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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 1997
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 1997
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 1997
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 1997
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 1997
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 1997
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Isoflavone Contents and Antioxidative Effects of Soybeans, Soybean Curd and their By-Products
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 371~375
The content of genistein and daidzein which were known to be major antioxidative compounds in soybeans were detected by
reverse phase HPLC. Most of isoflavones in soybeans were detected in the methanol extract but much less amount of isoflavones in the water extract. Among the four different kind of soybeans, the isoflavone content was highest in brown soybean, followed by yellow, small black and black soybean, in the order. These isoflavones were known to be soluble in hot water, which means transfer of isoflavone content was highest in brown soybean, followed by yellow, small black and black soybean, in the order. These isoflavones were known to be soluble in hot water, which means transfer of isoflavones in soy curd into whey during soy curd processing. To identify the change of isoflavone content during processing of soybean curd, soybean curd were made from yellow, brown and black soybean and isoflavone content were determined in each soybean curd, curd residue and whey. Most of soflavones were remained in the whey, it means most of useful antioxidative compounds were wasted. Thus, it is necessary to develop new technology to collect these isoflavones lost during soybean curd processing.
Antioxidative characteristics of isolated Crude Phenolics from Soybean Fermented Foods(Doenjang)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 376~382
Antioxidative characteristics of doenjang(fermented soybeans paste) phenolics on the lipid oxidation systems were studied by the determination of the oxidative related activity including lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition, metal chelating and free radical scavengning of doenjang phenolics. Manlikong variety containing the highest amounts of phenolic compounds among the soybean variety, was used for doenjang processing. Doenjang was prepared by the series of processes including soaking for overnight, cooking for 1hr at 12Lb, first fermentation (3 days at 30
) for the preparation of meju(soybean koji) after inoculation of Asp. oryzae, and further fermentation(60 days at 30
) for the ripening after addition of salt 13% to meju. In order to investigate the antioxidative activity of phenolics in doenjang, the doenjang phenolics was extracted with methanol form freeze dried defatted doenjang. Antioxidative effects of methanol extract on linoleic acid oxidation system were observed by the significantly decreased levels of peroxide and conjugated diene formation. In addition, methanol extract resulted in the inhibition of LOX activity. and also, metal(FeCl
) chelation and free radical scavengning activities were increased with increasing concentration of methanol extract.
Composition and Antioxidative Characteristics of Phenolic Fraction Isolated from Soybean Fermented Food
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 383~389
Doenjang(fermented soybean paste) was prepared by the series of processes including soaking, cooking, first fermentation(3 days at 30
) for the preparation of meju(soybean koji) after inoclulation of Aspergillus oryzae, and further fermentation (60 days at 30
) for the ripening after addition of salt 13% to meju. the crude phenolics extracted from defatted soybean and doenjang were fractionated onto the neutral phenolics(isofavonoids) and acidic phenolics(phenolic acids), respectively. Composition and antioxidative characteristics of phenolic fractions were determined. The neutral phenolic fractions contained genistin, genistein and daidzein; on the other hand, acidic phenolic fractions had syringic acid and seven other components. The content of genistin in doenjang dramatically decreased at the early stage of fermentation, whereas the content of genistein rather increased. In addition, the content of syringic acid of acidic phenolic fractions were increased during fermentation. These changes in individual phenolic components affected the antioxidative activity of neutral phenolics or acidic phenolics. antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds were evaluated during soybean fermentation. The antioxidative and free radical scavenging activity of neutral phenolic fractions and acidic phenolic fractions on linoleic acid autoxidation were also investigated.
Survey on the Manufacturing Process of Traditional Meju for and of Kanjang(Korean Soy Sauce)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 390~396
Meju is a basis for manufacturing Kanjang, Meju was traditionally prepared at home by different types of process depending on the regional area. It is necessary to standardize and simplify the process of Meju-preparation for Kanjang of good quality. For these purposes, the process of Meju and Kangjang making as well as analysis of commercial Kanjang, were compared. Generally, traditional Meju was prepared by steeping and dehulling the whole soybean. After steeping for 24hr. soybean absorbed water up to 110~120% of its weight. The soaked soybeans were steamed for 2hr. and cooled to 5
. Cooked soybeans were crushed down to the size of 10~15 mesh and molded. Molded soybeans were dried for 2 days in the air, hung up by rice straw and fermented for 20~30 days under natural environmental condition. On the other hand, commercial soybean koji was made of defatted soybean. Defatted soybeans were steeped in water and steamed for 15~30min at 0.7~1.2 kg/
. Steamed and defatted soybean was cooled to 4
. Separately, wheat power was roasted at 200~30
by wheat roaster. Mixture of steamed defatted soybean and roasted wheat powder (5/5 to 7/3) were inoculated with 0.1~0.2% Aspergillus sojae and incubated for 2 days at 3
with occasional stirring. Chemical analysis showed that traditional soy sauces contained the following composition: NaCl, 20.12~25.42%; total nitrogen, 0.64~0.91%; pure extract, 9.47~11.20%; color, 2.34~4.01; pH, 4.92~5.12. Commercial products contained: NaCl, 15.20~17.19%; total nitrogen, 1.25~1.40%; pure extract, 18.17~21.47%; color, 5.41~21.12; pH, 4.51~4.66 and ethalnol. 2.97~3.12%. Organoleptic test on taste, color and flavor of traditional and commercial soysauce indicated that most of the consumers prefer commercial products to traditional products. Preferrable formulation of Kanjang based on organoleptic test of soy sauces was assumed as containing; NaCl, 16.0%; total nitrogen, 1.40%; pure extract, 19.97%; color, 12.98; pH, 4.61 and ethanol, 2.96.
Changes on the Chemical Components of Dongchimi Added with Ginseng and Pineneedle
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 397~403
This study examined the changes of chemical components in Dongchimi when ginseng and pineneedle were added 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively. Those were fermented at room temperature for the first day and at 4
from the second to 29th day. The contents of reducing sugar was significantly increased during fermentation, and showed the highest content in Dongchimi added pineneedle. The contents of proteins were also increased in the Dongchimi with pineneedle during 8 days of fermentation, while the others increased throughout 29 days of fermentation. The contents of non-volatile organic acids were 2.79~4.80 mg/100 ml at the end of fermentation, and the content of lactic acid was the highest among them. Free sugars of the Dongchimi were composited sucrose, glucose and fructose, and the contents of those were in the range of 227.4~247.0 mg/100ml in 8 days of fermentation, then increased to 705.2~943.7mg/100ml in 29 days. the Dongchimi contained 17 kinds of free amino acids except lysine, arginine were the majority of them, and sarcosine,
-aminoisobutyric acid and
-aminoisobutyric acid were the major portion of amino acid dervatives.
Changes in Enzyme Acrivities of Salted Chinese cabbage and Kimchi during Salting and Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 404~410
Amylase, protease, polygalacturonase and
-galactosidase activities were monitored during salting of Chinese cabbage and kimchi fermentation at 1
. A part of enzymes in the tissue of Chinese cabbage were eluted during salting, and other remained enzymes activities were decreased in proportion to the amount of elution. But total enzyme activities were increased during salting. Amylase, protease and polygalacturonase activities decreased at the early fermentation stage but increased at the late fermentation stage.
-Galactosidase activity was continuously increased during all periods of fermentation. Enzymic actions at the early fermentation stage come from Chinese cabbge and at the late fermentation stage come from major microorganisms in kimchi fermentation. Kimchi fermentation involves the activation of the enzymes by salting; hydrolysis of micromoleculars such as polysaccarides cell wall composed polysaccarides and proteins of cell wall during early fermentation of kimchi; overripening of the kimchi caused by propagation of homofermentative lactic acid bacteria which demand autotroph.
Free radical Scavenging Activities and Inhibitory Effects on Xanthine oxidase of Buckwheat (Suwon No. 5)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 411~416
To examine the free radical scavenging activities from buckwheat, Suwon No. 5 was extracted with various solvents. The seed of Suwon No. 5 had a high contents of carbohydrate, but the vegetable of that had a 31.4% of protein, 28.6% of ash and 25.7% carbohydrate as moisture free basis. Phenols contents of vegetable extracts had higher than those of seed extracts. Acetone extract of vegetable showed the greatest electron donating ability. Butanol and acetone extracts of vegetable showed high inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation. Acetone extract of vegetable has also excellent activity in the superoxide radical scavenging activity by xanthine/xanthine oxidase-cytochrome c reduction system. The inhibitory effects of extracts on xanthine oxidase were measured. Acetone extract had the strongest inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase and
Characteristics of Malt Prepared with Covered Barley, Naked Barley and Wheat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 417~421
Quality of Sikhe, the Korean conventional rice beverage depended on the characteristics of saccharifying activities of various amylases, intrinsic flavour, budding rate and so on. To improve the quality of Sikhe, characteristics of malt produced with wheat, covered barley and naked barley were evaluated. The germination rate of wheat was 82%, but those of naked and covered barley were 69% and 56% for 6 days, respectively. Malt prepared from germinated grains with 1.5~2.0 times length of buds had the highest saccharifying power. when the extraction of enzyme and reducing sugar was carried out at 5
for 4 hr, saccarifying power and reducing sugar contents were the highest. Malt of wheat had the highest saccharifying power. Malt of naked barley had higher saccharifying power than that of covered barley. The amylase types of wheat, covered barley and naked barley were similar to
Single Hydrolysis Method for the Amino Acid Determination in Foods and Composite Dishes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 422~429
For the complete and accurate amino acid determination of protein and food samples, 3 different hydrolysis procedures have been conducted in parallel for each sample, which include the alkaline hydrolysis for tryptophan determination, performic acid oxidation prior to the acid hydrolysis for the determination of cysteine and cystine, and the 6N HCl hydrolysis for the determination of the rest of amino acids. In the present study, amino acid concentrations obtained from the modified single hydrolysis procedure were compared with the values from the conventional hydrolysis procedures in casein and nine food and composite dish samples. In most of the samples tested, the modified single hydrolysis procedure gave significantly higher values of cysteins and cystein compared to the performic acid oxidation method, but resulted in a considerable destruction of tryptophan in food and composited dish samples. There was no consistent difference in the rest of amino acid concentrations between the two hydrolysis systems. Therefore, for complete amino acid determination of various foods and composite dishes, the single hydrolysis method may replace the 6N HCl hydrolysis and performic acid oxidation methods, and thereby reduces 3 hydrolyses to 2 steps with much higher recoveries of the sulfur containing amino acids.
Cell Separation of Vegetable Tissues by Protopectinase
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 430~435
Protopectinases are heterologous group of enzymes that degrades insoluble protopectin which consists of middle lamella between cells of plant tissues. Tissues of potato and carrot could be separated to single cells by addition of protopectinase isolated from Rhizopus sp. Color changes ofthe suspensions treated with protopectinase and mechanically macerated after 2 weeks at 4
, were investigated. Color change of the latter was very serious, however, that of the former was insignificant. Furthermore, after heat treatment at 121
for 5min, the constituents of mechanically macerted carrot suspension were separated into two layers, but those of single celled carrot were not. Yields of carrot juices extracted from single celled suspensions and mechanical maceration were 93.6% and 56.0%, respectively. These results support that treatment of protopectinase can increase yield of juices extracted from plant, and manufacture high value-added products in food processing.
Gas injection on Properties of Extruded Corn Starch
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 436~442
Corn starch was extruded under relatively low shear, high moisture, and low temperature. Puffing of corn starch dough was induced by injecting
gas in the range from 0MPa to 0.09MPa. Piece density and compressive modulus for puffed corn starch were decreased by increasing the injection pressure to 0.07MPa, and increased above 0.07MPa. the microstructure of corn starch puffed with
gas showed thick cell size, compared with those puffed with steam. RVA paste viscosity curves of corn starch puffed with
had different patterns from those puffed with steam, probably resulted from partial gelatinization of starch. Water absorption and solubility were not significantly changed by
injection pressure, but the average degree of polymerization was reduced by higher
injection. The water absorption, water solubility, and the average degree of polymerization for corn starch puffed with
were significantly lower than those puffed with steam.
Optimization of Sensory Properties in Preparation of Canned Oyster Mushroom
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 443~449
Four-dimensional response surface methodology was applied to determine the optimum preparation conditions and to monitor sensory qualities of canned oyster mushroom during preparation. The optimum preparation conditions predicted for each corresponding sensory parameter of canned oyster mushroom were 181.29 g of oyster mushroom 205.36 ml of solution and 6.49min of roasting time for color, 214.01g, 195.79ml and 5.07min for appearance, 227.71g, 224.26ml and 6.50min for flavor, 250.30g, 183.63ml and 17.32min for taste, 211.59g, 178.21ml and 17.79min for mouth-feel, 249,.02g, 188.79ml and 17.80min for overall palatability of canned oyster mushroom, respectively. The optimum conditions, which satisfied with all sensory properties of canned oyster mushroom, were 240g, 200ml and 17min for content of oyster mushroom, content of solution and roasting time, respectively. Sensory scored predicted at the optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental ones.
Quality Changes of Frozen Scallop[Patinopecten yessonensis(Jay)] Stored in theDomestic Refriogerator
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 450~455
Scallop, Patinopecten yessonensis(Jay), cultivated in the cold east coast of Kwangwon region, Korea, is expected to be producted to about 50,000 tones in 2000 year. Freezing is one of the most effective methods applied for soraging seafoods. But, the domestic refrigerator with an automatic defrost system shows the temperature fluctuation during defrosting, thus might result in the deterioration of the frozen foods. In this study, the domestic refrigerator with an automatic defrost system, temperature fluctuation from -18 to -5
and fluctuation intervals from 16 to 20 hr, was used for storing scallop. pH was decreased rapidly after 3 month storage, while the content of amino nitrogen was increased continuously. The TMA content of open state was increased very rapidly on 3 month storage and then increased slowly, whereas that of vinyl package increased slowly. The VBN content was increased almost constantly with no significant differences between storage methods. The TBA content was increased up to 3 month storage with the higher value in open state than vinyl package in the beginning periods of storage, and then decreased very rapidly. The number of total viable cell was increased continuously during storage with higher number in open state than vinyl package. The estimated shelf-lives of frozen scallop with open state and vinyl package stored at -18
in the domestic refrigerator with an automatic defrost system were 3.55 and 3.78 months, respectively.
The Shelf-Life Extension of Low-Salted Myungran-jeot. 2. The Effects of Commercial Preservatives on the Shel-Life of Low-Salted myungran-jeot
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 456~461
Sodium lactateand sodium citrate, traditional food preservatives, were added to extend the shelf-life of the loow-salted Myungran-jeot, and various chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out with Muungran-jeot, and various chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out with Myungran-jeot femented at 1
. pH was decreased in the beginning stage of fermentation and then increased, whereas the content of lactic acid was increased during fermentation. But, lactic acid production of the low-salted Myungran-jeot with preservative were lower than control. The NH
-N content of the low-salted Myungran-jot with sodium citrate was increased in the beginning of fermentation and then decreased. Sodium citrate inhibited the productions of VBN and TMA during the fermentation of Myungran-jeot, whereas sodium lactate inhibited the productions of VBN and TBA. Sodium lactate inhibited the growths of proteolytic bacteris and fungi. The estimated shelf-lives of the Myungran-jeot with control, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate were about 11, 13, and 13 days, respectively.
Effects of Ozone Treatment and Gamma Irradiation on the Microbial Decontamination and Physicochemical Properties of Red Pepper Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 465~467
The comparative effects of ozone treatment and gamma irradiation on the sterilization, physicochemical properties and sensory quality of red pepper powder were investigated. As for the sterilization of microorganisms, 7.5~10 KGy of gamma irradiation completely eliminated the coliforms, yeast and molds, and total aerobic bacteria. On the other hand, ozone treatment failed to eliminate the highly contaminated microbial load, especially total aerobic bacteria. The physicochemical properties including capsaicin, capsanthin, browning, fatty acid compositions and sensory quality were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy, whereas ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions and destruction of natural pigments (p<0.05). The above results led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment for the sterilization and maintenance of physicochemical and sensory qualities of red pepper powders.
A Study on the Chemical Compsition and Hypocholesterolaemic Effect of Nostoc commune
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 468~474
The chemical composition and hypocholoesterolaemic effect of Nostoc commune were studied. Proximate analysis data, composition of dietary fiber and oxalic acid-ammonium oxalate soluble substance of Nostoc commune were presented. Thirty rats were fed with the one of the following diet for three weeks: The control diet contained 0.75% cholesterol, 0.25% sodium cholate and 5% cellulose powder, CF was cholesterol free, PNC, ONC and RNC diet contained 7.2% powder, 2.2% extracts and 5% residue of Nostoc commune respectively. The lipid components of serum were assayed. The concentration of the total cholesterol was significantly lower in PNC, ONC than the control. The concentration of the total cholesterol was significantly lower in PNC, ONC than the control. The concentration of HDL-choloesterol was significantly higher in PNC than the control. The concentration of LDL, VLDL and chylomicron were comparatively lower in CF and PNC. The concentration of seum triglyceride and phospholipid was lower in PNC group than in the other group.
Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on the Change of Pyridinoline from Bone and Cartilage Collagen of Ovariectomized Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 475~479
A decrease in the circulating levels of estrogen, occuring as a consequence of post menopausal decline or from surgical ovariectomy, results in an accelerated loss of bone. Estrogen has been shown to stimulate lysyl oxidase activity, and the treatment with estrogen increased the pyridinium content of cortical bone. a trivalent mature cross-links collagen fibrils named pyridinoline, which is especially abundant in collagen of cartilage and bone, markedly increases with growth in humans and rats. The main aim of this study was to examine the increased bone loss caused by ovariectomy through monitoring the concentrations of the collagen and the pyridinium cross-links of collagen, pyridinoline. The ovariectomized rats, 4 weeks old, were divided at random into two or three groups of 5. Ovariectomies were carried out on both of the saline-treated group(OVX(NH)) and the estrogen-treated group(OVX(H)) using the dorsal approach and sham operations were performed on the sham-operated group(sham). They were maintained under identical conditions for 4 or 8 weeks and were allowed free access to food and water. it was observed that there was no significant difference between the control group and the sham-operated group, however, the control group had a higher content of collagen than the saline-treated group after 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Based on these results, iot is supposed that estrogen can enhance collagen synthesis and affects the pyridinoline formation in collagen fibrils through stimulating lysyl oxidase activity.
Effect of Dietary Calcium Levels on Peak Bone Mass Formation in Growing Female Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 480~487
The present study was designed to examine how Ca intake contributes to the increase of peak bone mass with growing female rats. Weaned rats were fed experimental diets consisting in five levels of Ca; very low(0.1%), low(0.2%), moderate(0.5%), high(1.0%) and very high(1.5%) for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Bone growth, metabolism and Ca metabolism were determined. As for the rats fed for 4 weeks, the bone weight, length and breaking force and bone metabolism were not significantly affected by dietary Ca levels, whereas the current intakes of Ca were observed to have significantly affected the rats fed for 8 or 12 weeks with regard to the bone weight, length and breaking force and bone metabolism. The bone ash and Ca contents of the rats were affected by dietary Ca levels for the total period of feeding. It is suggested that dietary Ca itself affected the mineralization process either during the growth or later, although the resulting bone mass is not a linear function of dietary Ca content.
Effects of Extract of Pueraria radix on Hematological Properties and Lead Level of the Tissues of the Pb-administered Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 488~493
This study was designed to investigate the effects of Korean Pueraria radix extract in Pb administered rats. Pb exposed rats were given 1% Pb in the diet.
-Adminolevulinic acid(DALA) and urinary glucose levels were increased with Pb administration and were lower in the Pb group than in the group administered Pb alone. Hematocrit value was decreased with Pb administration and was higher in the Pb group than in the C-Pb grou.
-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (DALAD) activity was decreased in the Pb group. ALT and AST were increased by Pb added and were lower in the Pb group than in the C-Pb group. Serum Pb content was higher in the Pb exposed rats than in the control groups, and no significant difference was found due to extract of Pueraria radix supplementation. Levels of liver, kidney and femur lead were reduced by Pueraria radix. Lead contents in feces and urine were higher in the Pb added groups than in the control group, and level of feces lead was increased by extract of Pueraria radix.
Effect of Acron Extracts on the Antioxidative Enzyme System
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 494~500
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of acorn extracts on the antioxidative enzyme system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats(110
10g) were fed on containing normal and high fat diets. They were orally administrated (0.02g/100g B.W) of acorn ethylacetate-extract and water-extract at the same time once a day, respectively. Net weight gain and feed efficiency ratio were increased in high fat diet groups and decreased by acorn extracts administration. The effect of acorn extracts on hepatic glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferase(GST) and catalase activities did not show significancy in normal fat diet groups. GST and catalase activities and lipid peroxidation content(LPO) were significantly increased in high fat diet groups and this increment were decreased by acorn extracts administration. However GSH-Px activity and GSH content were decreased in high fat diet groups but increased by acorn extracts administration. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and aminotransferase in serum were significantly increased in high fat diet group but these increment reduced in acorn extracts administration groups. These results indicate that acorn extracts could improve the liver function and prevent the metabolic diseases by hyperlipidemia.
The Effect of Ascorbic Acid on the Changes in Amounts of Pyridinoline form Bone Collagen during In vitro Aging
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 501~506
As pyridinoline is one of the predominant cross-lins in a mature collagen, pyridinoline formation may be an essential step during the growth process to obtain normal mechanical strength in collagen fibrils. However, the excess formation of pyridinoline in collagen will probably make the tissue stiffer, less soluble and less digestible by enzymes. We investigated the changes of pyridinoline of bone collagen and the role of ascforbic acid(AsA) on the formation of pyridinoline. The pyridinoline content of bone collagen significantly increased during incubation for 1~5 weeks at 37
in vitro. The addition of AsA decreased pyridinoline to half the amount found in controls with 5 week incubation. When dehydroascorbic acid(DHA) and L-2, 3-diketogulonic acid (DKG), the oxidative products of AsA, were supplemented to bone collagen solution instead of AsA, the content of pyridinoline in bone collagen was about 80% or 70% that of controls, respectively. These results suggest that pyridinoline content decreases by the addition of AsA in vitro. Furthermore, it was shown that AsA in oxidized from also affected the formation of pyridinoline.
Effects of Kimchi on Tissue and Fecal Lipid Composition and Apolipoprotein and Thyroxine Levels in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 507~513
This study was carried out to examine whether kimchi has hypolipidemic effect and to know how it exert lipid-lowering effect in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with kimchi-fee diet, or 3%, or 5%, or 10% kimchi diets for 6 weeks. Plasma cholesterol level was lowered in rats fed all concentrations of kimchi diets, and plasma triglyceride(TG) level was lowered in 10% kimchi diet group compared with that of control significantly(p<0.05). Th intake of kimchi lowered VLDL-cholesterol and VLDL-TG levels, whereas increased HDL-cholesterol level significantly(p<0.05). LDL-cholesterol level was lowered only in 5% kimchi diet group and LDL-TG level was lowered in all kimchi diet groups compared with those of control significantly (p<0.05). the intake of 5% and 10% kimchi diets also lowered the levels of hepatic cholesterol, TG, total lipid, and apolipoprotein B, whereas increased the levels of fecal total fat, cholesterol, TG, and apolipoprotein A-1 significantly(p<0.05). Triiodothyronine(T
) level was elevated in rats fed kimchi diet, whereas thyroxine(T
) level was not affected by kimchi treatment. These observations support that the intake of kimchin in rats loweres plasma and hepatic lipid levels by increasing the excretion of TG and cholesterol through feces, by the elevation of T
level, and by the altered lipoprotein metabolism.
Comparison of Instruments for Estimating Body Composition in Korean Female College Student
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 514~520
The purpose of this study is to provide the reference data for estimating body composition and developing equations for prediction of percent body fat. This study was designed of two aspects: Comparison of percent body fat measurements between two operators. comparison of percent body fat measurements among four instruments. Percent body fat of college girls(n=71) aged 18-24 was measured by skinfold thickness, near-infratred interactance(Futrex-5000), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (TBF-105, Spectrum II). All measurements were duplicated & measured by two operators. The results are summarized as follows: Percent body fat observed from two operators had no significant difference. There was significant difference from four instruments. However, we found close relation between Skinfold thickness & TBF-105, Spectrum II & Near-infrared interactance. Four instruments have several assumptions and limitations. Therefore, many researches for developing new equations are required for Korean people.
A Study on Nutritional Status of College Women Commuting along Distance and Physicque Classification -A Daily Energy Balance between Intake and Expenditure-
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 521~527
This study was aimed to investigate the nutriational status of Korean female college students who are attending school at a longdistance. Physique calssification by anthropomethic indexes, Body mass index(BMI) & Brocas' index and the body fat distrubition were investigated. The energy balance was also examined comparing caloric intake with caloric expenditure. The result of this study are followings; (1) Average height and weight were 158±17.8 cm, 51.7±7.8 kg. This results were not quite different from '84 Korean Adult Standard of 159.5cm, 52.5kg. (2) By Broca's index, 25.89% of subjects was underweight 67.0% was normal weight and 7.06 was overweight. By BMI, 40% of subjects was underweight, 58.8% was normal weight and 1.2% was overweight. (3) According to % fat measured. By BIA, 7% in subjects was underweight, 64.2% was normal weight, 22% was overweight and 6.1% was obesity. This result differed from BMI's result. It may be measurement error due to the difficulty of removing metal sticking to underwear and tooth correction. (4) The intakes of the nutrients except protein, P, vitamin B₁ complexes, were lower than the intakes indicated by Korean Recommended Allowances. 95) Average caloric intake a day was 1545±394.4 kcal, which was much lower than the RDA. The caloric expenditure was much more than caloric intake, which showed negative energy balance in the subjects of this study.
Inhibitory Effects of Synurus deltoides Extracts on the Mutagenesis Induced by Various Mutagens
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 528~533
This study was undertaken to determine the antimutagenic effects of Synurus deltoides extracts on the mutagenesis induced by 3-amino-1, 4-dimethyl-5-H-pyrido[4, 3-blindol(Trp-P-1), 2-amitnofluorene (2-AF) and 4-nitroquinolin-1-oxide(4NQO) using Ames test. Raw juice, heated juice, and ethanol extract from Synurus deltoides itself did not induce mutagenesis. The raw juice, heated juice and ethanol extract of 50
/plate showed approximately 90%, 37% and 28% inhibitory effect on the mutagenesis induced by Trp-P-1 against TA98 strain, while 80%, 60% and 58% inhibition was observed on the mutagenesis induced by 2-AF at the concentration of 200
/plate, respectively. TA100 strain was more sensitive than TA98 strain by raw juice, heated juice and ethanol extract on the mutagenesis induced by Trp-P-1 and 2-AF. Meanwhile, the raw juice, heated juice, and ethanol extract showed very limited inhibitory effects on the mutagenesis induced by 4-NQO against TA98 and TA100 strain. These results indicate that raw juice had the strongest inhibitory effect on the Trp-P-1 or 2-AF induced mutagenesis, but all of the extracts had a little antimutagenc effects on the 4-NQO induced mutagenesis.
Immobilization of Fructosyltransferase to a Porous Carrier Bearing Quaternary Alkyl Alkanolammonium Groups
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 534~539
In order to reuse enzyme efficiently, a mthod for ionic binding of fructosyltransferase to a porous carrier bearing quaternary alkyl alkanolammonium groups was investigated. The fructosyltransferase activity of the immobilized enzyme increased with increasing amount of loaded enzyme, and maximally reached 770U/g of the carrier when loaded amount of the enzyme was 18.2 mg/g carrier. The immobilized fructosyltransferase had optimum pH and temperature of 7.5 and 45
, respectively, whereas soluble enzyme had 6.5 and 55
: the Km value for the immobilized enzyme was 27.8 mM for sucrose, which was the same as that of soluble enzyme. In a batch reactor, the enzyme produced a mixture of fructooligosaccharides, mainly F
G, from sucrose with the slight loss of enzyme activity during continuous operation of 12 days at 42
Dietary Fiber Intake of Korean
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 3, 1997, Pages 540~548
According to the data published in 1990s on the intake of dietary fiber(DF) of Korean, DF intake of Korean has been gradually decreasing in the last two decades. Mean daily intake of DF in 1990s is estimated to be in the rage of 17-20g per capita and over seventy five percent of the subjects examined appeared to consume DF less than 20g per day. The major food sources of Df in Korean diet include cereals, vegetables, fruits, seaweeds and seasonings. The present level of DF intake of Korean is lower than the tentatively recommended minimum intake of DF. It is predicted that, if the present trend of change on food consumption pattern is maintained, the gradual increases in the incidence of chronic degenerative diseases will be continuing. Therefore, the beneficial effects of DF on health care and disease control should be emphasized through the nutritional education and high level consumption of DF needs to be strongly recommended in the dietary guideline. In order to raise the daily consumption of DF, more whole grain cereals need to be used as a part of staple and more frequent intake of legumes and seaweeds is required as well as the development of high-fiber diet recipes and natural high-fiber products.