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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
Volatile Flavor Components of Leek(Allium tuberosum Rottler)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 563~567
Volatile flavor components of edible portion of leek(Allium tuberosum R.) were extracted by SDE(simultaneous steam distillation and extraction) method using the mixture of n-pentane and diethylether (1 : 1, v/v) as an extract solvent and analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Identification of the volatile flavor components was mostly based on the RI of GC and mass spectrum of GC/MS. A total of sixty-five components from leek extract were classified as 28 sulfur-containing compounds, 12 aldehydes, 9 alcohols, 4 lactones and esters, 3 acids and hydrocarbons, and 2 miscellaneous compouds. The sulfur-containing compounds were predominant in leek extract. Dimethyl disulfide(19.47%) and dimethyl trisulfide(17.38%) were the main compounds and trans-1-propenyl methyl disulfide, trans-2-hexenal and methyl allyl disulfide were also detected large amounts in leek.
Isolation and Identification of Volatile Compounds extracted from Twigs of Pinus densiflora with Likens-Nickerson Apparatus
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 568~573
Volatile compounds in Pinus densiflora were extracted with Likens-Nickerson apparatus for three hours, and were separated and identified by gas chromatography(GC) and mass selective detector(MSD). Twenty six compounds were isolated from Pinus densiflora, identified by GC-MSD and twelve compounds were confirmed by matching retention times of the pure comounds. The main valatile compounds were terpenoids such as limonene(36.2%),
-pinene(10.9%), and the total amount of these main compounds was 367.9
per 1g of pine twigs.
Antimicrobial Activity and Composition of Extract from Smilax china Root
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 574~584
Antimicrobial activities, extraction yields and chemical compositions of the extract from the powder of vacuum dried Smilax china root on various solvents were investigated. Antimicrobial activities against. A rhizogenes, A. tumefaciens, C. utilis, S. cerevisiae, B. megaterium, B. subtilis and E. coli were measured by disc diffusion method. Methanol, chloroform, ethylacetate and butanol extracts exhibited potent antimicrobial activities against B. megaterium and B. subtilis. Also, methanol, ethylacetate and butanol extracts had the activities against A. rhizogenes, and chloroform and ethylacetate extracts against A. tumefacciens. The extraction yields were 13.10%, 8.71%, 2.73%, 0.83%, 0.54% and chemical compositions of their extracts were very different according to the kinds of solvents. The main chemical groups of ethylacetate, methanol, chloroform and butanol extracts were 45.99% phenolics, 36.10% acids, 29.13% phenolics and 18.96% phenolics, respectively.
Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Physicochemical Properties of Ethanol Extracts from Chrysanthemum boreale
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 585~590
To renew interest in Chrysanthemum boreale as a traditional food material, response surface methodology was used for optimizing extraction conditions and monitoring physicochemical properties of ethanol extracts from Chrysanthemum petal. The phenolic compounds of ethanol extracts were minimized in 87ml/g(solvent per sample), 21%(ethanol concentration), and 15 hours(extraction time). The physicochemical properties of ethanol extracts were maximized in the conditions of 115ml/g, 98% and 16 hours on yellow color intensity, 143ml/g, 75% and 19 hours on carotenoid content, and 148ml/g, 53% and 18 hours on soluble solid content. Optimum ranges of extraction condition for physicochemical properties of Chrysanthemum boreale were 130~150ml/g, 70~85% and 20~28 hours, respectively. Predicted values at the optimum extraction condition were in good agreement with experimental values.
Changes on Browning Characteristics of Chicory Roots by Roasting Processes
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 591~595
Browning chracteristics were investigated for Chicory roots(Cichorium intybus L.) when roasted at different conditions of 120 to
in temperature and 10 to 40min in time. The soluble solid of water extracts obtained from roasted Chicory roots increased slowly with increasing roasting temperature and time, but it decreased above
. The contents of reducing sugar and amino-type nitrogen in aqueous extracts obtained from roasted Chicory roots decreased rapidly with increasing the roasting time and temperature. Browning color intensity in aqueous extracts of roasted Chicory roots increased with increasing the roasting temperature and time, Hunter's color L and b values of Chicory powder decreased with increasing the roasting temperature and time, while Hunter's color a and
values continuously increased with increasing the roasting temperature and time.
Quality Properties and Carotenoid Pigments of Yellow Sweet Potato Puree
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 596~602
Two kinds of sweet potato puree were prepared with Benihayato cultivar of yellow sweet potato with or without
-amylase enzyme treatment. Chemical and rheological properties of enzyme-treated puree were different from those of control puree. Reducing sugar content and iodine value increased by
-amylase enzyme treatment, while alcohol insoluble solids and viscosity decreased by enzyme treatment. However, the changes of carotenoid content were not significantly different. Hunter-b-values(yellowness) were 27.19 and 23.54 for no enzyme-treated puree(NTP) and enzyme-treated puree(ETP), respectively. Hunter-a values(redness) were 2.24 and 6.05 for NTP abd ETP, respectively. Content of total carotenoid of canned puree heated at 13
for 30 min decreased by 59 percents.
Lipid Oxidation during Fermentation of Ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 603~608
Lipid oxidation in ascidian was studied when fresh, deshelled and sliced meats were fermented for 50 days at 5
with 8%(w/w) salt and 0.1% papain. Antioxidative effects of butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT) and carotenoid extracts from ascidian tunic on lipid oxidation and oxidationrelated discoloration of ascidian meat during fermentation were investigated. Changes in peroxide value, carbonyl value, thiobarbituric acid value, fatty acids composition, the loss of total carotenoid and sensory evaluation were determined to assess the rancidity. Peroxide and carbonyl values in BHT and carotenoid extract treatments increased less than those of the control during fermentation. TBA value increased until 30 days, hereafter tended to decrease a little in the control during fermentation. TBA value increased until 30 days, hereafter tended to decrease a little in the control but it increased slowly until 40 days in cases of 0.02% BHT or 0.02% BHT with 0.05% carotenoid added. Fatty acids of fresh ascidian composed of polyenoic acid, saturated acid and monoenoic acid of 51.5%, 28.1% and 20.7%, respectively. Saturated fatty acids(C16:0, C14:0, C18:0) and monoenoic acids(C18:1, C16:1) increased while polyenoic acids(C20:5, C22:6) decreased during fermentation. Carotenoid was markedly degraded and discolored in the control during fermentation. But 0.02% BHT and 0.05% carotenoid treatments had bright color like fresh meat during 40 days. The results of sensory evaluation during the fermentation also convinced the retard of discoloration by the addition of BHT and carotenoid.
Some Properties and Optimal Culture Conditions of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase of Bacillus sp. S-6 Isolated from Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 609~617
A microorganism capable of producing high level of extracellular cyclodextrin glucanotransferase(EC 18.104.22.168 ; CGTase) was isolated from Kimchi. 2-O-
-D-glucopyranosyl L-ascorbic acid(AA-2G) was synthesized by transglycosylation reaction of CGTase using starch as a donor and L-ascorbic acid as an acceptor. The isolated strain S-6 was identified as Bacillus sp. S-6. The maximal CGTase production was observed in a medium containing 0.5% soluble starch, 1% yeast extract, 1% NaCO3, 0.1% K2HPO4, and 0.02% MgSO4 with initial pH 8.0. The strain was cultured at 37
for 40 hr with reciprocal shaking. Using the culture supernatant as crude enzyme, the optimal pH and temperature of the CGTase activity of this strain were 7.0 and 4
. In the effects of pH and temperature on the stability of the enzyme, the enzyme was stable in the range of pH 6.0~10.0 and up to 45
Standardization of Ingredient Ratios of Wooung (Burdock, Arctium lappa, L) Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 618~624
This study was conducted to standardize ingredient ratios of wooung kimchi. The ingredient ratios of model wooung kimchiwere determined by the survey in Pusan and Kyungnam province and using the literatures including cooking books. Several kinds of wooung kimchi were prepared by adjusting the ingredient ratios fo the model wooung kimchi within standard deviation. The wooung kimchi with different ingredient ratios were fermented for 6 days at 15
. The chemical, microbial and sensory properties of the wooung kimchi were investigated. There was little change in pH but the counts of lactic acid bacteria were decreased, as the ratio of pickled anchovy juice became high. The wooung kimchi adding 9.4% pickled anchovy juice obtained high score in appearance and overall acceptability. The counts of lactic acid bacteria were increased in wooung kimchi adding 5% red pepper powder, and there was obtained better result in appearance, texture and overall acceptability than the other groups. The activity, reducing sugar and counts of lactic acid bacteria were increased, as the ratio of glutinous rice paste became high. The wooung kimchi including 6% glutinous rice paste showed the highest score in overall acceptability. The fermentation process of wooung kimchi accelerated, as the ratio of garlic became high. The wooung kimchi adding 3% garlic showed good appearance and acceptability. In addition to these, the addition of 1.3% ginger ehhanced the appearance, texture and overall acceptability fermented anchovy juice, 5.0% red pepper powder, 6.0% glutinous rice paste, 3.0% crushed garlic and 1.3% crushed ginger.
Increased Antimutagenic and Anticancer Activities of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi by Changing Kinds and Levels of Sub-Ingredient
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 625~632
To enhance the antimutagenic and anticancer activities of chinese cabbage kimchi, 13 kinds of kimchi, which were different kinds and levels of sub-ingredient added kimchi, were prepared and fermented at 15℃ for 1 day and then at 5℃ up to pH 4.3. The antimutagenic effects of the methanol extracts of the kimchi were studied by using Ames mutagenicity test in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and SOS chromotest in E. coli PQ37. Among the kimchi samples, high ratio of red pepper powder(7%) and garlic(2.8% or 5.2%) added kimchi, 1% chinese pepper powder added kimchi and organic cultivated chinese cabbage kimchi significantly reduced(p<0.05) the mutagenicity induced by aflatoxin B1(AFB1) in Ames test and SOS response against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) in SOS chromotest, and also the kimchi inhibited more effectively(p<0.05) the survival and growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells than the standarized kimchi on the SRB assay, MTT assay and growth inhibition test. These results suggest that the antimutagenic and anticancer activites of kimchi can be increased by the sub-ingredients such as organic cultivated chinese cabbage, red pepper powder, garlic and chinese pepper powder.
The Fibrinolytic Activity of Kimchi and its Ingredients in vivo and in vitro
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 633~638
Fibrionolytic activity(FA) of kimchi in rat and FAs of water and methanol extracts of kimchi ingredient were determined using fibrin plate method to see where the active principles for FA are present in kimchi. Nine Sprague-Dawley per each group were fed diet containing 3, 5 or 10% of freeze dried kimchi for 6 weeks. The FA of plasma obtained from 10% kimchi group showed stronger FA than that of control. FAs of 3 and 5% kimchi group were not noticeable. FA from methanol extract of kimchi was approximately 6 times higher than that from water extract assuming that the active material may be present in a fat soluble fraction. From water extract of kimchi ingredients, dropwort, green onion, radish and baechu showed FA in descending order. And from methanol extracts, red pepper powder, radish, green onion and baechu showed FA in decending order. The Fa of methanol extract of red pepper powder was the most noticeable among samples.
Production and Property of Maltooligosaccharide by Bacillus cereus LAM 1072 with Response Surface Methodology
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 639~647
This study was carried out to produce the maltooligosaccharides directly from the culture medium containing high concentration of soluble starch as carbohydrate source by Bacillus cereus IAM 1072. Optimum conditions for the production of maltopentaose and maltooligosaccharides were predicted as 10.62 and 10.92 in C/N ration, 115.74 and 116.51 rpm in agitation speed, 30.19 and 30.9
, respectively. And at these conditions, products of maltopentaose and maltooligosaccharides were 23.23 and 50.33g/L, respectively. From the results of continuous culture for maltopentaose, the productivity increased up to 6.9 times, showing 6.6g/L/hr compared with 0.96g/L/hr batch culture. Maltopentaose showed lower sweetness at 3% concentration representing 1/5 of that sugar. Also, swelling power of maltooligosaccharides was reached to the same point with sugar after fermentation.
Removal of Astringency in Persimmons by Chitosan
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 648~652
Astringency in persimmons was removed by immersing in 0.5% acetic acid or various concentrations(0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) of chitosan solutions for 4 days at 18
. During 5-days immersion, soluble tannin contents in persimmons decreased more rapidly while pH, 。Brix, and hardness decreased more slowly with increasing chitosan concentration. No noticeable color changes and decay were observed during this period. Sensory analyses 4 days after immersion indicated that persimmons immersed in 1.0% chitosan solution showed the best results for firmness and overall acceptability.
The Study on Texture-Softening of Tentatively Thermal Processed Orange Sac
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 653~658
In order to provide orange sac for off-season processing of sac-suspended orange juice, orange was treatee into intermediate production of orange sac and segment, stored at 2
during 3 months for assessment of sac-quality providing various processing conditions. Lowering the pH of syrup and sterilization temperature reduced the deterioration of sac quality in terms of intensity and destruction of sac. Sugar content of syrup had little relation with intensity of orange sac at pH 6.5, whereas in the range of pH 3.0~3.8, the increase of sugar content increased intensity of sac. The storage of segment form maintained better quality than that of sac form. The absorbance of syrup was linearly inverse to sac intensity. The deterioration of sac quality may be related to effulence of some materails in sac. Sac product sterilized at below
had possibility to be contaminated by microbes.
Textural Properties of Cowpea Mook as Affected by Heating Conditions
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 659~663
Mook is a traditional Korean food made from the sediment of mungbean, cowpea, buckwheat or acorn. The air-dried sediment of cowpea(6~9%, dry basis) was heated to 80~95
by continuous(method A) or instantaneous(method B) heating method and held at that temperature for 20min and then cooled at 15
for 3hrs. The optimum deformation rate for the measurements of hardness and cohesiveness of cowpea mook by Instron Universal Testing Machine was 55~65% by method A and 60~70% by method B. The hardness of mook made by method A was the highest at heating temperature of 9
, whereas that by method B was linearly decreased as the heating temperature increased at all concentrations. The mook made by method B had higher cohesiveness than that by method A. The ratio of cohesiveness to hardness was also higher in mook made by method B.
Optimum Soaking Condition of Raw Soybean for Meju Preparation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 664~667
In order to establish scientific foundations for the production of meju, optimum soaking conditions of raw soybean were investigated. 100% hydration of raw soybean by soaking conditions were observed in 17 hrs at 5
, 15 hrs at 1
, 11 hrs at 15
, 9 hrs at 2
, 7 hrs
, 5 hrs 3
, 4 hrs at 4
and 3 hrs at 5
. Exudation amounts of total free amino acids and free sugars were the least when soybean was soaked for 2
for 9 hours.
Changes of Physico-chemical Characteristics of Pyunyuk Depending on Cooking Time during Processing
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 668~674
Physico-chemical qualities of pyunyuk depending on the cooking time were evaluated to produce high quality and to reduce labor and processing time. Pork headmeat divided into two parts was cooked for 1~4hrs, trimmed and pressed with 110kg/
(gauge pressure) for 3.5hrs at 1
. The contents of general nutrients, yield, texture, color, fatty acid composition, gel structure, and sensory evaluation were observed. Deboning time was very dependent on cooking time. Optimum cooking time observed in this study was 2~2.5hrs for efficiency of deboning and yield. Excess cooking time resulted in low yield and working efficiency. Yield variation depending on the cooking time was 14.3~26.0% and it was reduced by increasing the cooking time. The content of moisture was 53.5~54.8% which was not significantly different by cooking time. The content of crude fat was 14.2~26.0% which was decreased by increasing the cooking time. The contents of crude protein(21.1~26.3%) and mineral(1.4~2.7%) were increased by increasing the cooking time. The color of pyunyuk was significantly different by cooking time(p<0.05). In the texture, hardness and chewiness of the pyunyuk cooked for 2hrs were significantly higher than others processed in this study(p<0.05). However cohesiveness and springiness were not different among pyunyuks. With sensory evaluation, hardness was similar among the pyunyuks cooked over 2hrs. The pyunyuk cooked for 1hr showed higher value in juiciness than the pyunyuk cooked for 3~4hrs(p<0.05). The % of saturated fatty acids was decreased by increasing the cooking time, and gel structure of pyunyuk cooked for 2hrs was the most compact among treaments. In conclusion, 2hrs was proper as a cooking time concerned with working efficiency and physico-chemical quality of pyunpyk.
Packagng of Fresh Curled Lettuce and Cucumber by Using Low Density Polyethylene Films Impregnated with Antimicrobial Agents
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 675~681
Low density polyethlene(LDPE0 films of 50
thickness were fabricated with addition of antimicrobial agents of Rheum palmatum extract, Coptis chinensis extract, sorbic acid and Ag-substitude inorganic zirconium matrix in 1% concentration. The films were compared in physical properties, tested in antimicrobial activity against some selected microorganisms on the agar plate medium and then applied for packaging fresh curled lettuce and cucumber to preserve their qualities. The films with Rheum palmatum extract, Coptis chinensis extract, and Ag-substituted inorganic zirconium matrix did not show any antimicrobial activity on the disk test against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicilluium chrysogenum, while film with sorbic acid did against E. coli, S. aureus and L. mesenteroides. The added antimicrobial agents changed the color and light transmittance of the films, but did not affect their mechanical tensile strength, heat shrinkage and wettability. For the packaged curled lettuce and cucumber stored at 5
, all the LDPE films impregnated with antimicrobial agents showed the reduced growth of total aerobic bacteria in the vegetables compared with control film without any additive until it reached the level around 108/g. They did not give any negative effect on other quality attributes during storage.
Development of Separating Techniques on Quercetin-Related Substances in Onion(Allium cepa L.) 1. Contents and Stability of Quercetin-Related Substances in Onion
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 682~686
To use onion(Allium cepa L.) residue as raw materials of food products, contents and stability of quercetin-related substance in onion were investigated. The amount of quercetin-related substance of onion was richer in the inedible portion(317.99mg%) than the edible protion(4.10mg%). Total quercetin-related substances of juice and residue from fresh onions were 2.26mg% and 1.57mg%, respectively, but they were changed to 1.50mg% and 2.96mg% by heating at 8
for 10min. Quercetin was found to be stable at 20
for 60 min, but it was unstable to light. When it was illuminated with 30W, the content was decreased and reached to 80~85% of the original content after 48 hours. Quercetin was not affected by pH, but quercitrin and rutin were unstable below pH 5.
Development of Separating Techniques on Quercetin-Related Substances in Onion(Allium cepa L.) 2. Optimal Extracting Condition of quercertin-Related Substances in Onion
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 687~692
To use onion(Allium cepa L.) residue as raw materials of food product, yields of onion-juice according to various extracting methods and optimal extracting condition of quercetin and its related glycosides were carried out. Onion juices gained by the methods of pressing, rotary crushing, freeze pressing and enzyme treatment. The yield by the method of enzyme treatment was higher than others. The yields of juice from fresh onion and heat-treated onion(8
/10min) by pressing were 66% and 83%, respectively. Ethanol extraction of onion was efficient at 75
and acetic acid extraction was proper at 3% concentration for 3 hours at 11
. The onion extract was fractionated in the order of hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and butanol to test flavonoids. The highest abundant flavonoids were found in ethylacetate and butanol fraction.
Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase by Flavonols from Onion Skin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 693~697
The influence of flavonols from onion skin on xanthine oxidase was investigated. Methanol extract was showed 12.8% of yield, 661.3mg% of flavonoids contents and 88.7% of inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase F1 and F2 fractions were obtained from the methanol extract by ODS and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. F1 and F2 fractions flavonols(3-OH free) identified by UV/visible spectroscopy. Inhibitory effect of F1 and F2 on xanthine oxidase were increased with increasing concentration. IC50s of F1 and F2 were 0.95
, respectively. To confirm the specificity of F1 and F2 against xanthine oxidase, albumin was added to the reaction mixture. The inhibition of F1 and F2 may be due to specific binding to xanthine oxidase. The modes of their inhibitions were of mixed type with respect to xanthine as a substrate.
Effects of Diet of Korean Safflower(Carthamus tinctorious L.) Seed Powder on Bone Tissue in Rats during the Recovery of Rib Fracture
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 698~704
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of diet of Korean safflower(Carthamus tinctorious L.) seed powder on bone tissue during the recovery of rib-fracture in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of 10 weeks old, weighing 370
5g, were divided into two groups including the control group(C group, AIN-76 semipurified diet) and safflower seed group(S group, AIN-76 semipurified diet+10% safflower seed powder) and were fed experimental diets for 12 days after adaptation period. After this period, the 9th right rib was fractured surgically and sham-operation was also performed. Rats were fed with experimental diets for up to 30 more days after rib-fracture. The degree of bone repair was evaluated during the recovery period at the 8th, 11th, 16th, 21st, 30th days after the surgical operation by microscopic observation of the fractured rib tissue. In callus formation, the portion of hyaline cartilage was noticably higher in S group than C group. The intracatilagenous ossification was observed at the 8th day in S group, but at 11th day in C group. The intramembranous ossification in callus was widely found over the 8th day to the 11th day in S group, but it was shown over the 11th day to the 16th day in C group. Bone resorption was also occured more rapidly in S group as indicated by large numbers of osteoclasts observed. At the 30th day, most of trabecular bones were disappeared in S group, whereas still shwon in C group over wide ranges of fractured ribs. These results imply that the supplementation of Korean safflower seed powder influences in the recovery of bone fracture by accelerating the process of bone repair.
Effect of Dietary Xylooligosaccharide on Indigestion and Retarding Effect of Bile Acid Movement Across a Dialysis Membrane
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 705~711
The digestibility of xylooligosaccharide(XO) by juices of the digestive tract and retardation effect of XO on the adsorption of bile acids were compared with fructooligosaccharide(FO) and isomaltooligosaccharide(IO). In vitro digestion experiments showed that any hydrolyzed products of FO, IO and XO were not detected by HPLC after reaction with saliva, pancreatic, artifical intesteinal, and large intestinal luices, and artifical sera for 4 hours at 37
. However, IO were mostly digested by the small intestinal juice, and some quantity of FO were digested. XO were not digested at all by any enzyme of digestive tract. In order to investigate retardation effect of XO on the bile acid absorption. In vitro, permeability of bile acid against dialysis membrane was determined in the mixture which contained guar gum instead of XO was set 100%. The premeability of bile acid showed about 50% in the FO and IO mixture and 43% in the XO mixture. The activity of lactase in FO group and activity of sucrase and maltase in XO group in rat small intestinal mucosa were significantly decreased. Consequently, the present results indicate that XO is indigestible in digestive tract and has retarding effect of adsorption of bile acid compared with the other oligosaccharides. The disaccharidase activity of the XO dietary group was lower than that of the other oligosaccharides dietary group. Furthermore, it was suggested that hydrolysis of sugar may be retarded in digestive tract and glucose level in blood may be controlled effectively by the XO.
Inhibition Effects of Auricularia auricula-judae Methanol Extract on Lipid Peroxidation and Liver Damage in Benzo(a)pyrene-Treated Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 712~717
This study was undertaken to investigate the inhibition effects of Auricularia auricula-judae methanol extract in edible mushroom on lipid peroxidation and liver damage in benzo(a)pyrene(B(a)P)-treated mice. The activities of serum aminotransferase, cytochrome P-450, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and the hepatic content of lipid peroxide after B(a)P-treatment was markedly increased than control but those levels were significantly decreased by the treatment of Auricularia auricula-judae methanol extract. Glutathione S-transferase activity and the hepatic glutathione content were decreased by B(a)P-treatment than control, but those were also inhibited by the treament of Auricularia auricula-judae methanol extract. These results suggest that Auricularia auricula-judae methanol extract have a protective effect on liver damage by B(a)P.
Effects of the Feeding Hijikia fusiforme(Harvey) Okamura on Lipid Composition of Serum in Dietary Hyperlipidemic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 718~723
This study was designed to observe the effects of the feeding of Hijikia fusiforme(Harvey) Okamura juice extract on the improvement of lipids in the serum of cholesterol-supplemented diet induced dietary hyperlipidemic rats fed experimental diets for 4 weeks. Concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-choloesterol in serum was significantly lower in the Hijikia fusiforme juice extract group than in the cholestero diet group. Concentration of HDL-cholesterol in serum was higher in the Hijikia fusiforme juice extract group than the cholesterol supplemented diet group. Those in the Hijikia fusiforme juice extract group were higher than those in the cholesterol diet group. In the ration of HDL-cholesterol concentration to total cholesterol concentration, Hijikia fusiforme juice extract administration group was higher percentage than the other groups. Atherosclerotic index was lower in the Hijikia fusiforme juice extract group than in the cholesterol diet group. Concentration of free cholesterol and cholesteryl ester in serum was rather lower in the Hijikia fusiforme juice extract group than the other groups. Triglyceride concentration in serum was significantly lower in the Hijikia fusiforme juice extract group than in the cholesterol diet group. Concentration of phospholipid in serum was more decreased in the Hijikia fusiforme juice extract group than in the cholesterol diet group. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum were rather lower in the Hijikia fusiforme juice extract group than the cholesterol supplemented diet group. From the avove research, the Hijikia fusiforme juice extracts were effective on the improvement of the lipid compositions in serum of high fat diet induced dietary hyperlipidemic rats.
Effects of Raw Soy Flour(yellow and black) on Serum Protein Concentrations and Enzyme Activity in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 724~730
Effects of raw soy flour(RSY) and black(RSB) feeding on protein concentration of liver and serum, and GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase activities of serum in diabetic and nondiabetic rats were studied. Male rats(Sprague-Dawley), mean weight of (338.4
19.2g) were assigned to six dietary groups and fed with the assigned diet for 28 days. For each experimental, some rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally(L.P.) to induce diabets, and other rats were injected with buffer L.P. as a control group. The liver, kidney and spleen weights relative to bo요 weigth were higher in raw yellow soy flour diet diabetes(D-RSY) and black soy flour diet diabetes(D-RSB) groups than control, but the body weights were lower than control. The protein and albumin concentrations of liver and serum were lower in D-RSY and D-RSB groups than control. The albumin concentration of serum in D-RSB group was lower than control. The GOT activities of serum in RSY and RSB groups were increased compared with control, but the GPT activities were lower in diabetic control, D-RSY and D-RSB groups than control. The alkaline phosphatase activities of serum in RSY and RSB groups were higher than control, but those in D-RSY and D-RSB groups were lower than diabetic control.
Effect of Ethanol Consumption on Growth and Vitamin A Status in Rats Fed
-Carotene Supplemented Diets
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 731~738
The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of
-carotene on vitamin A metabolism in ethanol-fed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 190~210g were fed a liquid diet containing 36% of total calories as ethanol for 6 weeks. The pair-fed control rats(1BP group, 2BP group) were given an isocaloric amount of diet containing sucrose instead of ethanol on the following day. Additionally, the liquid diet, contained different levels of
-carotene(1BE group: 2.1, 2BE group: 21mg/L liquid diet). Body weight gains and food efficiency ratios of ethanol groups were lower than those of pair-fed groups. This effect did not change with dietary supplementation of
-carotene. The levels of plasma and hepatic retionl were decreased after chronic ethanol feeding, but the values in 2BE group were higher than in 1BE group. The content of hepatic retinoic acid tended to increase in proportion to
-carotene supplementation. There results suggest that ethanol consumption may affect the vatamin A methabolism and reduce the conversion of
-carotene to retinol in rats.
Effect of Ethanol-pretreatment on the Liver Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Xylene-treated Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 739~744
To evaluate an effect of ethanol pretreatment on the liver xanthine oxidase(XO) activity, 0.25ml of xylene(50% in olive oil) per 100g body weight was daily given four days to the rats at 2hrs after aministration of ethanol each day, while each control group(ethanol, xylene, olive oli) was treated as the same dose described as above. The animals were sacrificed at 24hrs after last injection. Xylene-treated rats showed the more decreased activity of liver XO compared to the control. But the pretreatment of ethanol to the xylene-treated rats enhanced the liver XO activity. Furthermore, the xylene-treated rats led to more increased Vmax value in liver XO compared to the only xylene-treated rats. On the other hadn, hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was more decreased in xylene-treated rats pretreated with ethanol than in xylene-treated rats. And the intermediated xylene metabolites, methyl benzylalcohol or aldehyde inhibited the XO activity "in vitro". In conclusion, the phenomenon that pretreatment of ethanol to the xylene-treated rats led to the enhancement of liver XO activity, may be due to an influence of acetaldehyde.taldehyde.
Antimutagenic and Antigenotoxic Effects of Ligularia fischeri Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 745~750
The antimutagenic and antigenotoxic effects of ethanol, methanol, water and non-heating ethanol extract of Ligularia fischeri were investigated using Ames test and micronucleus test. Four solvent extracts by themseleves did not induce mutagenesis. The four extract of 200㎍/plate showed approximately 84.7%, 77.1%, 72.5% and 71% inhibitory effect on the mutagenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) and 67.9%, 66.8%, 64.6% and 56% inhibition on the mutagenesis by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide(4NQO) against TA100 strain, whereas 70.2%, 60.9%, 61.9% and 52.8% inhibitions were observed on the mutagenesis induced by 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indol(Trp-P-1) in the presence of 200㎍/plate. TA100 strain was more sensitive than TA98 strain by four kinds of extracts on antimutagenesis. The effects of Ligularia fischeri extracts on the frequencies of micronucleated poly chromatic erythrocytes(MNPECs) induced by MNNG were investigated in the bone marrow. Ten, 20, 40 and 80mg g/kg of each extract were administered to animals immediately after injection of MNNG and the exposure time was 36 hours. Inhibitory effects of Ligularia fischeri ethanol extracts were 12%, 35.3%, 58.8%, and 57%, in the presence of 20, 40, 60 and 80mg/kg, respectively whereas methanol extracts showed 15.5%, 32.7%, 50.8%, and 57.9% inhibitory effects, respectively. Both extracts showed enhanced antimutagenic and antigenotoxic effects. These results showed a good correlation between antimutagenic effects in in vitro and in in vitro assay.
Removal of Heavy Metal and ACE Inhibition of Yam Mucilage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 751~755
Functional properties of yam mucilage were investigated by physicochemical analysis. Yam mucilage was extracted from the root of yam and then separated into two fractions by its selective aggregation with isopropanol concentration. Each mucilge fraction showed the excellent binding properties with heavy metal ions Co, Cr and Cu. Cr showed the higher affinity with mucilage than Co and Cu at pH 6.3. In ACE inhibition, IC50 values of mucilage fraction 1 and 2 showed 8.99
Study on Food Habits of the Elderly in Institution
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 756~764
The purpose of this study is to compare food habits of four institution(public boarding home, public mursing home, private boarding home, meal service in welfare center) in Pusan, Korea. Data were collected from 119 of were more than 65 years in the above institutions. Chi-square test was the main data analysis method. More than a quarter of the respondents(27%) showed fairly good level of activity, while a half of them(52.9%) answered the middle level. More than 80 percent of the respondents reported that their food attitude was "Good". There were more elderly women than elderly men among the four institutions. Although the four institutions have served snacks on the regular basis, they did not provide the residents with nutritious food. Most of the residents want to have snacks between meals, but they did not perfer candy. All the subjects didn't point out any particular problem of institution. They were accustomed with their old food served by their institution. As food perferences, almost all of the respondents preferred cooked rice and cooked rice with cereals. Only the residents of private boaring home liked cooked rice with red bean. In case of soup, all of residents liked any kind of soup. The most preferred most menu was beef. But only residents of private boarding home did not like pork. All residents like any all kind of kimchi except kimchi made by radish. In preference of cooking method of a side dish, seasoned food and vegetables were the most favorable menu by the respondents. Compared to the private home, the institutions give residents effective plan to prepare meals. Even though this study tried to find differences in attitudes of dietary life among the institutions, it could not find any meaningful difference among them. Korean elders in the institutions seem to have no proper that they do not have any proper sense of evaluating their dietary life.
Utilization of the Current Food Labeling System of Processed Foods and Awareness on Nutrition Labeling among Middle School Female Teachers
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 765~774
This purpose of this study was to contribute to the establishment of nutriton labeling and consumer education about food label by offereing basic information. Survey was carried out by questionnaire method. Subject groups were middle and high school female teachers and they were asked questions about their utilization and satisfaction of the current food labeling system, their awareness of the nutrition labeling and its necessity, and their acceptance of the future enforcement of nutrition labeling system. Questionnaires were distributed to 500 middle school female teachers in Chungbuk and Kyoggi area. Out of 340 reports(68%) collected, 311 reports(91.5%) were analyzed using SAS computer program. Most of the respondents payed much attention to the labels of the food at the time of purchase, the degree of their satisfaction in the current food labeling system was low. Concerning the awareness on nutrition labeling, Home Economics teachers knew better than non-Home Economics whether there were the regulations of nutrition labeling in Korea or not. Ninety-six percent of respondents answered that nutrition labeling is necessary. Home Economics teachers recognized the necessity of nutrition labeling more strongly than non-Home Economics teachers. Sixty eight percent of the respondents showed positive attitude to the actuation of nutrition labeling.
Seasonal Variation of Dietary Intake and Quality from 24 Hour Recall Survey in Adults Living in Yeonchon Area
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 775~784
This study was conduced to investigate the seasonal variation of dietary intake and quality obtained by 24 hour recall method in Korean adults living in rural area. The mean daily intakes of 4 seasons were 1,692kcal for energy, 63g(14.8% of energy) for protein, 30g(15.7% of energy) for fat, 257g(60.7% of energy) for carbohydrate. Mean daily intakes were significantly highest in winter for most of the nutrients, and lower in summer for energy, fat, calcium, iron. Mena adequacy ratio(MAR), an index of overall nutritional quality was 0.65 in winter, 0.67 in spring, 0.65 in summer and 0.72 in autumn and nutrient adequacy ratio(NAR) was significantly different fro vitamin C agmong different seasons. Subjects consumed usually 15.3 different foods in winter, 14.5 in summer, 13.9 in spring and 13.7 in autumn. The number of food consumed was positively correlated with intake of most nutrients, especially in autumn. For variety among the five major food groups(grain, meat, dairy, fruit, vegetable) with a dietary diversity scores(DDS) calculated, the average socre of DDS was 3 in all seasons and omitted food groups were usually dariy and fruit. In conclusion, dietary intake and quality of Korean adults were different according to seasons.
In vitro Cholesterol Adsorption Activity of Oat Gum
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 785~788
Oat gum, a soluble dietary fiber, was extracted from rolled oat and the content of
-glucan and the cholesterol adsorption activity of oat gum were examined. The content of oat gum extracted from rolled oat was 5.15% and the amount of
-glucan in the oat gum was 29.48%. Most of the cholesterol adsorption of oat gum occurred within 10 hours in the dialysis cell and the cholesterol adsorption activity of oat gum was between 12 to 25%.
Bibliographical Study on Microorganims of Traditional Korean Nuruk(Since 1945)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 4, 1998, Pages 789~799
Literatures on microorganisms of traditional Korean nuruk published since 1945 were reviewed in this paper. Traditional Korean nuruk consists of raw barley and various grains. Traditional Korean nuruk consists of unbolied raw barely and various grains. They are ground to paste and moistened, and then naturally inoculated by airborne microorganisms. Therefore, many kinds of microorganisms such as fungi, yeast, and bacteria grwo in nuruk. Since 1945, new 14 species of Aspergillus and 9 species of Penicillium have been identified from traditional Korean nuruk. Total number of fungal species identified so far is now up to 38 species among 12 different genus. Among newly isolated fungal species, Aspergillus penicilloides and Penicillium, expansum showed not only high production rate of acid and amylase but also extreme stability of the enzyme at room temperature for 3 months. As examples of newly isolated yeast species, there are 5 species of Candida, 4 species of Hansenula, 1 species of Pichia and 1 species of Schizosaccharomyces. Total number of yeast species isolated so far is up to 18 species from different 8 genus. Newly isolated bacteria, were Bacillus pumilus, Lactobacillus casei and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.