 and 99.18%, respectively. The rate of removed the captan sticked to the spinach with oil was 73.32, 86.32 and 87.13%, respectively. From these results, the storage in room temperature and the addition of seasoning to the spinach could lead to decrease in the concentration of the residual captan, furthemore the cooking could inhance decreasing of residual captan.
Flavor Component, Fatty Acid and Organic Acid of Natto with Spice Added
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 219~227
Natto is a Japanese tradiational food made from whole soybeans by the fermentation of Bacillus natto. This study was attempted to improve the taste of Natto, garlic(2%) and red pepper oleoresin(0.2%) were added. Conventional Natto(N-1), garlic Natto(N-2), red pepper oleoresin Natto(N-3), garlic and red pepper oleoresin Natto(N-4) were prepared. Volatile flavor components, fatty acid, organic acid, pH and titratable acdity in all samples were investigated. The experimental results revealed the presence of 62 volatile components in conventional Natto. Among there, the major flavor compounds were identified to be 2, 5-dimethylpyrazine, trimethyl-pyrazine, 2, 6-bis91, 1-dimethylethyl) phenol. Seventy-one volatile compounds were detected in N-2, and major compounds were identified to be methyl-2-propenyl disulfide, 2, 6-bis(1, 1-dimethylethyl)phenol and 2, 5-dimethylpyrazine. The amounts of volatile compounds, 2-methyoxyphenol and 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid increased by addition of garlic, where as, 1,2 -propanediol, 1-hexanol and 2, 5-dimethylpyrazine decreased. The compounds, 4, 5-dihydroxy-5-propyl-1H-pyrazole, 1, 1, 3-trimethylcyclopentane were identified in N-3. The compounds, such as trimethylpyrazine, 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine increased by addition of red pepper oleoresin, whereas 1,2-propanediol, 1-hexanol and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine decreased. Fatty acid compositions were mainly consisted of linoleic acid(43.66~55.89%) and followed by oleic, palmitic, linolenic, stearic, arachidic, myristic acid. The organic acids we4re identified to be citric(28.2~30.6), acetic(50.0~73.3) and pyroglutamic acid(2.1~3.7).
, Protease Activity and Sensory Evaluation of Natto Added with Spice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 228~233
To make Natto, tradiational Japanese food fermented by Bacillus natto, more acceptable to Koreans, garlic(2%) and/or red pepper oleoresin(0.2%) were mixed with Natto. Through out the fermentation period, the changes in enzyme activities and sensory evaluation were compared with those of conventional Natto. Nattokinase activities were detected from 12 hour fermentation in all samples. After that period, steady increased in Nattokinase activity was observed. The activity of nattokinase decreased slightly when garlic and/or red pepper oleoresin was added. Changes in
) was not significant among samples and the similar tendency was observed in nattokinase activity. With addition of garlic, production of protease reached maximum after 8 hour of fermentation whereas it took 16 hour when red pepper oleoresin was added. However, after 24 hour of fermentation, any significant differences in protease activity were not observed. Sensory evaluation indicated that the tastes of Natto with either garlic and red pepper oleoresin or red pepper oleoresin only were much more acceptable than conventional Natto or one with garlic only.
Oxidative Stability of Fatty Acids and Tocopherols in the Fats and Oils during Microwave Heating
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 234~241
Effect of microwave heating on the oxidative stability of the soybean oil, sesame oil, butter and margarine were investigated by mearsuring fatty acids amout and tocopherol losses. The index for chemical properteis, free fatty acid, peroxide value, anisidine value, carbonyl value, conjugated diene and triene levels were also mearsured in the oil samples for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min of heating in a microwave oven. No significant difference was observed on the fatty acids composition in the fats and oils before and after microwave heating. During microwave treatment, the oxidative degradation of the tocopherols in the samples became greater with increasing heating time. The amount of tocopherols in the soild fats, butter and margarine, dropped drastically after 5 min of heating and reduced to 95% of their original levels after 20min heating
-tocopherol in butter showed the most unstable states and completely destroyed during microwave treatment for 20min. On the other hand, 80% of tocopherols in the liquid oils were still remained after 5min of heating except
-tocopherol in sesame oil.
Changes in the Components of Cell Wall of Persimmon Fruit by Treatments of Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 242~246
This paper was carried out to investigate changes in cell wall, cell wall polysaccharides, pectic substances extracted from cell wall of persimmon fruits treated with polygalacturonase and
-galactosidase in vitro. Degrading degree of cell wall treated with cell wall-degrading enzymes were higher in order polygalacturonase, polygalacturonase+
-galactosidase. Contents of soluble pectic substances in cell wall treated with cell wall-degrading enzymes showed as the same order as degrading degree of cell wall, while contents of insoluble pectin lower. Contents of versene-soluble pectin and total pectic substance were not affected by cell wall-degrading enzymes. Contents of uronic acid and hexose in soluble material isolated from cell wall treated with polygalacturonase and mixed enzyme were higher than those of untreatment and
Changes in the Non-cellulosic Neutral Sugars of Cell Wall of Persimmon Fruit by Treatment of Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 247~253
This paper was performed to investigate the changes of non-cellulosic neutral sugars composition in cell wall of persimmon fruit by treatment of cell wall degrading enzyme in vitro. Rhamnose, xylose and galactose in cell wall by polygalacturonase treatment, arabinose, galactose and rhamnose in cell wall by mixed enzyme treatment and arabinose and galactose in cell wall by
treatment decreased, respectively. Noncellulosic neutral sugars of pectins extracted cell wall by enzyme treatments decreased and those by polygalacturonase treatment decreased remarkably. Rhamnose, arabinose and xylose in hemicellulose I of cell wall by polygalacturonase treatment were higher than those of untreated, and rhamnose and xylose in that by
treatment were higher but arabinose, mnnose and galactose decreased. Xylose, mannose and glucose in that by mixed enzyme treatment were higher than those of untreatment and arabinose and galactose decreased. Contents of total non-cellulosic neutral sugars in hemicellulose of untreatment, and contents xylose, and glucose in hemicellulose II of cell wall by polygalacturonase treatmet decreased but those of other treatments were not changed.
Preparation of Yogurt Added with Aloe vera and Its Quality Characteristics
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 254~260
Yogurt base were prepared from milk added with skim milk powder or Aloe vera powder and femented with lactic acid bacteria(the single or mixed strain of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus). The yogurt product were evaluated for acid production(pH, titratable acidity), number of viable cell, viscosity, sensory property and quality-keeping property. The composition of organic acid were also analyzed by HPLC. Addition of Aloe vera remarkably accelerated acid production, and titratable acidity of Aloe vera yogurts(1.293∼1.407%) after 24 hours incubation was higher than that of yogurts added with only skim milk powder(9.98∼1.110%). Yogurt fermented with the mixed strain of L. bulgaricus and Sc. thermophilus was more acidic than that of single strains. The propagation of lactic acid bacteria was stimulated by Aloe vera and the number of viable cell after 24 hours incubation were above 9.87log CFU/ml. Viscosity of Aloe vera yogurt(3,860∼4,300CPS) was higher than that of yogurt with only skim milk powder(2,402∼2,604CPS). The overall sensory score of Aloe vera yogurt femented by mixed strain was the best of tested yogurt. When yogurt with Aloe vera was kept at 5℃ for 15 day, it's quality-keeping property was relatively good. The major organic acid of Aloe vera yogurt was lactic acid and lactic acid content of yogurt increased by addition of Aloe vera powder. The citric acid content decreased wtih fermentation and malonic acid, pyroglutaric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid were analyzed out a little.
Processing Conditions of Low Salt Fermented Squid and its Flavor Components 1. Volatile Flavor Components of Low Salt Fermented Squid
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 261~267
Low-salted and fermented squid product, squid jeotkal was prepared with the addition of 10% salt and fermented for 50 day at 1
. During fementation of squid, sensory evaluation and changes of volatile components were examined. Volatile flavor components in raw squid and low-salted squid jeotkal were extracted using a rotary evaporating system. The volatile concentrates were identified by GC and GC-MS. Major volatile components of raw squid were methional and 2-methyl-2-propanol. However, alcohols such as propanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and phenylethyl alcohol increased during the period of fermentation. The model reaction using microorganism was carried out, in order to confirm formation mechanism ofvolatile flavor compounds of the squid during fermentation. The main volatile components of Pseudomonas sp. D2 model system were isoamyl alcohol and acetoin. Those of Staphylococcus xylosus model system were isoamyl alcohol and phenylacetaldehyde.
Seasonal Variations of Nutrients in Warty Sea Squirt(Styela clava)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 268~273
To study the nutritional value of warty sea squirt, Styela clava, which is one kind of urochoda and it has been used as special seafood stuffs by Korean, the seasonal variations of nutrient was investigated. The moisture content was ranged from 83.6% to 86.8% in experimental period. Maximun glycogen content showed up in June (3.7g/100g sample). The protein(N
6.25) and lipid content varied with glycogen whereas ash content was not changed remarkably, showing 2.8
0.3%. Predominant minerals in edible portion and integuments were sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in order. Predominant constitutiional amino acids were asparagine, glutamic acid, taurine, aspartic acid, lysine and glycine and amino acids occupied 50% of the total amino acid. Porportion of nonpolar lipid to total lipid increased from April to early June while polar lipid level decreased. The neutral lipid was composed of triglyceride(59.32%) and free sterol(23.52%), and followed by diglycerides, monoglycerides, esterified sterols and hydrocarbon, free fatty acid. The phospholipid was mainly composed with phosphatidyl choline(49.7%), and phosphatidyl ethanolamine(33.0%). The major fatty acids of the total lipid in warty sea squirt were C20 : 5(17%), C22 : 6(13.76%), C16 : o(13.91%) and C16 : 1(12.52%).
Seasonal Variations of Taste Components in Warty Sea Squirt(Styela clava)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 274~279
Seasonal variation of the taste components such as free amino acids, nucleotides, quarternary ammonium bases, and guanidino compounds in warty sea squirt(S. clava) were determined bimonthly from April to October for its food quality contributed in Korean seafood dishes. Fifty to sixty two percentage of the extractable nitrogen was free amino acids, and mainely it composed of taurine, proline, glutamic acid, glycine and glycinebetaine. Among the various taste component, betaine's level was somewhat higher(11~15%) and nucleotides related compounds also followed(5~8%). Most of nitrogenous compounds in the extractives reached to a maximum value in June and AMP content was relatively higher than the other nucleotides. The major organic acids were composed of succinic acid, malic acid, lactic acid and pyroglutaric acid in S. clava. The result of omission test suggested that the taste of S. clava is mainly attributed to free amino acids, betaines, nucleotides and non-volatile organic acid in order.
Effects of Antimicrobial of Leaf Mustard(Brassica juncea) Extract on Compositions and Leakage of Cellular Materials in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 280~285
To develop natural food preservatives, antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of leaf mustard against E. coli and S. aureus were examined in terms of compositions and leakage of cellular materials in the microorganisms treated with the extract. No effect of the concentration of ethanol extract on the fatty acid composition of E. coli and S. aureus at logarithmic phase was showen, but the content of palmitic and palmitoleic acid of E. coli slightly increased and decreased, respectively, and the content of palmitic and margaric acid of S. aureus slightly increased, when compared to each control. Ethanol extract did not affect most of the amino acids E. coli and S. aureus at logarithmic phase ; however, some of them(proline, glycine, valine and histidine of E. coli and proline, methionine and histidine of s. aureus) were elevated and some other amino acid(aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine and arginine of E. coli and aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine and lysine of Staph. aureus) found to be decreased. The amount of cell body protein leaked from E. coli and S. aureus increased to 1.02 and 0.22mg/g cell weight, respectively, as compared to controls. Similarly, the substances with absorbance at 260 nm from E. coli and s. aureus increased to 0.12 and 0.06mg/g cell weight, respectively.
Comparison on Dimension and Hydration Rate of Korean Kidney Beans
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 286~292
Proximate composition, dimension, water uptake and volume increase rates of three cultivars of Korean kidney beans, Pink(PKB), Red(RKB) and White(WKB) were compared. Significant differences in the proximate composition and calorie were not observed among samples. Hull removed samples showed the lowest ash content and the highest calorie. The rates of water uptake increased as the soaking temperature increased from 10~4
. The moisture gain of the kidney beans during soaking showed a similar pattern to volume increase. Water uptake and volume increase rates were in the decreasing order of PKB, RKB and WKB. Moisture and volume gains held a linear relation with the square root of soaking time regardless soaking temperatures. The activation energies of water uptake and volume increase were 3033~3087 and 3077~ 3161 kcal/mole, respectively. The log time to reach a fixed moisture content showed a linear relation with soaking temperature regardless soaking temperatures. The z-values calculated from weight and volume changes decreased in proportions to the increase of hydration. The z-values of weight and volume to reach 50% hydration were 50.5~56.6
Antimicrobial Effect of Tea Extracts from Green Tea, Oolong Tea and Black Tea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 293~298
Antimicrobial effect of tea extracts from green tea(steamed, roasted), oolong tea and black tea was investigated. Minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of tea extraxcts against 9 well known strains of foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was determined at 37
. Significant antimicrobial activity was observed in the steamed green tea and the roasted green tea of the water-soluble fraciton, and the steamed green tea of the methanol-soluble fraction, and the steamed green tea, roasted green tea and the oolong tea of the crude catechin fraction. The MIC of these extracts against B. subtillis were 700
/ml and 120
/ml, respectively. The crude catechin fraction possessed greater antimicrobial activity than did the other fractions. Among tea extracts, extracts of steamed green tea, roasted green tea and oolong tea showed higher antimicrobial activity than them of black tea. The MIC of the crude catechin fraction obtained from tea extracts against Gram-positive bacteria such as M. Iuteus, B. subtillis and S. mutans were 30~50
/ml and 120~180
/ml, and against Gram-negative bacteri such as e. aerogenes and V. parahaemolyticus were 50~60
/ml and 60~70
/ml in the broth medium, respectively. Especially, the MIC to Streptococcus mutans which has known as a causative bacteria of a decayed tooth were 120
/ml and above 1,000
/ml in steamed green tea, roasted green tea, oolong tea and black tea, respectively. Tea extracts had strong growth inhibition activity against foodborne pathogenic and dental bacteria.
Antioxidative Effect of Tea Extracts from Green Tea, Oolong Tea and Black Tea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 299~304
Antioxidative effect of tea extracts from green tea(steamed, roasted), oolong tea and black tea was investigated. Antioxidative activities of the crude catechin fraction were the most effective in oolong tea which contained the highest level of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate(EGCg). The water-soluble fraction obtained from oolong tea exhibited binding with more ferrous than copper ions. It showed a synergistic effect when used with an antioxidant such as BHT(0.5mg) and
-tocopherol(2mg). Especially, this synergistic effect was exhibited more with BHT than with
-tocopherol. Also steamed green tea, roasted green tea and oolong tea showed remarkable free radical scavenging action. The SC50(the concentration of a water-soluble fraction which is required to scavenge 50% of 100
M 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radicals) of steamed and roasted green tea, oolong tea and black tea extracts were 11.3
/ml and 14.9
/ml, respectively. It is assumed that the antioxidative activity of tea extracts is due to inhibition of peroxidation free radical scavenging and binding action of ferrous ions by mainly tea polyphenol compounds.
Inhibitory Effects of Ixeris Dentata on the Mutagenicity of Aflatoxin
, N-methyl-N연-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and the Growth of MG-63 Human Osteosarcoma Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 305~312
Ixeris dentata was extracted with methanol and then the methanol extract was further fractionated to hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fraction. The methanol extract of lxeris dentata had the strong antimutagenic effect on the aflatoxin B1(AFB1) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) in Ames mutagenicity test and SOS chromotest. Among the solvent extracted fractions from the methanol extract, the chloroform fraction exhibited the greatest antimutagenic effect suppressing the mutagenicity of AFB1 with inhibition rate of 74 percent. The methanol extract of Ixeris dentata also revealed the inhibitory effect on the growth of MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells after 6 days of breeding at 37℃. The chloroform fraction and the ethyl acetate fraction from the methanol extract of lxeris dentata were most effective and inhibited the growth of MG-63 cells by 97 and 93 percent, respectively. It is suggested that the inhibitory effects of lxeris dentata on the mutagenicity and the growth of MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells are strong in the lipid soluble fractions.
Effect of Ginseng on the Preservability and Quality of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 313~322
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ginseng on the preservability and quality of Chinese cabbage Kimchi. The effect of ginseng on the growth of Lactobacilli, pH, titratable acidity, amount of juice, sensory quality and fracitonation of cell wall ploysaccharides, and enzyme activities related to softening were examined during fermentation. Ginseng promoted the growth of L. brevis and it didn't influence L. plantarum and L. fermentum. But Leuc. mesenteroides and P. cerevisiae was inhibited a little by adding of ginseng. The quality of ginseng added Kimchi evaluated by nalysis of the pH, acidity, sensory quality, the amount of juice, and overall eating quality during fermentation was better than those of control Kimchi, and 2% ginseng added Kimchi was the best ont the preservability and quality. The activity of β -galactosidase in ginseng added Kimchi was higher than that of control Kimchi. But the activity of polygalacturonase in ginseng added Kimchi was the same as that of control Kimchi. Ginseng added Kimchi showed more desirable softness of tissue. This was the same result as the analysis of pectic substance and hemicellulosic polysaccharides composed of cell wall polysaccharides. The value of L(lightness) of ginseng added Kimchi was highly maintained during the edible period and the yellow color from the ginseng was moved to Kimchi tissue in the ginseng added Kimchi.
A Study on the Utilization with the Protein Forthification Material of Skip-jack Dark Meat Protein by Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 323~329
For the effective utilization of dark meat separated as by-product from skip-jack canning, the dark meat concentrate(DPC) was prepared by removal of extractable materials with ethanol from dried dark meat. Dark meat protein hydrolysate(DPH) was prepared by the hydrolysis of DPC with
hydrolysed DPC to the extend of 79% during 10hr. The solubility over a pH range 1~12 showed similar trend on the both of DPH and DPC. The highest solubility was 81% on the DPH and was 36% on the DPC at pH 3. The lowest solubility was 65% on the DPH and was 22% on the DPC at pH 7. The content of total free amino acid was higher in the DPC than in the DPH, but the content of total essential free amino acid was higher in the DPH. Especially, the contents of taurine in the DPC and DPH were much higher than those of other amino acids. The result of sensory evaluation on the fish sauce analogue showed good taste, color and odor at the supplemented level of 8g DPH per 100ml of raw solution of fish sauce analogue and didn't show signifcaint difference compared with market fish sauce(p<0.05). On the preparation of surimi gel, 2% substitution of DPH for the supplemented starch was the most appropriate level.
Effect of Onion on Dongchimi Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 330~335
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of onion on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of Dongchimi. Dongchimi with levels(0, 5, 10, 20%) of onion was fermented at twodifferent temperatures : Group A was fermented at 4
and group B was fermented at 4
after fermentation at room temperature(27
) for 24 hours. During the fermentation up to 45 days, total acidity increased while pH decreased gradually. Total acidity of group B was relatively higher than that of group A. The content of reducing sugar was reached the maximum value in 6 days of fermentation in the group A and on 3 days in the group B. Especially, the highest content of reducing sugar was shown on the Dongchimi added with 5% onion in the group A and 20% onion in the group B. Vitamin C was reduced in the early stage of fermentation, and increased gradually after 10 days. However, vitamin C of Dongchimi without onion increased rapidly in the early stage of fermentation and remarkably decreased thereafter. After 20 days, vitamin C was maintained in Dongchimi added with 10% onion of both two groups. The number of lactic acid bacteria was reached the maximum value on 1 day in the Dongchimi without onion and on 3 days in the Dongchimi added 5, 10 and 20% onion of group A, while gropu B was reached on 1 days and then decreased thereafter. As a result of the sensory evaluation, Dongchimi added 5% onion in the group A showed the highest scores in texture and overall acceptability. Whereas, in the group B, Dongchimi added 20% onion was the most preferable one.
The Status of Body Protein Metabolism Based on the Urinary Excretion of Total Amino Acids in Normal and Diabetic Rat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 336~340
Urinary excretion of total amino acids was measrued in normal and diabetic rats, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats excreted increased amount of urinary total amino acids and nitrogen. This suggested increased degradation of body protein. Although excretion of total amino acids increased in the diabetic rats, the amino acid pattern of amino acids for both groups were very similar. The efficiency of dietary protein utilization was significantly lower in diabetic rats then that of normal rats. Streptozotocin injeciton affected the urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine whereas diet did not. These findings suggest that the rate of urinary excretion of total amino acids can be empolyed as an index of protein metabolism, particulary as a simple index in the assesing the status of protein nutrition.
Characteristics of Particles Structure of Delactosed Nonfat Dry Milk
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 341~345
In comparison with calcium caseinate, delactosed nonfat dry milk has a greater particle size but also a higher bulk density, reflecting the differences in their composition and physical structure. Particles of delactosed nonfat dry milk were bigger than those of nonfat dry milk as a result of swelling and aggregation. The particle size was shown not to be correlated with the bulk density. The differences in particle characteristics between delactosed nonfat dry milk and nonfat dry milk were caused by the removal of lactose producing highly porous particles. The particles of delactosed nonfat dry milk were observed to be much more irregular, rough, hollow, fragile, and swelling as a result of solvent treatment.
Assessment of Zinc Requirement for Human
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 2, 1995, Pages 346~353
The dietary requirement for zinc to maintain optimally the various metabolic and physiological funcitons is still under study. Human beings adapt to reductions in zinc intake by reducing the rate of growth or zinc excretion. Reductions in dietary zinc beyond the capacity to maintain homeostasis lead to utilization of zinc from an exchangeable pool. Loss of a small, critical amount of zinc from this pool leads to both biochemical and clinical signs of zinc deficiency. Zinc requirements have been assessed by balance studies and factorial method. As tissue zinc status influences endogenous losses and the dietary needs, individuls in good status may require higher amounts of zinc than those in poor status. While plasma zinc is insensitive to reducitons in dietary zinc, it is regarded as a valid, useful indicator of the exchangeable pool of zinc. Plasma metallothionein concentrations may prove useful for identifying poor zinc status. It has been suggested that functional end point measurement is the new direciton for zinc requirement. However, determination of the functional response to a marginal zinc intake is difficult because of the lack of a specific, sensitive indicator of zinc status. Presently, no good method for assessment of human zinc requirements exists.