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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 1995
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 1995
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 1995
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 1995
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 1995
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 1995
Selecting the target year
Relationship between Dietary, Blood and Urinary Levels of Lead, Blood Pressure and Serum Lipids in Korean Rural People on Self-Selected Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 829~836
This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between dietary, blood and urinary levels of lead and blood pressure and serum lipids in 30 healthy adult living in rural area of Korea. Analysis for the nutritional status of subjects were performed by 3-day dietary intake record, duplicated diet collection, 24-hour urine collection, and venous blood sampling before anthropometry. The mean daily intakes of lead estimated for 3 days was
. The blood levels and 24-hour urinary excretion of lead were
, respectively. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure were
. The serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and
, respectively. There was no significance in the relation between lead and blood pressure. In the relation between lead and serum lipids, it showed negative correlation with lead intake and HDL-choleterol at the level of significance of p<0.01. But there was no significance in the relation between lead and serum levels of otehr lipids.
Effect of Dietary Hot Red Pepper Powder on Humoral Immune Response in Rat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 837~842
Hot red pepper(Capsicum annum L.) has been extensively used as a spicy food additive and preservative in Korea. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary hot red pepper powder on humoral immune response in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets containing 0, 2, 5, 10% hot red pepper powder for 27 days. All groups were immunized with sheep red blood cells. In order to measure the immune response, plaque-forming cell number, agglutination titer, and serum antibody level were measured. Tissue ascorbic acid contents were also determined by high-performance liquid chromatogrphy. There was an increased plaque-forming cell number, agglutination titer, and serum IgG level in the groups supplemented with hot red pepper powder as compared to control. Tissure ascorbic acid contents in the hot pepper powder supplemented group were higher than those of control. The results suggest that the dietary hot red pepper powder enhances humoral immune response in rats, indicating that the hot pepper contains biological response modifier.
The Effect of Dietary Fiber on The Liver Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 843~847
To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber on the protein utilization, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diet containing 15% or 30% of pectin and 15% or 30%
. Control group was fed fiber free diet. The animals were fed and libitum for 5 weeks. Weight gain was less in the rat fed a pectin supplemented diet than those fed
supplemented or control diet. Furthermore, weight gain decreased more by the addition of 30% pectin than 15% pectin level. The rats fed
or pectin shwoed a decreasing tendency of food efficiency ratio compared to the control group. The rats fed a diet containing pectin showed an increasing tendency of the liver weight compared to the control group and those fed cellulose. The rats fed a diet containing pectin showed a decreasing tendency of hepatic protein content compared to those fed cellulose or control group fed fiber free diet. The rats fed diet containing pectin(15%, 30%) showed remarkable decreased activity of liver xanthine oxidase compared with those fed
or the control group. These results suggested that the pectin may be alter the absorption of protein in intestinal lumen.
Effect of Dietary Vitamin A on the Status of Antioxidants in Ethanol-Treated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 848~858
Effect of Dietary Vitamin A on the Status of Antioxidants in Ethanol-TreaThe present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin A on the antioxidant status in ethanol-treated rats. Weaning rats were fed a basal diet until they reached about 160-180g body weight. Thereafter, four experimental groups were fed a liquid diet containing 36% ethanol of total calorie and four pair-fed groups were fed isocaloric sucorse instead of ethanol. Additionally, the liquid diet contained adequate amount of
, retinyl acetate, or 13-cis-retinoic acid except vitamin A deficient diet. The rats were sacrificed after 7 weeks of feedng periods. Significant decrease in hepatic vitamin E content was found in rats treated with chronic ethanol. However, dietary supplementation of retinyl acetate modified the change to some extent. Total vitamin C content of liver increased in vitamin A-deficient or
groups with ethanol feeding. The ratio of reduced/oxidized vitamin C increased in the plasma and liver of
group with ethanol feeding. Chronic ethanol intake did not change the total glutathione content of rat liver, but increased reduced glutathione(GSH)/oxidized glutathione(GSSG) ratio. This increase in hepatic GSH after chronic ethanol treatment. The changes of Se content in plasma and liver was not consistant. Fe content of liver increased by ethanol treatment, but this increase reduced in rats fed dietary retinyl acetate or 13-cis-retinoic acid. Fe content of plasma increased in vitamin A-deficient and
supplemented groups with ethanol intake.ed Rats
Effects of Chronic Alcohol Feeding and 2-Acetylaminofluorene Treatment on Microsomal Cytochrome P-450 and Glutathione Dependent Enzymes Activities in Rat Liver
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 859~866
This study was done to investigate the effects of chronic ethanol feeding on hepatic microsomal cytochrome system, lipid peroxidation and peroxide metabolizing enzyme activities in 2-acetylaminofluorene(2-AAF) treated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 120~125g, were pair-fed liquid diets containing 35% of total calories either as ethanol or isocaloric carbohydrates for 6 weeks. After 4 weeks of experimental diet feeding, 2-AAF(100mg/kg body weight) was injected twice a week intraperitoneally. Both weight and percent liver weight per body weight were significantly changed by ethanol feeding. Hepatic microsomal lipid peroxide value and the activities of glutathione(GSH) peroxidase and GSH reductase were not changed by either ethanol or 2-AAF treatment. However the analysis of cytochrome systems showed that both ethanol and 2-AAF increased cytochrome P-450 and bs contents although cytochrome P-450 content was moe affected by 2-AAF while cytochrome b5 content by ethanol. Cytosolic GSH S-transferase activity, which is often elevated during chemical carcinogenesis, also significantly increased by either ethanol feeding or 2-AAF treatment. Overall values for the cytochrome contents and GSH S-transferase activities were highest in 2-AAF treated rats fed ethanol. These results might support the hypothesis that the increase in liver cancer risk associated with chronic ethanol consumption might be due to, at least in part, enhancement of carcinogen bioactivation by ethanol.
Effect of Chronic Alcohol Feeding and 2-Acetylaminofluorene Treatment on Hepatic Mitochondrial ATPase Activity and Membrane Lipid Composition in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 867~873
This study was done ot investigate the effect of chronic alcohol feeding and acetylaminofluorene(2-AAF) treatment on hepatic mitochondrial ATPase activity andmembrane lipid composition. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 120~125g, were fed for 6 weeks on a liquid diet containing 35% of calories as ethanol. After 4 weeks of experiment diet feeding, 2-AAF(100mg/kg body weight) was injected twice a week intraperitoneally. Body weight and percent liver weight per body weight were significantly changed by ethanol feeding. Hepatic mitochondrial ATPase activity significantly decreased by ethanol feedings but not by 2-AAF treatment. In comparison to control, the ATPase activity of ethanol-AAF group decreased 29.3%. Since phospholipid(PL) content of mitochondria has an interaction effect between ethanol and 2-AAF treatment, 2-AAF treatment significantly increased phospholipid content in only ethanol fed group. Total cholesterol(C) level of mitochondria significantly increased by ethanol feeding. Consequently C/PL ratio of ethanol group was significantly higher than that of control group. The analysis of mitochondrial PL composition showed that cardiolipin(CL) significantly increased by 2-AFF treatment in control group. Phosphatidyl choline(PC) significantly increased by ethanol feeding, whereas PC significanlty decreased and phosphatidyl ethanolamine(PE) significantly increased by 2-AAF treatment. 2-AAF treatment also showed a significant increase in PE/PC ratio. Fatty acid patterns of mitochondria were also changed by either ethanol or 2-AAF although the severity of the changes was not great. These data suggest that the reduced mitochondrial ATPase activity in ethanol-AAF group may be a consequence of a changes in mitochondrial membrane lipid composition such as PE/PC ratio, C/PL ration and fatty acid patterns.
Effects of Duck Oil on Serum and Organ Lipid Composition in Mature Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 874~879
This study was designed to evaluate lipid component of serum and organ in matured rats fed oil extract from ducks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 595g(52-week-old) were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Rats were fed soybean oil(control group) diet, duck oil(DO group) diet and duck oil supplemented with 1% cholesterol(DOC group) diet. Serum triglyceride concentration was significantly lower in DO and DOC groups than that in the control group. Serum total cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in DOC group than those in the other groups, while serum HDL-cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in DOC group than those in the other groups. Hepatic total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations in DOC group were significantly higher than those in the other groups. These studies indicate that the duck oil decreases the concentrations of triglyceride and shows almost same concentrations of total cholesterol compared to the soybean oil supplemented group in serum and liver. But hypercholesterolemic effect of duck oil was not improved.
Antimutagenic Effects of Boiled Water Extract and Tannin from Persimmon Leaves
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 880~886
Antimutagenic effects of boiled water extract and tannin from persimmon leaves were studied by using Ames test, spore rec assay and SOS chromotest. Strong antimutagenic activities toward aflatoxin B1(AFB1), dimethyl-aminobiphenyl(DMAB), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide(4-NQO) were observed when boiled water extract and tannin from the persimmon leaves were added in the Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. In spore rec assay using Bacillus subtilis H17(
) and M45(
), boiled water extract and tannin from the persimmon leaves considerably inhibited the mutagenesis induce by MNNG. In SOS chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37, these samples also exhibited strong antimutagenic activity toward 4-NQO. The tannin was more effective than boiled water extract of persimmon leaves in the antimutagenicity tests.
Differences in Nutrient Intakes Analysed by Using Food Frequency and Recall Method
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 887~891
Nutrient intake data collected by both dietary methods of the 24 hour recall method and the food frequency method from 538 middle school students were analysed to investigate any measurement errors occuring while using these methods. Measurement errors were observed both in terms of differences of average intake and consistancy from the two sources of data used. Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to test the differences between the two average intakes and Speraman's rank order correlation coefficient was used to test consistancy. As a result, average intake value estimated from the food frequency method tended to be higher than that from the 24 hour recall method. The degree of overestimation varies from one nutrient to another. For instance, carotene showed not only the most significant differences in average intake but also showed the most incoisistancies between the two sets of data. This may imply the validity of nutrient intake as derived from different dietary survey methods varied from one nutrient to another, therefore the selection of dietary survey methods has to be made more cautiously in the case of certainnutrients.
Studies of Specific Foods to Absolute Intake and Between-Person-Variance in Various Nutrients Intake
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 892~900
Dietary data of 538 middle school students have been analysed to identify the contribution of specific foods to absolute intake and between-person-variance in nutrient consumption. The 24-hour-dietary-recall method had been used to collect the data required. Contribution of specific foods, in terms of ranking order for both absolute intake and between-person-variance have been observed. Ranking order of food for absolute intake was given based on the percen of contribution whereas the ranking order of foods for between-person-variance was given based on the percent of contribution whereas the ranking order of foods for between-person-variance was given based on a coefficient fo variation. As a result, for most of the nutrients(except cholesterol), the ranking order of foods for the between-person-variance was quite different from that of absolute intake. The results indicate that to identify between-person-variance of nutrient intake in an epidemiology study, foods with a high ranking in between-person-variance should be included in developing the food frequency questionnaires rather than foods which showed a high ranking in absolute intake.
Flavonoid Analysis from the Leaves of Eucommia ulmoides
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 901~905
Three flavonoid compounds, astragalin(1), isoquercitrin(2) and quercetin
isolated from the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides were identified and quantified by HPLC. All flavonoids were well separated on a
column with a mobile phase composed of THF-dioxane-MeOH-HOAc-5%
(145 : 125 : 50 : 20 : 2 : 658). The contents of compound 1 in the methanol extract and n-butanol fraction were 0.09%(w/w) and 0.46%(w/w), of compound 2 were 0.08%(w/w) and 0.48%(w/w), and of compound 3 were 0.40%(w/w) and 1.22%(w/w), respectively.
Isolation and Biological Activity of Flavone Glycosides from the Aerial Part of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense in Korea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 906~910
Two flavone glycosides have been obtained from the aerial part of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense Kitamura(Co,positae) in Korea and identified by means of spectral analysis as linarin and cirsimarin. When 10-2mg/ml of cirsimas was added, lipid peroxide formation in the rat liver decreased by 12% compare to control.
The Components of the Sap from Gorosoe(Acer mono Max.) and Sugar Maple(Pseudo-sieboldianum Kom.)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 911~916
Even though the saps have been consumed as beverage in Korea for a very long period of time, a little research has been conducted on the chemical composition. We determined mineral, free sugar, composition amino acids and nucleotides in the sap of Gorosoe(Acer mono Max.) and Sugar Maple(Pseudo-sieboldianum Kom.) collected from Sancheong, Kurye and Hamyang. The contents of solid, crude protein and ash were 1.1~3.3%, 0.03~0.12% and 0.02~0.05% in the sap of Gorosoe and Sugar Maple, respectively. The detectable nucleotides were CMP, UMP, IMP, GMP, AMP and hypoxanthine. Free sugar that we determined in the sap of Gorosoe and Sugar Maple were sucrose, fructose and glucose, but maltose was not detected. The chief component of saccharides in the sap was sugar and ranged from 7.1 to 36.6g/L. Especially, the sucrose contents in the sap of Gorosoe and Sugar Maple from Hamyang were higher 3.7 and 2.2 times than those from the other samples. The prominent minerals in the sap were calcium and potassium. The calcium concentration was ranged from 99.0~153.3mg/L in the sap of Gorosoe and was ranged from 21.2~32.4mg/L in that of sugar maple. The sap of Gorosoe and Sugar Maple were composed of 18 and 15 kinds of amino acid respectively, and the total contents of amino acid were in the range of 0.7~29.3mg%. The major amino acids in the sap of Gorosoe were taurine, serine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid in decreasing order. Taurine contents in the sap of Gorosoe and Sugar Maple was found to be the dominant amino acid.
Compositions of Sugars and Fatty Acids in Soybean Paste (Doenjang) Prepared with Different Microbial Sources
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 917~924
Four types of soybean paste(Doenjang), prepared with traditional Korean meju, natto meju, koji and mixture of koji and natto meju, were analyzed for compositions of free sugars and fatty acids. Crude protein content of the soybean pastes were ranged from 10.3~14.6% and in the order of traditional Korean soybena paste>natto soybena paste>koji & natto soybean paste>koji soybean paste during fermentation of Doenjang. Ethyl alcohol contnet was relatively higher in koji and natto soybean paste after fermentation for 75 days, and its content was the highest in koji soybean paste as 2.8% after fermenting for 90 days. Contents of total sugars and reducing sugars decreased during fermentation of doenjang in the order of koji soybena paste>koji and natto soybean paste>traditional soybean paste>natto soybean paste. Among the free sugars glucose, galactose, mannose and arabinose were identified in soybean paste, and glucose and galactose were more bundant. Contents of glucose and total free sugars were the highest in the traditional Korean soybean paste and galactose content was highest in koji soybean paste. In fatty acid compositions of soybean pastes, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids were analyzed, and the most abundant fatty acid was found to be oleic acid as 38.5~46.9% in all samples tested. But no significant differences in ratio of fatty acid compositions was observed from tested samples during the fermentation period.
Comparison of GC Profile and Sensory Properties of Fermented Cheese Flavor Concentrates and Cheese Varieties
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 925~931
Volatile compounds in Cheddar, Emmentaler, Parmesan and Roquefort cheese and cheese aroma were concentrated using a microsteam distillation-extraction apparatus and those compounds were analyzed with GC. The lipase-treated cheese aroma concentrates showed significantly higher level of short-chain free fatty acids than natural ripened cheese. The sensory properties of rancidity was high in Emmemtaler and Parmesan. Acidity and fruitness were shown high score in Roquefort. Correlation of free fatty acids and cheese flavor 'sharpness, rancidity and soapy' appear to be related(r=0.8239, 0.8918 and 0.7503), respectively. Methyl ketones, the most striking flavor components of Roquefort cheese showed high amounts in the series 2-heptanone > 2-nonanone > 2-pentanone > 2-undecanone. And the intensity of the Roquefort taste sensation 'acidity and fruitness' is linearly correlated with the methyl ketone concentrations(r=0.9284, r=0.9659).
Extension of Shelf-Life of Kimchi by Addition of Chitosan during Salting
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 932~936
The effect of chitosan in a salting step on the shelf-life to kimchi was investigated. Kimchi, prepared by using Chinese cabbages soaked in 10% salt solutions containing 0, 5, 10, 20 or 30% of 0.5% chitosan solution, was examined for taste and texture by sensory and instrumental evaluation during fermentation at
for 20 days. Sensory tests of the control kimchi revealed a strong sour taste with poor crispness and overall taste after 10 days of fermentation. In comparison, the chitosan-supplemnted kimchi, especially that reated with 20 and 30% of a chitosan solution, revealed a sour taste only after 20 days of fermentation, while still maintaining good crispness and overall taste. Properties of hardness and gumminess of kimchi measured instrumentally were higher for the chitosan-added kimchi than for the control products. This increased with increasing volumes of chitosan solution throughout the fermentation periods. These results suggest that the shelf-life of kimchi can be extended approximately 10 days using Chinese cabbage soaked in 10% salt solutions containing 20 or 30% of a 0.5% chitosan solution.
Comparison on Optimum Soaking Condition and Cooking Properteis of Korean Kidney Beans
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 937~942
Cutting force, degree of cooking, cooking loss and absorbances of cooking solution of three cultivars of Korean kidney beans, Pink(PKB), Red(RKD) and White(WKB) were compared. The cutting force of raw kidney bean was 23,500~27,000g. The optimum soaking conditions to give the same cutting force of beans were 10hr at
. At optimum soaking conditions, the degree of cooking was determined by measuring the maximum cutting force of cotyledon. The terminal points of cooking at
were 23min for PKB, 25min for RKB and 27min for WKB. Cooking loss of kidney beans during cooking were 3.4~5.4%. Absorbances of cooking solution showed a similar pattern in all samples, except PKB soaked at
Preparation of Sweet Potato Drinks and Its Quality Characteristics
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 943~947
The sweet potato drinks were prepared with the reaction of sweet potato and complex enzyme(
, protease). The reducing sugar and soluble solid of sweet potato drinks were the highest on reaction of sweet potato : water(1 : 1) and complex enzyme(pH 4.5). In the color of the sweet potato drinks, hunter value(L, a, b) were the lowest on reaciton of sweet potato : water(1 : 1) and complex enzyme, and were the highest on reaciton of sweet potato : water(1 : 3) and complex enzyme(pH 4.5). In the sensory test of the sweet potato drinks, the sensory score(color, taste, flavor, texture) were the best on reaction of sweet potato : water(1 : 1) and complex enzyme(pH 4.5). These results demonstrated that the sweet potato drink was good to drink when sweet potato : water(1 : 1) were treated with complex enzyme at pH 4.5,
for 5 hrs.
Antimicrobial Substances of Distilled Components from Mustard Seed
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 948~955
To investigate the antimicrobial activities of mustard seed(Brassica juncea), a series of solbents were examined for extraction of antimicrobial substances from mustard seed and then antimicrobial substances were identified by simultaneous distillation extraction(SDE) and GC-MS methods. Water and methanol extracts of mustard seed showed antimicrobial activitries against experimental strains while those from hexane extract almost was not observed. The distilled components of mustard seed by SDE method showed strong antimicrobial activities, methanol extract of residues fraction exhibited a little, and water layer with the exception of distilled components showed no antimicrobiol activities. The 30 varieties of distilled components including 3 types of isothiocyanate such as 3-isothiocyanate-1-propene, 4-isothiocyanate-1-butene, and 3-isothiocyanatoethyl benzene were identified from mustard seed.
Analysis of Volatile Compounds, Produced in a Glucose Solution Fermented by Saccharomyces bayanus, during Fermentation and Conservation of Fermented Solution 1. Neutral Fraction
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 956~963
Twenty esters, 14 alcohols, 5 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 5 lactones, 2 S-containing compounds and 1 hydrocarbon are identified by GC-MS from volatile compounds in a glucose solution containing Yeat-Carbon-Base medium fermented for 64 hrs by Saccharomyces bayanus at pH 3.5,
, 400rpm and 35L/h of aeration for 24hrs. Under the different conditions of conservation(1~4), ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-metjhylpentanoate, ethyl succinate, nonanol and phenylacetaldehyde are produced during conservation of fermented solution. 17 esters increased during conservation at
for 12 weeks and the increase of ethyl 9-hexadecenoate is important among 13 esters increased during conservation at
for 24hrs. During conservation, aldehydes increased at
, but decreased at
and the great increase of isobutanal, benzaldehyde and phenylacetaldehyde is observed at
. Alcoho and lactones increased but ketones decreased during conservation.
Formation and Fusion of Protoplasts from the Cellulolytic Fungi, Aspergillus niger MAN-831 and Aspergillus wentii MAW-538
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 964~969
For the effective utilization of cellulosic biomass, conidial protoplast fusion between Aspergillus niger MAN-831(
) and A. wentii MAW-538(CMCase and avicelase), which produced potently cellulolytic enzymes was carried out. Optimal conditions for formation and regeneration of protoplast were conidiospore age-5 dyuas.
, preincubation time-4 hours, osmotic stabilizer-0.7M KCl, novozyme(7mg/ml)＋driselase(2.5mg/ml) and reaction time of enzyme-5 hours. Optimal conditions for protoplast fusion were obtained by treatment of protoplasts with 15mM CaCl2 and 25% polyethylene glycol 4000(pH 6~7) as fusogenic agent at
for 25~30 minutes. The frequency was then
. CMCase, avicelase and
activity of fusant F-208 strain was 1.5, 1.3, 1.2 times higher than those of parental strains, respectively.
Effect of Garlic Intake on the Antifatigue and Fatigue Recovery during Prolonged Exercise
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 970~977
Effect of garlic intake on the antifatigue and fatigue recovery during prolonged exercise have been investigated. 16 male college students(8 persons of control group and the same numbers of garlic intake group), aged from 20 to 22 years, were subjected to the restricted experiment and maintained their same menu with exercise in life pattern during 14 days of program. In garlic intake group, 30g of garlic was given with every 3 meal per day to each person. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol level was shown in the garlic intake group while total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and lactate level decreased by garlic intake. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in serum increased by garlic intake, however garlic intake was not significantly affected on Vo2, Vco2, ventilation, respiratory quotient. In conclusion, garlic intake seemed to be effective for antifatigue and tatigue recovery during prolonged exercise.
Effects of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids on Lipid Metabolism in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 978~983
The effect of sulfur-containing amino acids on lipid metabolism was studied in rats fed casein as a protein source. Plasma cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and atherosclerotic index decreased in the cysteine group compared to the methionine group. Plasma triglyceride and phospholipid level were not affected by the supplementation of the sulfur-containing amino acids. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride in liver decreased by both methionine and cysteine. Cysteine increased the fecal excretion of coprostanol, total neutral steroid and bile acid. The results suggest that plasma cholesterol level is affected by dietary ratio of cysteine/methionine and that the hypocholesterolemic effects of cysteine is, at least in part, through reducing cholesterol absorption from small intestine and through enhancing fecal excretion of bile acids.
Effects of Freezing Conditions on the Concentration-Efficiency in the Progressive Freeze-Concentration
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 984~989
The concentration-efficiencyh of blue dextran solution in the progressive freeze-concentration was related to the freezing conditions such as the freezing speed and the stirring speed in the solution phase. From the theoreticla balance equation of heat and mass transfer at freezing front, the relationship between the freezing conditions and the ice structure at freezing front was drived. A high freeze-concentration efficiency was obtained under the operating conditions represented by a low speed of freezing and a high speed of stirring. The operating conditions were related to a smooth solid-liquid interface and these results were well explained by the theoretical equation. Effect of the solute component size on the concentration efficiency in the progressive freezeconcentration was also tested. The concentration efficiency of latex particles showed a lower value than that of blue dextran, however, its difference was insignificant.
Effect of Preparation Methods on Yulmoo Kimchi Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 990~997
Effect of preparation method on Yulmoo kimchi(watery kimchi prepared with Yulmoo, leaf radish) fermentation was investigated by measuring physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties for 20 days. Yulmoo kimchi was fermented at 4
after keeping at room temperature(27
) for 8 hours. Four types(A, B, C, D) of Yulmoo kimchi were prepared. Sample A was made without wheat flour paste and red pepper powder and sample B was made with wheat flour paste. Sample C was made with red pepper powder, and sample D was made with wheat flour paste and red pepper powder. pH was slowly lowered and stabled after 10 days in all samples. Total acid content increased in all samples. Reducing sugar content initially increased and decreased thereafter. Especially, reducing sugar content of sample B increased in the early stage of fermentation and maintained initial reducing sugar content after 20 days. Total vitamin C content reduced during fermentation in all samples. Especially initial total vitamin C content of sample D increased more than those of other samples relatiely. Lightness and yellowness showed no difference, but on the other hand redness increased gradually in all samples. The number of lactic acid bactgeria reached maximum value in 10~13 days with the total cell numbers and gradually decreased thereafter in all samples. The number of lactic acid bacteria and total cell number of sample D was much more than those of any other samples. As a result of the sensory evaluation, Yulmoo kimchi showed significant difference in all characteristics. Sample D showed the highest scores in all characteristics before 10 days of fermentation. However, after 10 days sample B showed the highest scores.
Studies on Lipid Oxidative Browning - Effects of Water Activities and Temperatures on Maillard Reaciton of Amino Acids-Oil -
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 998~1004
This study was carried out in order to investigate the browning reaction of fish oil-amino acid model system at different temperatures and watger activities. The 23 amino acids, induced during dehydration in the presence of oil and avicel(5 to
), Aw 0.33 to 0.95, were resulted in three types of browning patterns : Type I showed high browning rates at Aw 0.33, 0.95 than at Aw 0.52, 0.75(phenylalanine, trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, methionine, valine). Type II showed high browning rates decreased with increasing water activity(poline, leucine, isoleucine, arginine). Type III showed high browning rates at Aw 0.52, 0.75 than at Aw 0.33, 0.95(tryptophan, cystein, threonine, lysine). The temperature effect on the browning development of the four most active amino acids : phenylalanine, valine, trnas-4-hydroxy-proline and methionine are shown to represent the 23 amino acids. Above
the browning rate began to increase. Activation energy of the amino acids-fish oil was 8 to 40kcal/mole, and
were 2 to 10.
Antioxidative Effect of Kimchi on the Lipid Oxidation of Cooked Meat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 1005~1009
This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative effect of kimchi on the lipid oxidation of cooked meat in model systems. Four model systems of cooked ground meat(CGM). CGM-water(W), CGM-brine(B) and CGM-kimchi(K) were prepared and their oxidation behaviours were evaluated during the storage at 4
for 5 weeks. Thiobarbituric acid values and peroxide values of the systems of CGM, CGM-B and CGM-W increased significantly with the storage time, however, those values of CGM-K were hardly changed during the time of 5 weeks storage. Antioxidative effect of CGM-K increased with the addition level of kimchi in system. And also in the model systems which were prepared with cooked ground meat and kimchi whose fermentation period is different, the antioxidative effect of well ripened and properly fermented kimchi was higher than that of unripened kimchi during the lipid oxidation process of model systems. These results suggested that kimchi especially the properly femented kimchi in the systems plays an important roles as an antioxidative activity on the lipid oxidation of cooked ground meat.
Effect of Godulbaegi(Korean Lettuce, Ixeris sonchifolia H.) Kimchi on the in vitro Digestibility of Proteins
Ryu, Hong-Soo ; Hwang, Eun-Young ; Chun, Soon-Sil ; Park, Kun-Young ; Rhee, Sook-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 1010~1015
Extent of reduction in protein digestibility by Godulbaegi(lxeris sonchifolia H.) kimchi powder appeared to be related to the kimchi weight-to-protein weight ratio, the kind of protein sources, part of plants and fementation period. In vitro digestibilities of protein were significantly(p<0.05) reduced as the freeze dried kimchi powder weight-to-protein ration increased from 0.5 : 1.0 to 1.0 : 1.0 for all Godulbaegi samples and protein sources. Overall digestibility of protein sources in the presence of kimchi powder, the reduction ranked in the following order : soybean>casein>beef>squid. Lower(p<0.005) reduction occurred for each protein source when raw plant was exchanged for kimchi products. Some greater reduction of digestibility was noted in young plants and leaf samples than ripe or root samples. Trypsin inhibitor, which expressed as soybena trypsin inhibitor, was inversely related(r=0.8437) to in vitro protein digestibility of casein in the presence of Godulbaegi kimchi powder. More than three times of total polyphenols contained in leaves than in roots. Young leaves had 30% more total polyphenols(37.64mg/g sample) than that in ripe ones. Soaking in 5% NaCl solution for 24 hrs was markedly reduced in total polyphenols as 73% for leaves and 33% for roots. Remarkable reduction in total polyphenols was not checked during fermentation followed after soaking. Trypsin inhibitor content correlated well(r=0.8873) with total polyphenols in all of Godulbaegi samples.
Study on the Nutrition Composition of Hydroponic Water Dropwort
Park, Yaung-Ja ; Kim, Young-Ok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 1016~1019
This study was conducted to investigate the nutrient composition of hydroponic water dropwort and the effect of blanching condition on ascorbic acid content. Nutrient composition of hydroponic water dropwort of mid harvest on the 30th day was measured in three portions of leaves, petioles and stems, and was compared with that of late harvest on the 40th day. Hydroponic water dropwort was obtained from the Department of Horticultural Science, Seoul National University. The results were as follows. The nutrients content of leaves were significantly higher in ash and ascorbic acid and lower in moisture, crude fat and crude fiber than those of stems and petioles. There was no significant difference in total vitamin A and thiamin contents between three portions. Ascorbic acid content of leaves harvested on the 30th day was the highest, 57mg/100g, and decreased to 18mg/100g in the leaves harvested on the 40th day. Marked increase in crude fiber and vitamin A content of leaves was observed in late harvest may be due to the maturation. The results of nutrient composition analysis suggest that the leaves of hydroponic water dropwort is important in ascorbic acid and ash. It is recommended that shorter blanching time and addition of 0.5% NaCl to the blanching water are better for higher ascorbic acid retention of hydroponic water dropwort. In conclusion, as hydroponic water dropwort has high content in ash, calcium, vitamin and free sugar with alkalinity, leaves as well as stems and petioles can be recommonded as a vegetable of high nutritional quality.
A New Method for the Preparation of Mannotriose from White Copra Meal Using the Enzyme System and Yeast Fermentation
Gwi-Gun Park ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 1020~1025
A new method was developed to prepare
, 4-mannotriose by the enzymatic hydrolysis of white copra meal and the subsequent elimination of monosaccharides and mannobiose from the resulted hydrolysate with a yeast. The optimum pH and temperature for the mannanase were 6 and
, respectively. The mannanase was stable between pH 5.5 and 7 after 2hr treatment at
. White copra meal(70g) was hgydrolyzed with the mannanase(3,450units/500ml) at pH 6 and
for 24hr. The hydolysis products were monosaccharides, mannobiose and mannotriose. By the elimination of monosaccharides and mannobiose from the hydrolysis products with Candida guilliermondii IFO 0556, 12.1g of mannotriose was obtained without the use of chromatographic techiniques.
The Physiological Efficacy of Aloe Gel
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 24, issue 6, 1995, Pages 1026~1038
Although aloe lost a lot of its previous popularity in modern clinical uses as medicine numerous scientific researches still have claimed the beneficial properties(curing and general tonic effect) of aloe gel. Whereas considerable contradictory reports have helped to confuse the aloe gel issue and continually aroused controversy about aloe gel efficacy. However health food, cosmetic and medicinal products made from aloe gel are widely available in the world market especially in U.S.A. so the growing of Aloe plant and the processing of A. vera gel have become big industries in some countries. In some previous papers the salicylic acid, one of the common trace gel components, was thought to have an analgetic and antinflammatory effect. Large amount of Mg ion in the gel was suggested to act as anesthetic, Mg-lactate as antihistamic, and Aloctin A(a glycoprotein) as wound healer by promoting the cell growth. The carboxypeptidase and bradykinase activity in the gel were proposed to have the pain relieving and antiinflammatory effect. But any of thes etheories concerining the physiological action of the trace gel components has not been demonstrated by modern pharmacology, and failed to be supported by clinical research. It was suggested by some research workers that trace amount of anthraquinone compounds in the gel play an important role to act as false substrate inhibitors for PG and TX production(antiprostanoid effect), by which, they believed, inflammation, burn and frostbite, and infected wound could be healed. This hypothesis has not been substantiated. Butthe suggested antimicrobial action, antidiabetic, and antidotic effect of aloe gel are likely to be attributed to the trace anthraquinone compounds. In a lot of recent experimental reports it has been claimed that aloe gel polysaccharides(acetylglucomannan, acetylmannan, and glycoprotein) have the antimicrobial, antinflammatory, antitumour, and infected wound healing effect by immunoenhancement. It is hoped that these effects will be soon documented in clinical studies, then the controversy on aloe gel beneficial effect will cease. In the 30 days subchronic toxicity test the lowest observed adverse effect level of acemannan(acetylmannan) on dog was 5.0 mg/kg, IP. But the aloe gel is generally agreed to be harmless and non toxic even for the internal use such as health food. In the case of idiosynrasy one must keep the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction of aloe gel in mind. In conclusion it seem to be impossible to simply refuse a lot of evidences made by research workers who have claimed aloe gel's beneficial effects and to deny the fact that there had been long therapeutic histories of Aloe plants.