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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 1997
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 1997
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 1997
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 1997
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 1997
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 1997
Selecting the target year
Antioxidative Effect of Different Kinds of Kimchi on the Lipid Oxidation of Cooked Meat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 993~997
This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative effect of different kinds of kimchi on the lipid oxidation of cooked meat in model systems. Model systems of cooked ground meat(CGM), CGM-Chinese cabbage kimchi(CK), CGM-radish kimchi(RK), and CGM-mustard leaf kimchi(MLK) were prepared and their oxidation were evaluated during the storage at 4
for 5 weeks. Thiobarbituric acid(TBA) values of CGM significantly increased with the storage at 4
for 5 weeks. Thiobarbituric acid(TBA) values of CGM significantly increased with the storage time, however, TBA value of CGM-CK, CGM-RK, and CGM-MLK lowered and that of CGM-MLK was lowest. Antioxidative effect of CGM-MLK increased with the addition levels of kimchi in the system. And also in the model systems which were prepared with CGM and MLK in different fermentation periods, the antioxidative effect was highest in the properly fermented-kimchi.
Effect of Kimchi Ingredients to Reactive Oxygen Species in Skin Cell Cytotoxicity
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 998~1005
Kimchi showed protective effect from oxidative damage generated by hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. To investigate the major components of kimchi which reduce the cytotoxicity against reactive oxygen species, keratinocyte(A431, epidermoid carcinoma, human) and fibroblast(CCD-986SK, normal control, human) were cultured under oxidative stress condition provoked by paraquat, a superoxide anion generator, and hydrogen peroxide in the absence or presence of kimchi ingredients. Most keratinocyte and fibroblast cells were killed by hydrogen peroxide and paraquat over 1mM concentration, but kimchi ingredients showed protective effects from oxidative damage generated by hydrogen peroxide and onion, among those, garlic showed the most remarkable preventive effect. Most of kimchi ingredients showed protective effect against paraquat, especially leek notably increased cell survival. For fibroblast cells, ginger had the preventive effect against paraquat, especially leek notably increased cell survival. For fibroblast cells, ginger had the preventive effect from cell killing by high dose of hydrogen peroxide, but most ingredients were not effective against paraquat.
Changes in the Contents of Dietary Fibers and Pectic Substances during Fermentation of Baik-kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1006~1012
To observe the food quality of Baik-kimchi which is known as a watery Chinese cabbage pickles without fish sauce and red pepper paste, the changes of dietary fibers and pectic substances during fermentation at 5
were studied. Baik-kimchi fermented at
showed a greater changes in pH and acidity than those of 5
during storage. Ripened Baik-kimchi products fermented at 5
could be prepared on 9~12 days of fermentation, and those had a pH range from 4.25 to 4.40 and acidity of 0.34~0.53. But in the case of
fermentation, Baik-kimchi ripened for 3 days showed a pH of 4.02 and acidity of 0.54. The pH and acidity of the Baik-kimchi juice changed more rapidly than those of the Baik-kimchi solid regardless of fermentation temperatures. The content of soluble dietary fiber(SDF) was ranged from 3.06 to 4.87% at 5
and a wide variation in SDF was observed in the sample fermented at
(4.15~11.22%). Insoluble dietary fiber(IDF) were increased from 21.66% to 28.42% in solid of Baik-kimchi during fermentation at 5
and ranged from 21.37% to 24.65% for sample fermented at
. A notable amount of pectin had been dissolved in juice of Baik-kimchi till the best ripening time and showed the level of 223.2mg/100ml at 5
on the day of 9 and 207.3mg/100ml at
on the day of 2. In contrast, the contents of pectin in solid Baik-kimchi decreased, whereas contents of sodium hexametaphosphate soluble pectin(HXSP) and HCl soluble pectin(HClSP) increased with fermentation period.
Changes in Physicochemical Properties of Baik-kimchi during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1013~1020
To elicit the effect of fermentation on food quality of the watery Chinese cabbage pickles without fish sauce and red pepper paste(Baik-kimchi), changes in physicochemical properties and microstructure of fiber components were studied. Better water holding capacity(WHC) was showed in Baik-kimchi fermented at
than that of Baik-kimchi fermented at 5
. WHC measured at pH 2 and 6 were ranged from 10.18 to 16.79g/g dried sample for Baik-kimchi fermented at
and 6.51~14.58g/g dried sample for sample for samples at 5
, respectively. The higher WHC was resulted in pH controlled freeze-dried sample to pH 6 than that measured in pH 2 sample. The settling volume(SV) and oil adsorption capacity(OAC) increased with fermentation period and kept the same value for a little while, but slightly decreased in the over ripening period. Baik-kimchi fermented at
exhibited more shrunk microstructure of parenchyma cell and xylem than those of Baik-kimchi fermented at 5
. The appearance of SDF of the both Baik-kimchi ripened at 5
could give granular shape, whereas the overripened Baik-kimchi had smooth surface of SDF. On the other hand, the IDF retained the original shape during fermentation.
Production in Fermentation of Dongchimi (Pickled Radish Roots, Watery Radish Kimchi)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1021~1027
production in fermentation of dongchimi was measured and interrelated with changes in pH and titratable acidity. The effects of salt content and temperature on
production rate were analysed. Fermentation of dongchimi showed drastic pH decrease in early stage and subsequent levelling off around 3.9, with linearly increased acidity up to 0.3~0.4% optimum quality.
production of dongchimi could be analysed to consist of two consecutive stages of constant rate. The first stage
production of higher rate moved to the second stage of lower rate when acidity rose beyond 0.3%. When compared to those of 1 and 2% salt content, dongchimi of 3% salt showed lower
production rate in the 1st stage and slower acidity change through the whole fermentation period. However, it resulted in the product of highest
accumulation at optimal ripeness because of consistent
production of longer 1st stage period and relatively high
production rate in 2nd stage.
production depended on temperature less compared to acidity change(activation energy: 57.3 and 44.3kJ/mol for
production of 1st and 2nd stages, respectively; 79.3kJ/mol for acidity change), which means higher ratio of
production rate relative to acidity increase at lower temperature. Slower increase in acidity at low temperature also was shown to extend the period of 1st stage
production. Therefore, low temperature fermentation was effective in producing the high
content dongchimi at adequate acidity, which is desirable organoleptically.
Isolation of Pure
-Linolenic Acid from Perilla Seed Oil
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1028~1032
Low-temperature crystallization method silver nitrate-impregnated silicic acid column chromatography were applied for the isolation of pure
-linolenic acid(ALA) from perilla seed oil. ALA or 78% in purity(HALA; yield, 83%) was obtained from the fatty acid mixture(ALA, 65.7%) derived from perilla oil by the low-temperature crystallization method, when the mixture was frozen at -8
for 210min. ALA over 90% in purity(yield, 71%) was also obtained from HALA ethyl esters(ALA, 78%) by the silver nitrate-impregnated silicic acid column(100cm
10cm, i.d.) chromatography. In addition, the silver nitrate-impregnated silicic acid could be semipermanently used for isolation of ALA, because
ion was not dissociated from the stationary phase.
Antioxidant Effect of Sesame Lignans on
-Linolenic Acid-Concentrated Perilla Fatty Acid Esters
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1033~1038
Antioxidant effect of several antioxidative components on the high purity
-linolenic acid(HALA; ALA, 78.1%) ethyl ester concentrated from perilla oil were investigated by measuring weight-gains and peroxide value(POV) during storage at 5
. Amounts of antioxidant components were 0.2g/kg HALA ethyl ester for sesamin, sesangolin and butylated hydroxytolune(BHT), and 0.1g/kg for sesamol and 100g/kg for ether extracts from perilla seed. The oxidative stability of HALA ethyl ester was particularly increased by adding sesamol, ether extracts and BHT, but sesamin and sesangolin scarcely showed an antioxidant effect. POV on the HALA ethyl ester added sesamol and ether extract was less than 15.0meq/kg by 9 weeks of storage at 23
. However, in the case of low temperature storage at 4
, all the samples estimated showed less than 7.0meq/kg in POV by 5 months. Consequently, sesamol and ether extracts were recognized as available antioxidant components on the HALA ethyl ester from perilla oil.
Optimization for Pigment Production and Antioxidative Activity of the Products by Bacillus subtilis DC-2
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1039~1043
Correlation among color intensity, electron donating ability to
-dicrylhydrazy(DPPH) and cultivation conditions by Bacillus subtilis DC-2 were tested with response surface methodology. Both of pigment generation ability and DPPH were more affected by temperature than any other factor. The highest correlation was appeared between color intensity and DPPH as 0.8364 which is significant at 1% level. After fixing cultivation time which is not significant at 10% level to 84hrs as optical cultivation time, response surface methodology was conducted in regarding temperature and color intensity. As a result of overlapped contour map of color intensity and DPPH, when cultivation temperature was in the range of 38.9~41.1
and pH was in the range of 8.34~9.12, optical density of color intensity was predicted higher than 0.374 at 390nm and DPPH was infered higher than 1.310 at 528nm. In the range of optical culture condition, cultivation temperature, pH and cultivation time was fixed to 4
, 8.5 and 85hrs, respectively. In resulting, observation value of color intensity and DPPH was in the range of anticipation value as 0.386 at 390nm and 1.332 at 528nm respectively.
Effect of Red Pepper Varieties on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Traditional Kochujang during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1044~1049
Physicochemical characteristics of kochujangs prepared with the powders from 4 different red pepper varieties, were investigated during 90 days fermentation to obtain information for the industrial production of traditional kochujang. Water activities and consistencies of all varities slightly decreased during fermentation, but in consistency Jangter kochujang was higher than others. The red values in color of all sample remarkably increased after 15 days. Especially L, a and b values of Hongkwang kochujang were higher than those of others. The acidities of 4 kochujangs linearly increased during fermentation. Reducing sugar contents of kochujang increased until 30 days but thereafter decreased slightly, showing highest value for Hongkwang kochujang. Ethanol contents increased until 75 days and were higher in Kumtop and Jangter kochujang. Amino and ammonia nitrogen contents rapidly increased until 30 days. Ammonia nitrogen content was gradually decreased after 30 days. Amino nitrogen contents were higher in Hongkwang kochujang.
Effect of Red Pepper Varieties on the Microflora, Enzyme Activities and Taste Components of Traditional Kochujang during Fermentation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1050~1057
Microbial counts, enzyme activities and taste components of traditional kochujangs prepared with the powders from 4 different varieties of red pepper, were investigated during 90 days fermentation for the industrial production of traditional kochujang. The viable cell counts of anaerobic bacteria in kochujangs did not change remarkably during fermentation, however, aerobic bacterial counts showed a rapid increase up to 90 days of aging. The yeasts in all kochujang samples increased until 60 days of aging and than decreased. After 90 days of aging, the count of aerobic bacteria in Kumtop kochujang was higher than those of others. The activities of liquefying amylase decreased during the aging, but those of saccharogenic amylase increased at 60 days of aging. The activities of neutral protease were higher than those of acidic protease, and increased during the middle and last period of aging. The major free sugars of kochujang were maltose and glucose, and their contents were higher in Hongkwang kochujang. The major organic acids of kochujang were succinic, formic and citric acid, followed by lactic acid. Succinic acid content in kochujang decreased during fermentation, whereas formic and citirc acids were increased. The major free amino acids were serine, proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and alanine. Kumtop kochujang contained the highest amount of total free amino acids. Among the nucleotides and related components in kochujang, cytidine-5-monophosphate was the most abundant component at the begining of aging period, while hypoxanthine increased remarkably during fermentation. Hanwang kochujang was higher in the content of nucleotides than others. Capsaicin contents of kochujang decreased during aging and those of Jangter kochujang was higher than that of others. Sensory evaluation showed that Jangter kochujang was significantly better than Kumtop kochujang in overall acceptability, but there were no appreciable differences in color and flavor.
Study on the Chemical Change of Amino Acid and Vitamin of Rapeseed during Germination
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1058~1062
The objective of this was to investigate the technical feasibility of producing toxicant-free by germination. To this end, rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) was germinated at
for 120 hours, and the chemical compositions of amino acids and vitamins were determinated in every 24 hours during germination. The results obtained are summarized as follows: Before germination, rapeseed contained 5.4g/16g N of glutamic acid and high percentage of the other amino acids in order of Asp>Leu>His>Pro>Arg>Lys>Gly>Ser>Ala>Val. The amino acids were gradually decreased until 96 hours during germination had tendency to show a slight increase in 120 hours. Vitamin B
and C contents in rapeseed before germination were found to be 0.11, 0.21 and 3.72mg% respectively, and the vitamin E was 423ug/g. The vitamin C greatly increased in 72 hours during germination, while the vitamin B group was drastically decreased in 72 hours. The results obtained by this method clearly demonstrate that germination process is very effective to the removal of toxicants in rapeseed.
The Study on the Amount of Trace Elements in Some Fermented Fich Products(jeot-gal) from Some Areas of the West Coast in Korea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1063~1067
This study was performed to assess the levels of the trace elements(Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Mn, Pb, and Cd) in salt-fermented fish products from some areas of the west coast in Korea. Seven samples were Shrimp(Seawoo-jeot), Clam(Jogai-jeot), Oyster(Orikul-jeot), big eyed horring(Bendeng-ie jeot), Mysis(Gonjeng-ie jeot), Hwangandali(Hwangsegi-jeot), and Squid, Han Chi(Han chi-jeot). They were ashed with ternary solution. After ashing the samples, the amount of trace elements in the samples were measured by ICP. The moisture content of the 7 samples before freezing dry were 68.36, 71.52, 81.19, 62.27, 71.30, 64.27, and 66.74%, respectively. Jogai-jeot and Gonjeng-ie jeot contained the most amount of moisture among the samples. Fe contents were 66.46, 309.10, 27.03, 23.01, 132.45, 35.75, and 9.72ppm, respectively. Jogai-jeot contained the most amount of Fe among the samples. Cu contents were 4.60, 4.36, 3.75, 2.21, 10.36, 2.71, and 58.15ppm, respectively. Hanchi-jeot contained the most amount of Cu among the samples. Zn contents were 16.02, 75.06, 37.43, 28.43, 132.45, 35.75, and 9.72ppm, respectively. Gonjeng-ie jeot contained the most amount of Zn among the samples. Cr contents were 0.80, 1.61, 0.84, 0.96, 1.12, 0.96, and 0.59ppm, respectively. Jogai-jeot contained the most amount of Cr among the samples. Co contents were 0.13, 0.54, 0.31, 0.46, 0.50, 0.63, and 0.35ppm, respectively. Hwangsegi-jeot contained the most amount of Co among the samples. Mn contents were 7.30, 10.69, 14.87, 4.12, 8.03, 2.94 and 1.54ppm, respectively. Origkul-jeot contained the most amount of Mn among the samples. Pb contents were 1.80, 4.30, 2.53, 4.61, 3.08, 5.04, and 2.74ppm, respectively. Hwangsegi-jeot contained the most amount of Pb among the samples. Cd contents were 0.005, 0.03, 0.06, 0.005, 0.01, 0.00, and 0.10ppm, respectively. Hanchi-jeot contained the most amount of Cd among the samples. This study is limited within 7 samples caught and producted from the some areas of the west coast in Korea. Therefore, I hope there will be broader experiments concerned with this study to make clear not only nutritional aspect(the contents of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, and Mn) but also toxicological aspect(the contents of Pb and Cd).
Change of Fatty Acid in Cheese Ripening by New Development of Lactic Acid Bacteria
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1068~1076
This study was carried out to elucidate the utility of fusant for shortening the ripening time of imitation processed cheese. L. bulgaricus exhibited the highest protease and lactase activity and L. helveticus revealed the highest lipase activity. Fusant was shown to be high in the activity of protease and lactase. The total volatile free fatty acid produced by the cheese treated with L. helveticus was markedly increased after four ripening days and was gently increased after nine ripening days. However, L. bulgaricus significantly increased the total volatile free fatty acid between four and nine ripening days. In the case of fusant, the amount of total volatile free fatty acid was observed to increase at a constant rate relative to the ripening time. In free fatty acid production at different ripening times, L. bulfaricus generated caproic acid and caprilic acid abundantly while it produced a poor quantity of capric acid, lauric acid, and myristic acid. In the cheese sample treated with L. helveticus, the amount of caproic acid and capylic acid was on increase as the ripening time increased. The amount of caproic acid and caprylic acid produced by fusant was less than that produced by the other two starters. In the panel sensory evaluation, the flavor intensity and preference increased as the ripening time increased. The cheese sample treated with fusant showed the highest flavor intensity at 7 days, whereas cheese treated with L. helveticus exhibited the highest flavor intensity at 15 or 30 days. The cheese treated with L. helveticus showed the highest preference at 7 days, but cheese treated with fusant exhibited the highest preference at 30 days.
Changes of Cheese Components and Texture Characteristics in Cheese Ripening by Fusant Developed by Lactic Acid Bacteria
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1077~1085
This study was carried out to elucidate the utilization of the fusant for shortening the ripening time by making an observation of the microstructure and the profile of component change. In ripening cheese, moisture content of the sample treated with tested strain is not a remarkable difference among the test samples. With an increase of the ripening time, L. helveticus showed the highest increase in protein content, followed by fusant, and then L. bulgaricus. The fat content of all starters was gradually decreased while it was it was rapidly decreased after 7 days. The pH of all starters was gradually decreased when the ripening time increased. The titratable acidity was greatly increased between a 9th day and a 15th day ripening. In investigating the light microscopic microstructure of ripened cheese samples, the sample treated with fusant indicated little difference from the other starters in decomposition of protein and fat components by microbial enzymes. In SEM observation, the structure of all cheese samples was uniform and the rough texture was converted into smooth texture by the interaction of cheese components and the abscission of single bond in casein matrix when the ripening time is increased. The fusant showed similar results in the examination of component change and its microstructure compared with the other starters. Therefore, it was revealed that the fusant can be partially used as a cheese starter instead of conventional starters by replacing them or combining them together with the other starters for shortening the ripening time.
Morphological Properties of Lintnerized Maize Starches with Different Amylose Content
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1086~1090
Morphological properties on lintnerized maize starches with different amylose content were investigated. With increasing the lintnerization periods and decreasing the amylose content, hydrolysis rate was increased. As amylose content of starch was increased, the degree of damage with acid treatment was decreased by SEM. With increasing hydrolysis, iodine affinity, apparent amylose content and
of lintnerized starches were decreased. Water binding capacities of lintnerized starches were higher than those of native starches.
Physicochemical Properties of Rice Flour and Textural Characteristics of Cooked Rice from Chungmubyeo
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1091~1095
The physicochemical properties of rice flour and textural properties of cooked rices between Chungmubyeo and Dongjinbyeo were compared. The protein contents of Chungmubyeo and Dongjinbyeo were 7.9% and 8.8%, and the crude and total lipid were 0.82%, 0.65% and 2.34%, 1.66% respectively. The amylose content was 21.1% in Chungmubyeo and 20.2% in Dongjinbyeo. The hardness of rice grain was higher in Dongjinbyeo while water absorption was higher in Chungmubyeo. The sensory evaluation of cooked rice made from Chungnubyeo was significantly higher in shininess, roasted nutty flavor, hardness and overall eating quality than that from Dongjinbyeo. The hardness of cooked rices by rheometer was increased during storage and was lower in Chungmubyeo than Dongjinbyeo.
Effect of Mixed Coagulant on the Rheological Properties of Soybean Curd
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1096~1101
Soy curd was prepared using imported soybean(U.S.grade A) and changes in quality were evaluated using different types and mixtures of coagulants(CaCl
, and glucono-
-lactone). Quality of soy curd was determined by rheological properties, yield, and color. Based upon the characteristics of each coagulant, mixtures of two coagulants were prepared in various ratios. The mixture of CaSO
-lactone(GDL), and that of CaSO
resulted in soy curd of good quality in terms of rheological properties and yield.
Emulsion Properties of Casein-Alginate Mixtures
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1102~1108
Proteins and polysaccharides confer distinct functional properties in food systems. This research was attempted to improve emulsion properties of casein by protein-polysaccharide conjugation, in which alginates with various molecular weights were employed as polysaccharide sources. Casein-alginate mixtures were conjugated by the amino-carbonyl or Maillard reaction at 6
and 79% relative humidity. The resulting casein-alginate conjugates were tested for their emulsion activity and emulsion stabilizing properties. In general, the emulsion stability of casein-alginate mixture greatly increased due to the amino-carbonyl reaction between casein and alginates, whose magnitude depended on the molecular weight of alginate, weight ratio of casein to alginate and incubation time. It was also found that thermal stability and pH stability were markedly improved by the casein-alginate conjugation.
Application of Hydrocarbons as Markers for Detecting Post-irradiation of Imported Meats and Fish
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1109~1115
Hydrocarbons were analyzed in irradiated beef, pork, dried and seasoned beef, dried anchovy, dried squid, dried shrimp, and fish paste to determine whether the hydrocarbons can be used as markers for detecting post-irradiation of the imported meat and fish products. The samples were irradiated at 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kGy. Fat was extracted with hexane, and hydrocarbons were separated from the fat through Florisil column. The hydrocarbons were analyzed with GC. Hydrocarbons 15:0, 16:1, 17:1, 16:2, 17:2, and 16:3 in beef and pork, 17:1, 16:2, and 17:2 in dried and seasoned beef, 16:2 in dried anchovy, 16:1 and 17:1 in dried squid, 16:1, 17:1, and 16:2 in dried shrimp, and 16:1, 16:2, and 16:3 in fish paste were detected in the irradiated samples, but not in the unirradiated, so that the hydrocarbons may be used as makers for detecting post-irradiation of each item.
Changes of Proteolytic Enzyme Property by Gamma Irradiation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1116~1121
Effects of gamma irradiation onf the activity and the properties(amino acid compositions, in vitro digestibility and SDS-PAGE pattern) of proteolytic enzymes were investigated. The proteolytic activity of soluble human serine protease, enzyme in kiwi and pineapple decreased 10% and 30~65% by 5 kGy and 30 kGy, respectively. In dried pancreatin and lysozyme, the proteolytic and antimicrobial activities decreased 6~14% and 10~20% by 5kGy and 40kGy, respectively. The analysis of above 10kGy-irradiated soluble human serine protease by SDS-PAGE revealed radiolysis of the enzyme into protein or peptides of lower molecular weights. The irradiation of skim milk, hammastein casein, and lysozyme up to 40kGy had no deleterious effect on either the in vitro digestibility or amino acid compositions.
Changes in the Chemical Properties of Maillard Reaction Products as Affected by Ozonolysis
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1122~1127
Melanoidins, which were higher polymers with intense brown color, were investigated on their decolorization and degradation by ozonolysis. Amino acids linked up with melanoidins were readily separated by depolymerization of melanoidins with ozonolysis. The IR spectra of ozone-untreated MRPs showed a higher peak at
(C=C) than the corresponding peaks of ozone-treated MRPs. Ozone-treated melanoidins with molecular weight of above 900 showed the highest nitrogen composition of all melanoidins tested. Ozone-treated melanoidins with molecular weight of 900 to 1000 were separated into five peaks on recycling preparative HPLC chromatogram. Major functional groups in ozone-treated melanoidins with molecular weight of 900 to 1, 000 were -CH
-O- and CH
Preparation of Soy Yogust Using Isolated Soybean Protein and Whey Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1128~1134
Lactobacillus helveticus was inoculated to the fermentation liquid containing skin milk powder(SMT) plus soymilk, SMP plus isolated soybean protein(ISP), SMP plus ISP plus whey powder(WP) to increase the nutritional and economic value of commercial soy yogurt. The yogurt fermented with soymilk and SMP showed the lower acid production than of SMP and had significant beany flavor in the product. The yogurt prepared with ISP and SMP showed the higher cell number and lower acid production than that of SMP. Also, the partial substitution of SMP with ISP over 6%(w/w) produced less acceptable product due to gel production. The yogurt prepared by the partial substitution of SMP with ISP, WP and SMP showed the higher cell number and lower acid production than that of SMP and not bring about gel formation unlike the case of ISP. Sensory properties of yogurt substituted SMP with ISP and WP(38:62 mixture) below 4% were not significantly different from that of SMP and the sample containing the mixture over 6% and 0.067% artificial flavor showed lower sensory score due to beany taste than that of SMP. But increase of yogurt flavor up to 0.1% resulted in significantly high score in organoleptic acceptability. The separation of water occured in yogurt prepared by the combined mixture of ISP, WP and SMP, and this problem could be resolved by addition of Na-alginate and PGA at the concentration of 0.1%(w/w).
Inhibiting Factors and Kinetics of Nonenzymatic Browning in Ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Paste Model System
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1135~1139
Major factors inhibiting nonenzymatic browning in stored ginger paste were investigated using aqueous model systems with temperature, water activity, pH and sulfur compounds. Browning index and total gingerols were measured during storage. The rate of nonenzymatic browning reactions showed a strong depencence on temperature and pH and a negligible influence on water activity. It was also reduced by the addition of 0.04% N-actyl-L-cysteine(NAcCys), effectively. Activation energies for aqueous ginger model systems with and without 0.04% NAcCys were 29.0 and 25.8kcal/mole, respectively.
Storage Stability of Ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Paste
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1140~1146
Storage stability of ginger paste product was investigated from the standpoint of the inhibition of nonenzymatic browning and loss of gingerol contents. For the experimentations, control, 0.04% of N-acetyl-L-cysteine in ginger paste(NAcCys), and combination treatment of NAcCys, 0.92 of water activity and 6.30 of pH in ginger paste (mixed treatment) were stored at 3
for 40 days and analyzed for browning and gingerol contents. In addition the changes in sugars, organic acids, ascorbic acids, amino acids, and sensory quality were determined. The results revealed that the mixed treatment agent was effective in preventing both nonenzymatic browning and loss of gingerol contents. The inhibition by combination treatment might be resulted from the control of radical formations by sulfhydryl groups of NAcCys and the increase of diffusion resistance in lower water activity. Browning development and total gingerol contents were found to be correlated to some physicochemical characteristics of ginger paste; that is, browning development to amino acid and color value in sensory evaluation, and total gingerol contents to flavor in sensory evaluation.
Preparation of Onion Hydrolysate for Usage of Sauce
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1147~1151
To develop an onion sauce, reaction conditions of celluclast 1.5L and pectinex on onion were investigated and organoleptic evaluations were carried out. Degree of hydrolysis(D.H) of hydrolysate by a mixture of celluclast 1.5L and pectinex was a higher than that by each enzyme. Hydrolysate by a mixture of celluclast 1.5L and pectinex(1:3v/v) showed 86% of D.H. and total sugar content of the hydrolysate was 54mg/ml. Hydrolysates showed 83~86% of D.H. at reaction temperature of
. Total sugar content of the hydrolysate was increased with increasing temperature. D.H. and total sugar content of hydrolysate was 76~86% and 51~63mg/ml, respectively, under acidic conditions. D.H. and total sugar content of hydrolysate were also increased with increasing time. Bitterness, sweetness and ordor of roasted pork prepared by adding onion and onion hydrolysate were significantly different(p<0.05), but color and preference between two groups were not significantly different(p<0.05) between two groups. There was no significant difference(p<0.05) in sweetness and bitterness of the roasted pork prepared by adding different amounts of onion hydrolysate, although ordor and preference of the roasted pork were significantly different(p<0.05).
Decelopment of Fermented Soysauce Using Cirsium setidens Nakai and Comfrey
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1152~1158
In order to develop new soysauce using mountain edible herbs, cirsium setidens Nakai and comfrey were added to the raw material of soysauce as a partially substituting ingredient to wheat composing the total nitrogen. The changes of chemical composition of soysauce by the substitution of 1~5% cirsium setidens after four months of aging were similar to those of the control soysauce. On the other hand, total solid content was decreased, while the pH was increased by more than 7%. The total nitrogen and solid contents in the confrey substituted soysauce were increased with the increment of the amount of comfrey, but showed little changes of the pH. The mineral contents of calcium and potassium in the soysauce after four months of aging at 10% substitution of cirsium setidens were increased by 1.7 and 1.4 times, respectively. A significant increase in calcium(2.3 times as compared to the control) was also observed in 7% substitution of comfrey. The amino acid contents such as methionine, tyrosine and histidine were markedly increased at 3% substitution of cirsium setidens. With 5% substitution of comfrey, the contents of tyrosine, glutamic acid methionine were increased by 4.4, 1.8 and 1.7 times, respectively as compared to the control. The results of sensory evaluation revealed that overall acceptability of soysauce with 1~5% substitution of cirsium setidens and 5% of comfrey exceeded other samples composing different ratios of substituting ingredients.
Effects of the Components and Extracts of Some Edible and Medicinal Plants on the Formation of Lipid Peroxide in Rat Liver Homogenate
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1159~1163
We have studied the effect of 31 extracts and 10 components from some edible and medicinal plants on the formation of lipid peroxide in the liver homogenate of rat in vitro. The 70% acetone extracts of Allium tuberosum, Beta vulgaris var. cicla and Brassica juncea var. integrifolia, and methanol extract of Capsicum annuum decreased the formation of lipid peroxide by 33%, 58%, 62% and 56% at the concentration of 1mg/ml, respectively. And these four extracts inhibited the lipid peroxidation at the concentration of
mg/ml by 17%, 46%, 49% and 45% respectively. Among the component tested, quercetin, quercitrin and isorhamnetin reduced the formation of lipid peroxide by 45%, 15% and 28% respectively at the concentration of
The Effects of Onion Juice on Serum Lipid Levels in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1164~1172
In this study we investigated the effects of dietary fat sources and onion on serum lipid levels in rats. One hundred twenty female Wistar rats two weeks old were randomly divided into five groups of 24 animals assigned to one of the ive modalities : Control group was fed only basal diet containing 6.3% of corn oil, T and L group were administered 6.3% beef tallow and lard substituted for corn oil in basal diet, LOv and LOx group were given same amount of lard as L group together with 4.2ml of onion juice/kg body weight, and 8.2ml of onion juice/kg body weight respectively. Six randomly selected rats from each group were evaluated for hematologic and serum biochemical parameters weekly. Over 4 week experiments it was found that the triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in T and L group compared with the control group. Triglyceride contents were significantly increased in L group compared with T group. But there was no difference in cholesterol levels between L and T group. LOv diet did not decrease significantly the triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but LOx group significantly did compared with L diet. LOx group had nearly normal values of bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid level and hemoglobin contents cut slightly increased levels in the glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities.
The Hepatotoxicity and the Effect of Antioxidative Vitamins by the Simultaneous Administration of Caffeine and Acetaminophen in vitro
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1173~1180
Hepatotoxicity of caffeine and acetaminophen was investigated in this study. Special attention was paid to the effect of vitamins on the reduction of hepatotoxicity caused by the chemicals. Rat hepaocytes isolated by two-step perfusion method were cultured in two differents methods-suspension, monolayer cultures-, and exposed to caffeine and/or acetaminophen for 24hrs. Caffeine or acetaminophen exhibited no significant hepatotoxicity in terms of intracellular glutathione(GSH) level and lipid peroxidation(MDA), but GSH level was significantly decreased after administrated acetaminophen, and the toxicity caused by the chemicals showed a dose-dependent manner. The synergistic effect of caffeine and acetaminophen was observed when both caffeine and acetaminophen were supplemented to culture medium. At the concentration 1mM, caffeine enhanced the intracellular GSH depletion and MDA formation by 63% and 64%, respectively, compared to single supplementation of 10mM acetaminophen in culture medium. This hepatotoxicity induced membrane integrity loss was observed by lightmicroscope on the simultaneous administration of caffeine and acetaminophen in monolayer cultured hepatocytes. Co-supplementation of vitamins with caffeine/acetaminophen to culture medium results in the protection of hepatocytes from hepatotoxic attach by caffeine/acetaminophen. Especially, vitamin E was superior to vitamin C and
-carotene from the standpoints of GSH depletion and MDA formation. From this results, it has been speculated that vitamin E may play a role of antioxidant scavenging radicals produced from acetaminophen. Taken all together, in vitro culture system like monolayer culture of hepatocytes may be a useful tool for the evaluation of hepatotoxicity or protection ability of food ingredients.
Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata Water Extract on the Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in Carbon Tetrachloride Treated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1181~1186
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Codonopsis lanceolata extract on the activities of antioxidative enzymes in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed until they reached about 110
10g body weight. Thereafter they were divided into normal group(N), carbon tetrachloride treated group(T), carbon tetrachloride and Codonopsis lanceolata water extract treated group(TW). Normal group were fed standard diet and carbon tetrachloride treated group were fed carbon tetrachloride once a week at the level of 0.12ml/100g body weight. Carbon tetrachloride and Codonopsis lanceolata water extract treated group were fed carbon tetrachloride once a week at the level of 0.12ml/100g body weight and Codonopsis lanceolata water extract at the level of 0.1ml/100g body weight once a day. The rats were sacrificed after 6weeks of feeding period. Content of hepatic cytochrome P-450 diminished by carbon tetrachloride was significantly increased by Codonopsis lanceolata water extract. Significant decrease in hepatic xanthine oxidase activity was found in rats treated with Codonopsis lanceolata water extract. The activity of superoxide dismutase was decreased by carbon tetrachloride, but it was significantly increased by Codonopsis lanceolata water exract. The activity of glutathione peroxidase increased by carbon tetrachloride was significantly decreased by Codonopsis lanceolata water extract. The activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase were significantly influenced by Codonopsis lanceolata water extract. Contents of glutathione and lipid peroxide were increased by carbon tetrachloride, but they were significantly diminished by Codonopsis lanceolata water extract.
Effects of Green Tea Catechin on Liver 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Co Enzyme A Reductase Activity and Serum Lipid Levels in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1187~1193
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea catechin on lipid metabolism in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150
10gm were randomly assigned to one normal and three STZ-induced diabetic groups. Diabetic animals were fed catechin free diet(DM-0C group), 0.5% catechin diet(DM-0.5C group) and 1% catechin diet(DM-1C group). Diabetes was experimentally induced by intravenous injection of 55mg/kg body wt of STZ in citrate buffer(pH 4.3) after feeding of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at the 6th day of diabetic states. Levels of blood glucose were three fold higher in all three STZ-induced diabetic groups than that of the normal group. The levels of plasma insulin were markedly lower in three STZ-induced diabetic groups than that of the normal group. The levels of plasma cortisol were increased in DM-0C group compared with that of the normal group. Triglyceride, total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in serum were increased in DM-0C groups compared with the normal group but were not significantly different between catechin diet groups and normal group. Serum HDL-cholesterol levels were reduced in DM-0C and DM-0.5C groups by 38% and 25%, respectively and had similar tendency in the DM-1C group compared with that of control group. Atherogenic index have shown same pattern as the result of total cholesterol. Activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Co enzyme A(HMG-CoA) reductase were higher in DM-0C groups than those of the normal group but were not significantly different between catechin diet groups and the normal group. It is concluded that dietary catechins can modulate lipid levels of serum and liver HMG-CoA reductase activity in diabetic rats.
Effect of Hot Taste Preference on Selected Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Immunocompetent Cells
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1194~1199
The effect of hot taste preference on selected immune responses was investigated in human peripheral immunocompetent cells. Human lymphocytes and natural killer(NK) cells were prepared at a concentration of 2
cells/ml in RPMI-1640 containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Lymphocytes proliferation was determined with the [
]-thymidine pulse for 18hrs after concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, Salmonella typhimurium mitogen, or media alone. NK cell activity was measured by cytolysis of
-labeled target cells K562. Serum antibodies levels such as IgM, IgG, IgA were also measured by ELISA method. There was no difference of serum IgM level among the groups, but IgG and IgA levels were greater in the group with hot taste preference than those of the group without hot taste preference. In lymphocytes of the group with hot taste preference there was a greater mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferative responses compared to the group without hot taste preference. In addition, NK cell activity in group with hot taste preference was lower than that of the group without hot taste preference. These results suggest that the eating habit of spicy food containing hot components may affect immune status by modulating selective immunocompetent cells function.
The Effects of Kimchi Intake on Lipid Contents of Body and Mitogen Response of Spleen Lymphocytes in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1200~1207
Effects of kimchi on lipid metabolism and immune function were studied in experiments using 63mals SD rats fed 6 inds of Baechu-kimchi containing diet during 4 weeks. Three kinds of freeze dried kimchi differ in fermentation period (not fermented, 3-, 6-week-fermented at 4
) were added at 5%, 10% of the diet containing 15% lard. The levels of serum total lipid and triglyceride and the content of liver total lipid and triglyceride of all kimchi groups were lower than those of a control group. But the levels of serum and liver cholesterol is not affected by kimchi intake. The triglyceride concentration of epididymal fat pad and feces of kimchi groups were higher than those of a control group. The food efficiency ratio, epididymal fat pad weight of 3-, 6-week-fermented kimchi 10% groups were significantly lower than control and not-fermented kimchi groups. Especially 6-week-fermented kimchi groups showed adipocytes, less in number and larger in size than those of other groups. The blastogenesis of spleen lymphocytes to LPS was higher in rats fed fermented kimchi diets than rats fed control and not-fermented kimchi diet. These results suggest that kimchi stimulates lipid mobilization to epididymal fat pad and lipid excretion via feces, so lower serum and liver triglyceride concentration. The fermented kimchi stimulate the proliferation of B cell and lower the lipid accumulation in epididymal fat pad, especially kimchi fermented for 6 weeks at 4
lower the adipose cell number.
The Effects of Kimchi on Hematological and Immunological Parameters in vivo and in vitro
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1208~1214
This study was designed to know the effect of kimchi on the hematological and immunological parameters in vivo and in vitro, respectively. To study the effects of kimchi on the hematological parameters, rats(S.D., male) were divided into 4 groups and fed diets containing of 3%, 5% and 10% kimchi or kimchi free diet(control) for 6 weeks. The results of CBC(complete blood cell) tests obtained from the bloods of rates were as follows ; In 10% kimchi group, the level of WBC(white blood cells), RBC(red blood cells), Hgb(hemoglobin), Hct(hematocrit) were increased significantly than those of control group(p<0.05). MCV(mean corpuscular volume), one of the red cell indices, was also increased significantly in the animals fed 10% kimchi(p<0.05). RDW(Red cell distritution width) and PCT(plateletcrit) was lowest in 10% kimchi group(p<0.05). To examine the effects of kimchi on immune cell growth in vitro, three types of mouse immune cells-spleen cells, bone marrow cells, thymus cells-were cultured with extracts of salted Chinese cabbage, fresh kimchi and fermented kimchi(for 1 week) for 12 or 20 days. Control was supplemented with PBS(phosphate buffer saline) excluding kimchi extract. The results of spleen cell, bone marrow cell, and thymus cell cultures showed similar tendency: control medium accelerated death of cells, extracts of salted Chinese cabbage reduced the rate of cell death, and extracts of fresh kimchi and fermented kimchi promoted cell growth. From these results, it could be suggested that kimchi possibly has an effect on the hematopoietic ability and increases immune cell development and growth in vivo.
A Study on Health Status, Meal Management, and Seasonal Variation of Nutrient Intake of Rural Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1215~1220
This study was undertaken to estimate heath status, meal management, and seasonal variation of nutrient intake of rural women. The study was carried out in three seasons ; farming season(June), harvest season(October), nonfarming season(February). General characteristics, health status, and meal management of subjects were assessed using questionnaire and interview. Nutrient intake was measured by 24hr recall. Only 39.5% of subjects felt healthy. 21.1% of subjects often skipped meal each day. In farming & harvest seasons 92.1% of subjects participated in agriculture but 78.9% of subjects had the same or less appetite and 63.2% of subjects ate the same or less than usual. The mean intakes of energy and riboflavin in all seasons, calcium in June & February, and protein, vitamin A, and thiamin in February were below Recommended Dietary Allowances(RDA) for Koreans. All nutrient intake was significantly low in February but was not significantly different between in June and October.
Physicochemical Changes of Wanja-jeon during Cold Storage for Hospital Cook/Chill Foodservice System
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1221~1227
To measure nutritional components and physical quality of Wanja-jeon(Korean pan fried meat balls)was investigated during storage in a simulated hospital cook/chill foodservice system. The Wanja-jeon was cooked and stored for 4 weeks in chill conditions of 2 and 7
and then reheated in the microwave oven. Moisture, protein, and fat contents were decreased little during 4 weeks storage at 2 and 7
. Total unsaturated fatty acids(TUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFA) increased slightly at 7
storage. Total free amino acid contents were reduced after 4 weeks of storage, while total amino acids were affected little during chilled storage. However, volatile basic nitrogen(VBN) increased during the 4 weeks storage from 11.2mg%, immediately after cooking, to 14.1~14.2mg%. After reheating, thiobarbituric acid(TBA) value increased more significantly to 0.19 and 0.20.
Isolation of Bacteriocin-producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Intestines and the Characteristics of their Bacteriocins
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1228~1236
Lactobacillus strains were isolated from volunteer's feces, including from newly-born infants and adults in their 20's, by using differential MRS-BPB plates. Total 56 presumptive Lactobacillus strains were isolated and the bacteriocin productions by the isolates were examined by agar diffusion method. Six bacteriocin-producing strains were confirmed. Among them, two isolates, HU-1 and H22-3, showed the most outstanding antimicrobial activities, which were not affected by pH adjustments or catalase treatments of culture. HU-1 was originated from a two-years old boy and H22-3 was originated from a newly-born infant. HU-1 and H22-3 had the same morphology(short rod) when examined by scanning electron microscope, and the same biochemical traits including growth temperature range, salt tolerance and sugar-fermenting abilities. But the growth-inhibition spectrum and plasmid profiles of HU-1 and H22-3 were different. Both strains inhibited the growth of various Gram (+) microorganisms including Listeria monocytogenes. Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus in addition to many species of lactic acid bacteria, indicating the production of broad-spectrum bacteriocins. Bacteriocins produced by HU-1 and H22-3 were stable up to 90℃, 15 min heat treatments. Their activities were not affected by pepsin or trypsin treatments but destroyed by proteinaseK or pronase treatments.
Morphological and Physiological Properties of Interspecific Electrofusants, Bacteriocin Producer, from Lactobacillus sp. JC-7 and Lactobacillus acidophilus 88
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1237~1245
Interspecific fusants were made from the cells of two strains of Lactobacillus genus, a streptomycin resistant Lactobacillus sp. JC-7 and a kanamycin resistant L. acidophilus 88. The morphological and physiological properties of the fusants were examined by determining bacteriocin productivity, acid-producing activity, ability of carbohydrates utilization and three important enzyme activities. The fusants produced a bacteriocin against indicator strains and fusant No. 1, 4 exhibited a larger inhibition zone compared to that of L. acidophilus 88.
-galactosidase, lipase activities and resistance to NaCl of Lactobacillus sp. JC-7 were better than those of L. acidophilus 88. Fusant No. 3 and 7 exhibited excellent lipase activities. Protease activity and acid productivity of L. acidophilus 88 were better than those of Lactobacillus sp. JC-7. Proteasse activities of all fusants were higher than those of parental strains, and expecially fusant No. 5 and 7 exhibited excellent proteolysis ability.
Effect of Sexual Pheromone on Phosphoryation of Membrane Protein in Heterobasidiomycetous Yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1246~1251
When the membrane protein fraction of mating type a cells of heterobasidiomycetous yeast R. toruloides was phosphorylated in vitro, two phosphorylated proteins of 72Kd and 57Kd were detected on SDS-polyacryamide gel. The phosphorylation reaction was inhibited by rhodotorucine A(Rh. A) which is a sexual pheromone secreted by mating type A cells. The inhibition of phosphorylation by Rh. A was dependent on
, and independent on
or calmodulin. When adding trigger peptidase(TPase) inhibitor, antipain, no inhibition of phosphory was observed. Also, by adding the trysin-digested product of Rh. A, the phosphorylation was inhibited as the action of Rh. A. From these results, it is expected that the inhibition of membrane protein phosphorylation should be caused by the digested product of Rh. A with TPase.
Effect of White Ginseng on the Function of Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages and their Gene Expression
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1252~1257
In order to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanism of white ginseng, the effects of total saponin of Ginsenoside Rb
component on the phagocytosis and reactive oxygen intermediate(ROI) production of mouse peritoneal macrophages were studied. Both phagocytosis assay nitrobluetetrazolium reduction test showed 20
/ml concentration of total saponin significantly increased the activity of phagocytosis and production of ROI. Also cytokine gene expression of the macrophages was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the RT-PCR assay, 20
/ml concentration of either total saponin or Ginsenoside Rb
increased IL-1 and TNF expression of the macrophages.
Antimicrobial Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Microorganisms
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 26, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1258~1267
Corbon dioxide id effective for extending the shelf-life of perishable foods by retarding microbial growth. The overall effect of carbon dioxide is to increase both the lag phase and generation time of microorganisms. However, the role of carbon dioxide in affecting the growth and metabolism of any given microorganisms is not clear yet, although its inhibitory effect is generally found at moderate to high concentrations. Systematic studies of the effects of carbon dioxide on microorganisms are therefore warranted. It is also necessary to understand the role of carbon dioxide in the preservation of foods as well as the control by carbon dioxide of fermentations of biotechnological importance. In this review, the antimicrobial effect of carbon dioxide on microorganisms is investigated in terms of its gas and solution properties, inhibition of microbial growth and specific metabolic processes, perturbation of membrane structure.