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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 1997
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 1997
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 1997
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 1997
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 1997
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 1997
Selecting the target year
Depletion of Nitrite by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi(I)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 549~555
Twenty species of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Kimchi. Six species were identified as Lactobacillus sake, ten species as Leuconostoc mesenteroides and four species as Lactobacillus plantarum. The ability of these isolates to deplete nitrite during growth at 15, 20, 25 and 3
in MRS broth containing 250
of nitrite was examined. Depletion of nitrite was high as the order of L. plantarum, L. sake and L. mesenteroides at all temperature tested, and the depletion activity was increased as the increase of growth temperatures. Especially, almost all of nitrites were utilized by L. plantarum during growth at all temperature ranges tested. L. plantarum and L. sake required induction periods for adapting to nitrite, but L. plantarum was remarkably depleted nitrite after two days of growth at 15
and one day at 2
, L. sake after one day of growth at both temperatures. Whereas, L. mesentero-ides did not require those periods at all temperature ranges tested.
Depletion of Nitrite by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi(II)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 556~562
Depletion of nitrite by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kimchi and the effects of pH and temperature on depletion of nitrite in Lactobacillus MRS broth were investigated. Depletion of nitrite by Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sake was low in initial stage of growth but increased during growth at 15 and 2
. L. plantarum and L. sake depleted than 90 and 75% of nitrite(250
) in 1 day of growth at 25 and 3
, respectively, but depleted almost all of nitrite in 2 days. While the effect of Leuconostoc mesenteroides (150
) was lower compared to Lactobacillus(250
). In addition, even high concentrations(600 and 900
) of nitrite was depleted at 2 days of growth by L. plantarum. pH of growing broth decreased as the increase of growth time and temperature, and depletion of nitrite in- creased as the decrease of pH of growing culture. However, pH of broth related with the decrease of depletion of nitrite at 25 and 3
, but not at 15 and 2
. Therefore, depletion of nitrite was greatly affected by growth temperature rather than by pH.
Changes in Chlorophylls and Carotenoids of Mustard Leaf Kimchi during Fermentation and Their Antioxidative Activities on the Lipid Oxidation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 563~568
Changes of chlorophylls and carotenoids and antioxidative characteristics of crude chlorophylls and carotenoids(CCC) of mustard leaf kimchi(MLK) were investigated during the fermentation at 15
for 25 days. At the beginning of fermentation chlorophylls were decreased rapidly, however, all chlorophylls and chlorophyllides were converted to pheophytins and pheophorbides at the final stage of fermentation. Total chlorophyll content remained constantly during the fermentation but 43.7% destruction of carotenoids was observed at 25 days of fermentation. Antioxidative activities of CCC from MLK against autoxidation of linoleic acid were significant(p<0.05) and much higher than those of
-tocopherol. Fermentation period did not affect antioxidative activities of CCC of MLK. When the CCC of MLK was added to the autoxidation system of linoleic acid, degradation of total chlorophylls were observed to be slower than that of total carotenoids.
Neutralization and Buffer Effect of Crab Shell Powder in Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 569~574
In order to study the effect of ozone treated-CSP(crab shell powders) addition in kimchi on shelf-life, sensory quality, neutralization and buffer action during fermentation at 10"C were investigated. The edible periods of kimchi containing 2% CSP by investigating pH and acidity were prolonged by 40 and 33 days, respectively. CSP in kimchi showed strong neutralization action for 0~25 days and buffer action after 25 days during fermentation. The slow and complete neutralization action of 3% CSP in 2% lactic acid solution was observed. Amounts of lactic acid, which 2% CSP in kimchi was capable of absorption by buffer action during fermentation, was 0.07~0.3%. The studies of sensory quality improvement for CSP added kimchi was demanded in the furture.ture.
Changes on the Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Dongchimi Added with Ginseng and Pineneedle
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 575~581
This study was examined in the physical and sensory characteristics of Dongchimi when ginseng and pineneedle added with 0.1 and 0.3% respectively Dongchimi was at room temperature for first day and at 4
from End to 28th day. Titratable acidity of Dongchimi was increased during 29 days of fermentation, and pH was decreased gradually during fermentation. The viscosity and turbidity were slowly increased in all Dongchimi during fermentation. The Hunter's ‘L’values lowered gradually after 22th day of fermentation however ‘a’values decreased but ‘b’values increased after 15th day of fermentation. Dongchimi added with pineneedle and ginseng showed higher scores for carbonate flavor, sour taste, fresh-taste and color than those of non-treated Dongchimi. Dongchimi added with ginseng had lower sensory evaluation scores than those of others.
Effects of Carrot on the Stability of Vitamin C in (Green-Yellow) Vegetable Juices
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 582~587
The changes of ascorbic acid(AsA) and dehydroascorbic acid(DHAA) contents in distilled water, carrot juice, and carrot+vegetable juices under different incubation time and temperature were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. AsA in carrot juice was more stable than that in distilled water. AsA contents in distilled water and carrot juice were gradually reduced in a time and temperature dependent manner. AsA contents in carrot juice and carrot+ vegetable juices stored in refrigerator(4
) for 2 and 24 hours appeared to decrease, but the DHAA contents in all samples increased. Total vitamin C(AsA+DHAA) contents in carrot juice and carrot +vegetable juices remained with the high residue values of 90~97% after incubating at 4
for 2 and 24 hours.
Studies on the Prediction of the Shelf-life of Kochujang through the Physicochemical and Sensory Analyses during Storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 588~594
In this study, the shelf-life of Kochujang during storage was predicted through physicochemical and sensory analyses. Amino nitrogen, lightness, characteristics of surface color, pH and number of viable cell counts in Kochujang decreased during storage, while ammonia nitrogen, titratable acidity and viscosity increased. Among the physicochemical analyses, amino nitrogen content exhibited the highest correlation with sensory score. The marginal amounts of amino nitrogen was 170.6mg%. Degradation rate of amino nitrogen was a first order reaction. Q
-value and the activation energy of Kochujang during storage were 1.80 and 8.6kca1/mol, respectively. The shelf-life Predicted of Kochujang at each storage temperature was calculated. The shelf-life predicted was 467 days at 1
, 261 days at 2
and 133 days at 35
Studies on the Extension of the Shelf-life of Kochujang during Storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 595~600
To extend the shelf-life of Kochujang, the effects of anti-browning agents and their optimum concentrations were evaluated using organic acids as synergists. Among the physicochemical analyses, amino nitrogen content exhibited the highest correlation with sensory score. Ascorbic acid and citric acid were selected among the anti-browning agents(ascorbic acid, potassium sorbate, calcium chloride) and organic acids(citric acid, lactic acid, oxalic acid) tested on the basis of the highest amino nitrogen content during storage at 55
. The appropriate concentration of ascorbic acid was 0.03% based on amino nitrogen content during storage at 55
. Combination of 0.06% citric acid with 0.03% ascorbic acid showed the highest amino nitrogen content during storage at 55
. From the results, the 0.03% ascorbic acid and 0.06% citric acid were selected as additives for extending the shelf-life. Control(no additive) and additives(0.03% ascorbic acid and 0.06% citric acid) were tested for physicochemical and sensory analyses during storage at 45
. Amino nitrogen content was also highly correlated with sensory score, The marginal amounts of amino nitrogen for control and additives were 174.9mg% and 173.2mg%, respectively. Degradation rate of amino nitrogen was a first order reaction. Compared to control, the predicted shelf-life for adding additives increased 69% and 56% at 45
Changes in Physicochemical Properties of Kochujang and Doenjang Prepared with Extrudated Wheat Flour during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 601~605
Physicochemical properties of kochujang and doenjang using extrudated wheat flour(EWF) during aging were evaluated. Moisture content and crude protein were no great changes during fermentation and among samples(En, wheat flour, and wheat). NaCl and pH value were decreased(pH was decreased from 5.1 to 4.7 for kochujang and 5.4 to 5.0 for doenjang in EWF) and while titratable acidity increased during aging in each samples(8.7 to 9.1 for kochujang and 11.0 to 11.3 for doenjang in EWF). Amino acid type nitrogen and color value were decreased. En had the highest a value(5.9 for kochujang and 5.3 for doenjang) after 30 days fermentation. This results showed the applicability of good quality of kochujang and doenjang prepared with EWF.
Influence of Nitrite and Ascorbic Acid on N-Nitrosamine Formation during Fermentation of Salted Anchovy
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 606~613
The changes of contents in trimethylamine oxide nitrogen(TMAO-N), trimethylamine nitrogen(TMA-N), dimethylamine nitrogen(DMA-N), nitrite nitrogen(nitrite-N), nitrate nitrogen(nitrate-N) and the effect on the formation of N-nitrosamine(NA) during fermentation were investigated with salted anchovy added different amounts of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and ascorbic acid, respectively. When the sodium nitrite was added in salted anchovy, the contents of nitrite-N was decreased during fermentation . Whereas the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA ) was increased . Contents of TMAO-N was decreased, while TMA-N and DMA-N were increased during fermentation in all samples. Addition of ascorbic acid inhibited the formation of NDMA significantly. The formation of NDMA was inhibited by 81.3% at the concentration of 130mM as compared with non-added the control group. The aqueous model system was used for the evaluation of ascorbic acid(inhibitor) or thiocyanate (promoter) on the formation of NDMA using salt-fermented anchovy added with sodium nitrite. The optimum pH on the formation of NDMA was shown to be 3.8, and ascorbic acid inhibited the formation of NDMA whereas thiocyanate promoted. NDMA was not detected in the salt-fermented anchovy (control sample). However it is a possibility to form carcinogenic NDMA in stomach if both saltfer-mented anchovy and the materials contained abundant nitrite or nitrate were took in.
Effects of Drying Method on N-Nitrosamine Formation in Squid during Its Drying
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 614~619
To examine effects of drying methods on the formation of N-nitrosamine(NA) in squid during its drying. Three different types of dried products, which were made by sun, hot-air and traditional drying of squid after removal of intestines, were utilized. NA was analyzed by a gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer. The contents of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen in dried products were in the range of 0 to 5.2mg/kg and 0 to 2.7mg/kg, respectively. The contents of TMAO and betain nitrogen in squid during its drying decreased, while those of TMA and DMA nitrogen increased. The contents in dried products were 27.8~29.2mg% and 10.4~12.3mg/kg, respectively. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was only detected in squid during its drying, recovery from raw sample and its dried pro- ducts spiked with 10
/kg for NDPA was 81.0~ 100.0%. NDMA in raw samples was found to be below 0.05
/kg. The levels of NDMA in squid increased remarkably during its drying and those in dried products were ranged from 2.7 to 42.7
/kg. The effects of drying methods in squid were found to be quite different. the levels of NDMA in traditionally dried products were 11~16 and 3~4 times higher than those in sun dried and hot-air dried products, respectively It is believed that high levels of NDMA were detected in traditionally dried products because NDMA was formed from reaction between various amines and nitrogen oxide produced by combustion of briquet during drying of squid.
Optimum Condition for Pigment Production and Antioxidative Activity of the Products by Bacillus subtilis DC-2 with Response Surface Methodology
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 620~624
The conditions for color intensity and electron donating ability to
- picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) of Bacillus subtilis DC-2 were investigated. Temperature, pH and cultivation time were chosen as three factors, and the optimal conditions of color intensity and DPPH was determined with response surface methodology. Color intensity was affected by cultivation temperature(p<0.1). DPPH was influenced by cultivation temperature(p<0.05) and pH(p<0.1). But cultivation time was affected neither color in- tensity nor DPPH. Optimal conditions of color intensity with Bacillus subtilis DC-2 were appeared at cultivation temperature of 39.
, pH 8.83 and cultivation time of 84.41hrs. Optimal conditions of DPPH with Bacillus subtilis DC-2 were revealed at cultivation temperature of 39.19
, pH 8.84 and cultivation time of 82.21hrs.
The Influence of Lycii fructus Extracts on the Growth and Physiology of Microorganism
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 625~631
This study was peformed to investigate the effects of Lycii fructus extracts on the growth and physiology of S. cerevisae D7l, L. casei KCTC 3165, and E. coli DH5. When Lycii fructus was added into solid culture media, the growth of S. cerevisea D7l and L. casei KCTC 3165 was increased, whereas that of E. coli DH5 was somewhat decreased. The growth of S. cerevisiea D7l and L. casei KCTC 3165 were much promoted in the culture media including methanol extract of 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively. E. coli DH5 was changed its morphology not only in 10% Lycii fructus juice but also 1.0% methanol and chloroform extract of Lycii fructus. Its size in those growth condition was eight times longer than that of the normal E. coli DH5. It was elucidated that elongation phenomenan of E. coli DH5 was also appeared by adding 0.135% of Na
, and the mixture of Na
The Physicochemical Characteristics of Instant Nuroong-gi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 632~638
To develop the Instant Nuroong-gi in a short reconstitution time, we made puffed Instant Nuroong-gi samples and investigated their physicochemical characteristics. The Nuroong-gi was prepared using a Japonica variety with three different cooking conditions: steam cooker(process A), pressure cooker (process B) and cabinet cooker(process C). The Instant Nuroong-gi is produced by adding water to the Nuroong-gi which is broken into the size of 0.5~1.0cm. The amount of the added water is 40% of the weight of the broken Nuroong-gi. And it was puffed at 160~17
for 30 secands. The water binding capacity of Instant Nuroong-gi samples was 7.2 at process A, 6.5 at process B and 6.6 at process C. The total sugar content of Instant Nuroong-gi samples in hot water reached at the highest level at 3-minute cooking time. Through the sensory evaluation by a panelists, we discovered that Instant Nuroong-gi prepared by a steam cooker showed the highest roasted nutty taste, hardness, stickiness and overall acceptability. And Instant Nuroong-gi prepared by a pressure cooker showed the highest color, clearness, and roasted nutty flavor. Correlation coefficients between overall acceptability and other sensory attributes of Instant Nuroong-gi indicated that hardness had the most significant correlation to sensory evaluations. When we compared the results of color test with those of sensory evaluation of Instant Nuroong-gi prepared by three different cookers, we discovered that panelists preferred yellow Instant Nuroong-gi prepared by a pressure cooker. We found some morphological properties of Instant Nuroong-gi as a result of the comparison of the crystalization by a X-ray diffraction analysis and the observation of the shapes by a the scanning electron micrographs.
Chemical Components in Different Parts of Pumpkin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 639~646
The contents of free sugars, organic acids, amino acids, total carotenoids and pectin of pumpkin were analysed. Weight percentage of flesh was 84% of total weight. Rind and funicular attachment of seed were 10% and 3.5%, respectively. Major free sugars in pumpkin were fructose, glucose, sucrose. In flesh, fructose and glucose were the major free sugars, corresponding to 87% of total free sugars . Total sugar content in the flesh was three times higher than that in the funicular attachment of seed. Contents and composition of free amino acids were quite different according to the different parts of pumpkin. Non-volatile organic acids in pumpkin was malic, succinic and fumaric acid. The major acid in the flesh and funicular attachment of seed was malic acid and the contents in these parts were 85.2mg% and 226.5mg%, corresponding to 63% and 70% of the total organic acids, respectively. Eigh-tyseven percent of total carotenoids in the pumpkin was in the funicular attachment of seed, amounting 65.3mg%. However flesh and rind contained 6.6mg% and 3.3mg%, respectively. Water soluble pectin consisted 58% of the total soluble pectin in different parts of pumpkin, and soluble Pectin content was higher in funicular attachment of seed than in flesh. The major neutral sugars of the pectin in flesh and funicular attachment of seed were galactose and glucose consisting 45% and 36.5% of total neutral sugars.
Physico-chemical Properties for Utilization of Aging Index of Cold Storage Beef Tenderloin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 647~653
To establish the index of aging stage for cold storage beef tenderloin, shear force value(SFV), Mg-ATPase activity, myofibrillar fragmentation index(MFI), myofibrillar fragmentation ratio(MFR) and appearance of 30KD(30KD) were measured as the parameters for the indices of aging stage. Aging index of air-packed beef tenderloin stored for 14 days at 3
were useful in the order of SFV(r=-0.893)>MFR (r=0.863) >30KD(r=0.853)>MFI(r=0.814)>Mg-ATPase activity(г=0.804). Vacuum-packed beef tenderloin stored for 28 days at 3
were useful in the order of MFR(r=0.880)>30KD(r=0.836). In case of the correlation between aging indices of air-packed beef tenderloin, MFR had relation with SFV, Mg-ATPase activity, MFI and 30KD. In case of the correlation between aging indices of vacuum-packed beef ten- derloin, MFR had relations with 30KD.
Dynamic Changes in Browning Reaction Substrates of Polygonatum odoratum Roots during Roasting
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 654~661
Response surface methodology was applied to monitor dynamic changes in free sugars and free amino acids associated with browning reaction during roasting of Polygonatum odoratum roots. Second-order model for qualities of water- soluble extracts was employed to generate contour maps and response surfaces. Browning color intensity of water-soluble extracts was increased with the roasting time up to around 14
, but decreased in increasing temperature above L6O"C. Free sugars, mainly composed of sucrose and fructose, were remarkably decreased at roasting under the higher temperature and longer time, while glucose linearly increased with the increase of roasting temperature up to 15
. Most of free amino acids was decreased in their amounts in Proportion to the roasting temperature and time, while threonine and lysine were insignificantly increased under the roasting conditions at above 17
Growth Inhibitory Effect and Changes in Membrane Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition on MG-63 and AZ-521 Human Cancer Cells by Linoleic Acid
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 662~668
Linoleic acid(LA) was examined to evaluate its potential as a chemotherapeutic agent for MG-63 human osteosarcoma and AZ-521 gastric cancer cells. The treatment of LA(0.005% for 6 days) to the MG-63 and AZ-521 cancer cells inhibited growth of the cancer cells by 54% and 52%, respectively as compared to that of the controls. It also exhibited that LA with 0.01% concentration decreased the [
H] thymidine incorporation by more than 90% in the both cancer cells. In additions we observed morphological changes in MG-63 and AZ-521 cells under inverted microscope, and the changes in membrane fatty acid compositions of the cancer cells when LA was added at the level of 0.005%. The treatment with LA revealed that the contents of 16:0 and 18:0 decreased significantly, but fatty acids that C numbers are more than 20 and unsaturated(20:4, 22:6, and 24:4) increased, concomitantly the morphological changes of the cells were observed.
Expression of Human Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 669~674
This study was attempted to express human lactoferrin gene that has importance as a functional additive in food industry. Lactoferrin has distinctive antibacterial properties. Also, a number of phy-siological roles have been postulated for the lactoferrin in the modulation of immune and inflamatory responses and as a growth factor. Since it did not show feasible growth inhibition by antimicrobial test against HLF, Pichia pastoris was selected the best lactoferrin expression host. HLF expression plasmid pHIL-SI was integrated into the genomic DNA of P. pastoris GSl15. The integration was confirmed not only with 2.4Kb fragment of HLF gene by PCR(polymerase chain reaction) product, but also with same size of specific signal by southern blotting. Among the various pichica transformants, the JY-1 cell showed a positive response for the expression of HLF by the immunoblotting anaysis. The recombinant HLF protein was started to be secreated at 48hr of culture and reached at the highest secreation level at 96hr.
Effect of Dietary Protein and Fiber on Ethanol-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 675~681
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary protein and fiber levels on the activities of ethanol metabolizing enzymes of liver in ethanol-treated rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed on diets containing two levels of protein(7, 20%/kg diet) and pectin(5, 10%/kg diet). In ethanol experiments, ethanol(25% v/v) was administered by oral intubation(5g/kg body weight) at the same time once a day Control animals received an isocaloric dose of sucrose. The rats were sacrificed after 5 weeks of feeding periods. Alcohol dehydrogenase and microsomal ethanol oxidizing system activities of hepatic tissue were increased more in ethanol-treated groups than in control groups. Increment of activities predominated in normal protein normal fiber group. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was decreased in ethanol-treated groups and significantly decreased in normal Protein normal fiber group. Cytochrome P-450 content was significantly increased in ethanol-treated groups and Predominated in normal protein groups. Xanthine oxidase activity was increased in ethanol-treated groups, but not significantly except normal protein normal fiber group. Glutathione content tended to increase in proportion to level of dietary protein and was higher in normal fiber groups than in high fiber groups, whereas it was decreased by ethanol treatment. Lipid Peroxide content was significantly increased in low Protein normal fiber groups.
Effect of Ascorbic Acid Supplementation on Hepatic Microsomal and Mitochondrial Cytochrome P450 System in Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 682~688
This study was performed to investigate whether ascorbic acid can modulate the induction of CYP2E1 and prevent the lipid peroxidation which may cause diabetic chronic complication. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats(150~170g). Normal and diabetic group was randomly divided into three groups each; Control(CON, no supplementation), SUP1 (50mg/d ascorbate supplementation) and SUP2(250mg/d ascorbate supplementation). Ascobic acid was prepared daily by dissolving in drinking water and supplied for 4 weeks. There was no difference in hepatic microsomal and mitochondrial P450 contents between normal and diabetes. Hepatic microsomal N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA) demethylase activity, which repre-sents contents of CYP2E1, was elevated in diabetes, but not significantly. The NDMA demethylase activity of diabetic SUP2 group was significantly lower activity than that of the diabetic CON group. However, no difference in hepatic mitochondrial NDMA demethylase activity was observed between the diabetes and the normal group. The result suggests that the induction of CYP2E1 in diabetes can be alleviated by ascorbic acid supplementation at the dose of 50mg1d. In addition, ascorbic acid supplementation showed dose-dependent reduction of hepatic microsomal TBARS contents in diabetic rats.
Effects of Aralia canescens and Phellodendron amurense Extracts on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic ICR Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 689~696
The effects of Aralia canescens and Phellodendron amurense(AP) extracts on the experimental diabetes in ICR mice were investigated. 96male ICR mice were induced diabetes mellitus by intrape-ritoneal streptozotocin injection(75mg/kg B.W.) and divided into two injection groups which are 5 day injection and 10 day injection group. Then, each injection group was subdivided into 8 groups of 6 animals repspectively. CIC served as control and CI1, CI2 and CI3 were treated with 50, 150, 250mg/kg B.W. of AP extracts powder in 0.9% NaCl solution. Animals of groups DIC, DI1, DI2 and DI3 were strepto-zotocin-induced diabetes. DIC served as diabetic control and the rest groups received 50, 150, 250mg/kg B.W of AP extracts powder in saline solution respectively. The body weight, liver and kiney weight changes and blood levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride were measured. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS), and glutathione reductase(GR) and glutathione peroxidase(GPx) activities were also measured for determining antioxidant effects. AP extracts increased the body weight in diabetic groups. The liver and kidney weight/100g B.W. in DIC group were greater than those of normal ICR group but after AP extracts injection, liver and kidney weight were decreased significantly. These effects were more efficient at 10 days injection group. The total, LDL, VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in DIC group and the extent of decrement responded to AP injection dose. The contents of TBARS and antioxidant enzyme activities were relatively decreased after AP extracts injection. These results suggest that the intraperitoneally administered AP extracts may have not only hypoglycemic effect but act as antioxidants by reducing lipid peroxidation.
Effects of Different Sources of Dietary n-3 Fatty Acids on Immune Response and Eicosanoids Production
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 697~703
This study was planned to compare the effects of source of dietary n-3 fatty acids, i.e., tuna oil and perilla oil, on mitogenesis and production of prostaglandin E
and leukotriene B
in rats. Weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 3 different experimental diets for 4 weeks(Control: beef tallow 50% + sesame oil 50%, FO : beef tallow 50% + sesame oil 25% + tuna oil(27% docosahexaenoic acid) 25%, PO : beef tallow 50% + sesame oil 25% + perilla oil 25%). Food intakes were higher in FO group than in other groups, but body weight gains, food efficiency rates and weights of spleen were not different among groups. Proliferation of splenocyte to PWM(pokeweedmitogen) was higher in FO and PO group than control group. But there was no difference between FO and PO group. Response to ConA was not different among three groups. Serum PGE
levels were higher in control group than other groups. Serum LKB
levels were not different among groups. Therefore, it seemed that n-3 fatty acids increased the immune response by means of decreasing the PGE
Effects of Feed Protein Quality on the Protein Metabolism of Growing Pigs - Using a Simulation Model -
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 704~713
This study was conducted to describe qualitatively the protein metabolism of pigs during growth depending on the feed protein quality and to describe quantitatively amino acids requirements, using a simulation model. The used model has a non-linear structure. In the used model, the protein utilization system of a pig, which is in the non-steady-state, is described with 15 flux equations and 11 differential equations and is composed with two compartments. Protein deposition(g/day) of pigs on the 30th, 60th, 90th, and 120th day of feeding duration with three-quality protein, beginning with body weight 20kg, were calculated according to the empirical model, PAF(the product of amino acid functions) of Menke, and was used as object function for the simulation. The mean of relative difference between the simulated protein deposition and PAF calculated values, lied in a range of 8.8%. The simulated protein deposition showed different behavior according to feed protein quality. In the high-quality protein, it showed paraboloidal form with extending growth simulation up to 150eh day. So the maximum of protein deposition was acquired on the 105th day of simulate growth time and then it decreased fast. In the low-quality protein, this form of protein deposition in the course of simulated growth did not appear until 150th day. The simulated protein mass also showed a difference in accordance with feed protein quality. The difference was small on the 30th day of simulated growth, but with duration of the simulated growth it was larger. On the 150th day the simulated protein deposition of high quality protein was 1.5 times higher as compared to the low-quality protein. The simulated protein synthesis and break-down rates(g/day) in the whole body showed a parallel behavior in the course of growth, according to feed protein quality. It was found that the improvement of feed protein quality increased protein deposition in the whole body through a increase of both protein synthesis and breakdown during growth. Also protein deposition efficiency, which was calculated from simulated protein deposition and protein synthesis, showed a difference in dependence on the protein qualify of feed protein. The protein deposition efficiency was higher in pigs fed with high quality protein, especially at the simulation time 30th day. But this phenomena disappeared with growth, so on the 150th day of growth, the protein deposition of the high feed protein quality was lowest among the three different quality of feed protein. The simulated total requirement of the 10 essential amino acids for the growth of pigs was 28.1(g/100g protein), similar to NRC. The requirement of lysine was 4.2(g/100g protein).
Housewives발 Consumption Aspects of Korean Fermented Foods in Taejon
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 714~725
The purpose of this study was to investigate pattern of consumption of Korean fermented foods. The questionnaires have been collected from 290 housewives in Taejon. Kimchi was the most frequently selected for meal preparation among Korean fermented foods. Ninety seven percentage of housewives used Kimchi over once a day and 87%, every meal. Chin-ganjang, Kuk-ganjang, Kochujang and Doenjang have been consumed over once a day by 47%, 46%, 31% and 27% of housewives respectively, which indicated that those jangs were still essential seasonings for preperation of Korean foods. The percentage of housewives, who did not use Chonggukjang, Jot-kal and Jangatchi, were 18%, 19% and 22% respectively, With the educational level increasing and age decreasing, the frequency of consumption Kimchi, Jangat-chi, Doenjang, Kochujang, Jot-kal and Chonggukjang became lower. Extended family often used Doenjang more than nuclear family. Working housewives utilized more Jot-kal than full time housewives. Seventy four percentage of housewives replied that the consumption of Korean fermented foods came to reduce. The reasons were that the kinds of foods increased(54%), food preference of children was changed (27%), side dishes were increased(10%), and food preference of adults was changed(9%). Kimchi has been made by housewives themselves(86%) and by relatives(11%). It means that most housewives prefer home-made Kimchi. Half of housewives used jangs made by themselves. The younger and the higher in educational level use the less Hey have made of Kimchi and jangs.
A Computerized System for Diagnosis and Nutritional Assessment of Dietary Intakes : Recommended Dietary Allowances for Koreans, 6th Revision
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 726~732
The purpose of this study is to develop a software program to diagnose and assess status of dietary intake obtained using 24-hour dietary recall method. This program consist of four functions. The first function is assessing tile general status of the body such as ideal body weight, obesity measure, activity expenditure energy and total energy requirement by the analysis of age, height, weight and the degree of activity. The second one is calculating the intake number of food classified by the food group and evaluating the status of food intake by comparing them with the number of standardized intake in recommended dietary allowances for Koreans,6th revision. Third one is calculating energy and nutrient intakes contributed by the food group in dietary intake and evaluating the status of dietary intake by comparing the nutrient intake with the recommended dietary allowance for Korean, especially calculating and evaluating the status of dietary fat intake. The fourth function is calculating and evaluating the status of nutrient intake and nutrients energy Percent contributed by three regular meals and at least one in-between-meal snack. The results are displayed as tabular forms and graphical forms on the computer screen.
A Computerized Dietary Prescription and Nutritional Counseling System for Patients with Hyperlipidemia
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 733~742
A computerized dietary prescription and nutritional counseling system for patients having hyperlipidemia has been developed using a personal computer. This system is composed of three programs. The first program is designed to investigate dietary history of patient, such as a dietary habit and a preference of food, to find out his incorrect dietary behavior and to give him some suggestions to correct dietary behavior. The second one is developed to analyze the energy and nutrients intake using 24-hour dietary recall method and also evaluate the status of dietary intake, especially the status of dietary fat. With these data, patient can replan pattern of his food intake including in-between-meal snack as well as regular meals. The third one is the diet and menu Planning program made using food exchange table. It provides the patient with a meal pattern suitable in his weight, activity and the other status of the body. Practicing these programs, patient with hyperlipidemia can help himself very conveniently in organizing his meal plan and in improving his dietary behavior.
Research Method of Fatty Acids Transfer between Phospholipid Model Membranes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 4, 1997, Pages 743~750
Direct measurement of the kinetics of free fatty acid transfer between phospholipid model membrane is technically limited by the rapid nature of the transfer process. Separation of membrane-bound fatty acid by centrifugation has shown that although the equilibrium distribution of free fatty acid is determined by this method, fatty acid transfer occurs too rapidly for accurate kinetic measurements. Recently fluorescence resonance energy transfer(FRET) assay has been developed to examine transfer of fatty acids between membranes. Donor membranes which has fluorescent fatty acid, anthroyloxy fatty acid(AOFA), is mixed with acceptor membranes which has non-interchangeable fluorescent quencher, nitrobenzo-xadiazol(NBD), using stopped flow apparatus. As the fluorescent fatty acids transfer from donor membrane to acceptor membrane, fluorescence intensity would be decreased and the rate and degree of fatty acid transfer can be analyzed. Fatty acid transfer between micelles is more complicated because of bile salt. Therefore in experiments with micelles, fluorescence self quenching assay is used. At high concentrations, a fluorophore tends to quench its own fluorescence causing a reduction in fluorescence intensity. Donor micelles contained self quenching concentrations of fluorophore and acceptor micelles had no fluorophore. Upon mixing of donor and acceptor micelles, the rate of transfer of the fluorophore from the donor to the acceptor was measured by monitoring the release in self quenching when its concentration in donor decreased over time.