Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
Taurine Content in Korean Foods of Plant Origin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 801~807
Taurine content in Korean foods of plant origin was determined for 118 commonly used food items including cereals, potatoes, pulses, nuts, seeds, vegetables and fruits. Taurine concentration in food sample was analyzed using an automated amino acid analyzer(Biochrom 20, Pharmacia LKB) based on ion-exchange chromatography. Taurine was frequently detected in plant kingdom in much lower concentrations(1/100~1/1000) than those found in marine lifes and mammals. Glutinous rice, glutinous millent and sorghum did not contain taurine, while 0.7~3.9mg taurine/100g dry wt were detected in rice, barley and their products. Potatoes and sweet potatoes contained 0.3~1.2mg taurine/100g wet wt, and seasame seeds, perilla seeds, almonds, walnuts and gigko nuts contained 0.7~3.0mg taurine/100g wt. Taurine concentration was undetectable in most of the pulses, and in a large number of vegetables. Garlic bulbs, eggplants, green peppers, lotus roots, and cabbages have a relatively high level of taurine(around 1mg taurine/100g wet wt) among vegetables. Taurine was absent or found in very low levels(<1mg taurine/100g wet wt) in most of the commonly used fruits.
Purification and Characterization of Lipoxygenase from Melania Snail
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 808~812
Melania snail(Semisulcopira bensoni) is used as ingredient in Korean traditional soup and nutritional foods. Generally, lipoxygenase in several food products may produce off-flavors during their processing and storage. Therefore, the inactivation of lipoxygenase is required to make the better extracts from Melania sanil. Also, the quality on freshness of Melania snail may be evaluated by lipoxygenase activity. The lipoxygenae activity was the highest at 40~60% saturation among several concentrations in salting-ouot saturated solution of ammonium sulfate. The partial purification of lipoxygenase was successfully obtained by Sephacryl S-200 gel chromatography. The first peak among three peaks for protein determination showed the highest activity of lipoxygenase in 13~16 fractions among 100 fractions. The highest peak of lipoxygenase activity by ion exchange chromatography was shown at 0.1M NaCl. In the purification step, the specific activity was 20.8U/mg and activity yield was 19.8%. The optimum pH and temperature were pH6.0~8.0 and 3
, respectively. Molecular weight of the lipoxygenase was estimated about 35kDa by SDS-PAGE.
Comparison of Carotenoid Pigments on Korean Dark Sleeper, Odontobutis platycephala and Dark Sleeper, Odontobutis odontobutis interrupta in the Family Eleotridae
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 813~820
This study was performed as a part of comparative biochemical studies of carotenoid pigment for the fresh water fish. Carotenoids in integument of Korean dark sleeper, Odontobutis platycephala, and dark sleeper, Odontobutis odontobutis interrupta, which are all the Korean native fresh water fish, were separated by thin layer chromatography, column chromatography and HPLC. The separated carotenoid were then reduced and isomerized by NaBH4 and I2 respectively to investigate UV-Vis spectrophotometeric patterns and chracterized by IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectrum. The content of total carotenoids in the integument of Korean dark sleeper was 3.01mg% in April, but it was increased to 3.74mg% in September at the near of spawning period. The carotenoid isolated in April consisted of
-carotene(25.6%), lutein(18.5%) and zeaxanthin(12.0%) as major carotenoids and also contained isocryptoxanthin, diatoxanthin, tunaxanthin, cynthiaxanthin, canthaxanthin and
-cryptoxanthin as minor carotenoids. Similarly, in September the carotenoid consisted of
-carotene(16.5%), zeaxanthin(13.7%) and cynthiaxanthin(13.6%) as major carotenoids and also contained lutein, isocryptoxanthin, tunaxanthin,
-cryptoxanthin, diatoxanthin and canthaxanthin as minor carotenoids. At the near of spawning period, the content of cynthiaxanthin and
-cryptoxanthin were increased. The content of total carotenoids in the integument of spawning period. T도 carotenoid isolated in April and September consisted of
-carotene(24.9%, 27.5%), zeaxanthin(14.4%, 20.9%) and lutein(12.6%, 11.4%) as major carotenoids and also contained cynthiaxanthin, tunaxanthin, diatoxanthin, isocryptoxanthin,
-cryp-toxanthin and canthaxanthin as minor carotenoids. At the near of spawning period, the content of zeaxanthin was increased, indicating that the carotenoid composition were dependent upon their living conditions and their integument colors. Both Korean dark sleeper and dark sleeper contained high amount of cynthiaxanthin and diatoxanthin which are found as rare carotenoids in the other of fresh water fish. It is interes that they also contained tunaxanthin which is a specific carotenoid in marine fishes.
Functional Properties of Mucilage and Pigment Extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 821~826
Functional properties of mucilage and pigment extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten were determined at various temperatures, pHs and alcohol concentrations. The crude mucilage extracted from pickly pear showed pH 4.2, 0.14% total acidity and 8.1% total soluble solid content(w/w, wet basis). Polysaccharide was purified from mucilage extract by isopropanol precipitation. Intrinsic viscosity of polysaccharide was 18.1dl/g and decreased with increasing KCl concentration. Relative viscosity and color stability of mucilage extract were determined with capillary viscometer and spectrophotometer at 534nm, respectively. In additions of 1~20%(v/v) ethanol, the red pigment of mucilage extract was very stable, but relative viscosity, increased gradually. For heating above 7
, the stability of red pigment decreased drastically, but rheological property of mucilage was not changed. During storage, the red pigment was extremely unstable at above pH 8.3. At both pH 3.0 and pH 4.2, the red pigment was the most stable at 4
for 18 days. In the case of storage at 37
, pigment of mucilage extract at pH 3.0 was destroyed more quickly than that at pH 4.2. Natural mucilage extract(pH 4.2) showed the good stability of red pigment at 3
for 10 days.
Physicochemical Properties of Soybeans as Influenced by Storage Temperatures
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 827~832
Soybeans(Hwangkeum Kong) were stored at 5
for 8 months to investigate the changes of the physicochemical properties. Less physicochemical changes were detected in the soybeans stored at 5
than those stored at
. High temperature and long term storage caused a decrease in the nitrogen solubility index, whereas increases in acid value and organic acid content were detected. As the storage period was extended at high temperatues, the content of unsaturated fatty acids decreased, but the content of saturated fatty acids increased. Decoloration of soybeans was clearly recognized under high temperatures. The water soluble compoents such as total solids, nitrogen and reducing sugar during water-soaking at 2
for 16hrs were appreciably eluted from the soybeans stored for 8 months at high temperatures. The pH of the water extract slightly shifted to the acidic range.
Tofu Qualities as Influenced by Soybeans Storage Temperatures
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 833~839
Hwangkeum Kong was stored at 5
for 8 months to investigate the changes of the suitability for Tofu processing. The properties of Tofu prepared with the soybeans stored at 5
for 8 months showed no significant differences from the non-stored control soybeans. However, soybeans stored under high temperatures showed low yield, water holding capacity and Sag value of Tofu Compared with the soybeans stored at 5
for 8 months, fracturability in the texture of Tofu significantly increased when the soybeans had been stored at
for 8 months, while hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, elasticity, gumminess and chewiness decreased. The color of Tofu changed from pale yellow to brown depending on high temperature and long-term of storage. The Tofu prepared with the soybeans stored under high temperatures was significantly different in sensory evaluations from the non-stored soybeans as well as from the soybeans stored at 5
for 8 months in color(p<0.01), texture(p<0.05) and taste(p<0.05).
Changes of Taste Components and Palatability during Chunggugjang Fermentation by Bacillus subtilis DC-2
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 840~845
This study was conducted to produce the high quality of chunggugjang. The taste compounds of chunggugjang produced with Bacillus subtilis DC-2, pigment producing bacterium, were analysed, and palatability of chunggugjang was compared to that of commercial chunggugjang. Among the volatile organic acids, the contentof acetic acid was contained more than any other volatile organic acid. The major nonvolatile organic acid was lactic acid, followed by oxalic acid and citric acid. Tartaric acid was not detected. In case of free sugars, raffinose was sharply decreased between 72 and 96 hours after fermentation. Free amino acid was increased to 20 folds at 48 hours after fermentation compared to that of stemed soybean. As a result of sensory test, it was founded that the chunggujang fermented by Bacillus subtilis DC-2 was suitable to produce for commercial purpose.
Characteristics of Chunggugjant Produced by Bacillus subtilis DC-2
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 846~851
Characteristics of chunggugjang fermented by Bacillus subtilis DC-2, a pigment producing bacterium, were investigated. More water soluble browning materials were produced with fermentation time. The pH was gradually alkalized. The contents of amino nitrogen were extraordinarily increased with fermentation time. Both strength and hardness were gradually decreased during fermentation. Total 30 volatile compounds were identified in the chunggugjang fermented by B. subtilis DC-2. The pyrazines were detected more than any other compounds. The good aroma of the chunggujang fermented by B. subtilis DC-2 was considered to be contributed by tetramethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, 1-octen-3-ol, 2, 5-dimethylpyrazine and guaiacol.
Changes of Chlorophyll and their Derivative Contents during Storage of Chinese Cabbage, Leafy Radish and Leaf Mustard Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 852~857
Three kinds of kimchi using Chinese cabbage, leafy radish and mustard leaf were prepared by conventional method and stored at 5
for 13 dyas. During storage at both temperatures, changes of the amounts of salt and ascorbic acid, pH and total acidity were determined, and the relationship of the decomposition of chlorophylls with the production of their derivaties was studied. At both storage temperatures, salt concentration of Chinese cabbage kimchi(3.7%), leafy radish kimchi(3.6%), mustard leaf kimchi(3.5%) was relatively constant during the entire storage period. However, pH and total acidity wre fluctuating with the remarkable changes during 3 days of storage. Ascorbic acid content was slowly decreased during the storage period and the decompositin rate of ascorbic and was greater at 2
. Among the kinds of kimchi tested, mustard leaf kimchi with the slow decomposition rate of ascorbic acid contained relatively high ascorbic acid content, while leafy radish kimchi contained the lowest content. At both storage temperatures, the production of pheophytin and pheophorbide from decomposition of chlorophyll was least in mustard leaf kimchi, but similar production rates in leafy radish and Chinese cabbage kimchi were observed.
The Mixed Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Glycyrrhiza uralensis on the Shelf-life of Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 858~863
The Mixed effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Glycyrrhiza uralensis(SG) on kimchi fermentation was investigated by measuring changes of physicochemical, icrobiological and sensory qualities of kimchi during fermentation. The pH of SG-added kimchi was a little higher than that of control during the fermentation. Titratable acidity, viable cell of total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in mixed medicinal herbs(SG) added kimchi were changed more slowly than those in control. The inhibitory effect of the mixture on kimchi fermentation was increased as the concentration of the mixture was increased from 1% to 5%. Total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria of 3% and 5% SG-added kimchi reduced to 1.3~2.9 and 1.2~4.0 log10 cycle after 15 days fermentatin compared to control. The changes in texture of SG-added kimchi was a higher and sour taste of SG-containing kimchi excepts of 1% SG-added kimchi was more weak than that of control. Sensory score of flavor and overall acceptability did not show any significant difference between SG-added kimchi and control during fermentation. But SG-added kimchi decreased its sensory quality by 5% the other kimch.
The Mixed Effect of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Extracts and Chitosan on Shelf-life of Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 864~868
The studies were carried out to investigate the mixed effects of medicinal herbs, such as Lithospermum erythrorhizon and Glycyrrhiza uralensis(LG), and LG with chitosan(LGC) on shelf-life of kimchi fermented at 1
for 25 days. During the fermentation, pH was more slowly lowered in LG(1%, 3%) and LGC treatments than in control. Titratable acidity of these treatments was slightly lower than that of control. Viable cells of total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in kimchi added with LG(3%) and LGC showed inhibitory effects about 1.2~1.6, 1.3~1.8 log10 cycle. The sour taste of kimchi added with LG or LGC was changed more slowly than that of control during fermentation for 5 days at 1
. But flavor, color and overall acceptability did not show significant differences(p<0.05) among treatments. The color of kimchi added with LG was improved significantly by adding of 1% chitosan. The shelf-life of kimchi added with LGC was extended about 10 days than control.
The Investigation of Chitosanoligosaccharide for Prolongating Fermentation Period of Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 869~874
The effect of chitosanoligosaccharide(CTO) on kimchi fermentation was investigated to see the optimal CTO concentration adding into Kimchi. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were cultured in flasks under the condition of various CTO concentrations. In the case of Lactobacillus plantarium, the growth was inhibited in the degree with 52, 79 and 100% at the concentration of 0.005, 0.007, 0.05% CTO after 14 hours culture, respectively. The growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides was significantly inhibited in the degree with 7,33 and 90% at the concentration of 0.002, 0.003 and 0.004% CTO after the culture, respectively. Kimchi was formulated with variious CTO concentrations(0.005~0.2%) and fermented at 2
during 12 days. The fermentation periods were increased 2~6 times more than that of control(0% CTO). Also, off-flavour by adding CTO was insignificant in all the kimchi samples.
Effects of Fructo-Oligosaccharide and Isomalto-Oligosaccharide on Quality and Staling of Cake
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 875~880
Fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide were used to replace 10%, 20%, or 30% of the sucrose in cake. Replacement with either fructo-oligosaccharide or isomalto-oligosaccharide resulted in cakes with higher volume, browner crust, yellower crumb. Cakes baked with oligoaccharide were softer than 100% sucrose cake. During 9 days storage at 2
, the hardness of both 10% fructooligosaccharide and 10% isomalto-oilgosaccharide cakes was higher than that of 20% and 30% oligosaccharide cake was higher than that of 10% fructo-oligosaccharide cake at the end of storage, there was no difference in hardness among 10%, 20% and 30% isomalto-oligosaccharide cakes. Cakes substituted with isomaltooligosaccharide for sucrose at the level of 20% and 30% or with fructo-oligosaccharide at the level of 30% were significantly moist compared to control. Replacement of sucrose with oligosaccharide, except with fructo-oligosaccharide at the level of 30%, did not affect significantly overall likeness of cakes.
The Study for Application of Commercial Modified Starch to Frozen and Retort Foods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 881~889
For the application of the commercially modified starch in frozen and retort foods, apparent viscosity and water loss were measured at each stages of heating, sterilization and freezing-thawing stages. Apparent viscosity showed the exponential increase with concentration and the slopes of apparent viscosity against concentration in the Firm-Tex(hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate), Hi-Flo(acetylated distarch adipate) and Colflo 67(acetylated distarch adipate) from waxy maize starch were higher than those of Amyloacetate M20(starch acetate) and X-amylo 250(distarch phosphare) from potato starch. In the presence of 1 or 2% NaCl, X-amylo 250 among modified starches showed the increase in water loss and the decrease in apparent viscosity, whereas Colflo 67, Hi-Flo and Firm-Tex were little affected by NaCl. In the presence of 1 or 2% sucrose, water loss and apparent viscosity of the modified starches were not affected. In the range of pH 4~8, water loss and apparent viscosity of the modified starches had no change but the differences were detected to some extent between each of heating, sterilization and freezing-thawing stages. In the apparent viscosity and water loss of the modified starches after 3 week storage from heating and sterilization, Hi-Flo, Amyloacetate M20 and X-amylo 250 were not changed at the storage period, and the overall acceptability of retort food containing the modified starches such as Firm-Tex and Amyloacetate M20 were favored more than others. In the apparent viscosity and water loss of the modified starches which have been frozen and thawed three times repeatedly, Colflo 67, Hi-Flo and Firm-Tex were not changed in freezingthawing, and the overall acceptability of frozen food containing Firm-Tex was most favored.
Preparation of Waxy Barley Cake and Its Quality Characteristics
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 890~896
In order to increase the use of waxy barley, cakes were made and the textural and sensory properties were investigated. The moisture content of cakes made out of waxy barley grain and flour were 51.0 and 52.1%, respectively. L values in color of the waxy barley cakes tended to decrease during 3 day storage at 15
. Textural analysis showed that there were no differences among two waxy barley and waxy rice cakes in hardness at fresh state. But after 3 day storage at 15
, the hardness of the waxy barley cake was lower than that of waxy rice cake. These results implied that the degree of retrogradation of waxy barley cake might be low due to its high dietary fiber content. The hardness and adhesiveness of the waxy barley cake thawed after 15 day freezing were not significantly different from those of the fresh cake. In sensory evaluation, the overall preference of waxy barley cake was lower than that of waxy rice, but the sensory score of the cake made of waxy baley flour was above 4 point in the 5 point scale, showing a patency of waxy barley for the cakes.
Effect of Addition of Mung Bean Starch and Sugar on the Textural and Sensory Properties of Dopyun
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 897~902
This study was conducted to develop the standard recipe of Dopyun according to the various content of mung bean starch and sugar. The effects of mung bean starch(10%, 15%, 20%) and sugar(20%, 30%) were evaluated on textural and sensory properties of Dopyun through the mechanical properties using texture analizer and sensory evaluation. Color was tested by color and color difference meter. For sensory evaluation, higher content of sugar and lower content of mung been starch(sugar 30%, mungbean starch 10%) showed advantages in acceptance fo taste and overall quality. Mechanical properties of hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness of Dopyun were increased significantly in Dopyun with higher content of mung bean starch and sugar. The values of Hunter color system indicated that "L" and "b" values tended to decrease and "a" value increase, as the mung bean starch and sugar proportion increased. In the analysis of correlation between sensory evaluation and acceptance test, it was found that they were highly related. In view of the above results, it came to the conclusion that Dopyun with the addition of 30% sugar and 10% mung bean starch could give the best result among the groups studied.sult among the groups studied.
Mass Transfer Characteristics and Browning Inhibition by Osmotic Dehydration of Mushrooms
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 903~907
Mass transfer characteristics during osmotic dehydration of mushrooms(Agaricus bisporus) in sugar solution were studied as a function of sugar concentration, immersion time and temperature, and the effect of osmotic dehydration on browning inhibition of air-dried mushrooms was also evaluated. Increasing the sugar concentration, immersion time and temperature increased moisture loss, sugar gain, molality and rate parameter. The changes of sugar gain and rate parameter were more significantly affected by concentration than by temperature of sugar solutions, while 1
increase in temperature or 10 Brix increase in concentration had the same effect on water loss. Water loss, sugar gain, molality were rapid in the first period of osmotic dehydration especially in the case of higher concentration and temperature of sugar solutions. Effects of osmotic dehydration in sugar solution(60 Brix, 8
) with 18 min of immersion time(O.D.=0.099) rior to air dehydration on browning inhibition of dried mushrooms were more significant than blanching in water(8
) with the same immersion time(O.D.=0.330) and the control (O.D.=0.559).
Changes in Chemical Components and Physical Properties with Freeze Drying and Hot Air-Drying of Dioscorea batatas
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 908~913
Chemical components and some physical proeprties of fresh, defrosted and dried yams(Dioscoreab batatas) were determined to obtain basic data for high quality yam processing. Fresh yam showed 81.79% moisture and 15.24% N-free extract. The cohesiveness and adhesiveness of defrosted yam homogenate were significantly higher than those of fresh yam homogenate. Free sugars of yam were mainly composed of sucrose, rhamnose, fructose and glucose, and the contents of fructose and glucose were apparently decreased by hot air drying. Linoleic(45.64%), oleic(8.32%), and arachidic acids(7.40%) were major fatty acids of yam. Hot air drying caused a decrease in unsaturated fatty acids and an increase in saturated acids. Hot air-dried yam powder showed higher gelatinization properties than freeze-dryed yam powder, such asinitial pasting temperature, temperature at maximum viscosity, and viscosity at different parameters. Hot air-dried yam powder showed higher Hunter parameter b and ΔE values and lower L value than freeze-dried one.
Prediction of Extration Conditions for the Optimized Organoleptic Quality of Eucommia ulmoides Leaf-tea
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 914~919
This work was designed to determine the optimum extraction conditions for imporving the quality of Eucommia ulmoidesl leaf-tea. Soluble solid content was 27.7% in the tea extracted at 99.3
(extraction temperature) and 67.8 min(extraction time) which were maximum points by the ridge analysis. The extraction conditions for the maximum organoleptic scores were 72.9
and 59.6 min in color, 80.
and 90.0 min in aroma, 77.8
and 55.5 min in aftertaste, and 77.9
and 53.1 min in overall palatability. The extraction conditions for the minimum organoleptic scores were 77.8
and 52.7 min in astringent taste, and 75.1
and 49.4 min in Chinese medicine taste. The optimum ranges of the conditions based on soluble solid content and overall palatability of the tea wre 75~83
and 55~65 min. The soluble solid content and overall palatability predicted at ooptimum condition(78
and 60 min) werw similar to experimental values.
Correlation between Serum Component and Immune Function in Korean Female Colleges Students
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 920~927
The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between serum component and immune function in Korean female college students according to the body mass index. There were significant increased in weight, body fat, LBM, TBW, WHR in subjects as their BMI increase(p<0.001). It was found obese group had higher levels of serum components such as total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and Cu levels than those of the normal group. There was a significant positive correlation between HDL-cholesterol level and NK cell number(p<0.01), between A/G ratio and T lympocytes number(p<0.05), between Cu levels and B lympocytes(p<0.01) in normal group. There was a significant positive correlation between TG level and CD4/8 ratio(p<0.001), between and IgG(p<0.001) in obese group.
Ca,Mg and Zn Utilization in Rats with Different Ages
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 928~934
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences of Ca, Mg and Zn utilization in young and adult rats fed standard diet for 3 weeks. Feed intake and body weight gain in young rats were significantly higher than in adult. There were no significant differences in serum levels of Ca and Zn across age and sex. In liver of young or male groups, Ca and Zn contents were significantly higher than in adult or female. There were no significant differences in tibia contents of Ca and Mg, but Zn content was increased when young or female groups was compared with the other groups. In mineral balances, daily intakes and retentions of Ca, Mg and Zn in young or male groups were significantly higher than those in adult or female. According to this results, it could be suggested that in growth period must be increased dietary intake of Ca, Mg and Zn to compromise the requirement for growth.
Determination of Astaxanthin,
-Tocopherol and TBARS in the Liver and Muscle of Rainbow Trout Supplemented with Red Yeast Containing Astaxanthin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 935~939
The concentrations of astaxanthin and
-tocopherol were measured from the muscle of the rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss) that had been fed the red yeast(Phaffia rhodozyma) containing 0.2% astaxanthin for 7, 14 and 21 days. The effect of the astaxanthin supplementation for 21 days on peroxidation of liver and muscle lipids of the rainbow trouts was examined. The astaxanthin was found to be accumulated in the rainbow trout muscle when fed for 7 days with astaxanthin supplementation(80mg/kg diet) in the form of the red yeast and the content did not increase further when fed longer up to 21 days. Seven days supplementation of astaxanthin raised the rainbow trout muscle content of the astaxanthin to 17.3
/g tissue from 11.8
/g tissue in mature control group. Although the hepatic TBARS level was found to be significantly decreased, the astaxanthin supplementation did not alter the
-tocopherol and TBARS contents of the rainbow trout muscle.
Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata Water Extract on the Levels of Lipid in Rats Fed High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 940~944
This research was performed to investigate the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata water extracted on the levels of lipid in serum and liver of rats fed high fat diet for 6 weeks. Experimental groups were divided into normal group(NF), high fat diet group(HF), high fat diet and Codonopsis lanceolata water extract treated group(HFW). Codonopsis lanceolata water extract was orally administrated at the level of 0.1ml/100g body weight per day. Body weight gain and feed intake were not significantly different in three groups, but feed efficiency ratio was increased in HF and HFW. The weights of liver, kidney, heart were not significantly different among the groups. The level of serum total lipid was higher in HF than NF, but Codonopsis lanceolata water extract decreased the level of the lipid. The levels of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly increased in HF, but they were significantly decreased by administration of Codonopsis lanceolata water extract. The levels of serum HDL-cholesterol and phospholipid were slightly increased by Codonopsis lanceolata water extract. Codonopsis lanceolata water extract significantly decreased the levels of liver total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol which were increased by high fat diet.
Effects of Dietary Xylooligosaccharide on Lipid Levels of Serum in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 945~951
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary xylooligosaccharide on lipid levels of serum in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Male Sprage-Dawley rats weiging 100
10g were randomly assigned to groups of two normal(N, N+10X) and four high cholesterol diets which contained 1%(w/w) cholesterol. High cholesterol diet groups were classified to xylooligosaccharide free diet (C group), 5% xylooligosaccharide diet(C+5X group), 10% xylooligosaccharide diet(C+10X group) and 15% xylooligosaccharide diet(C+15X group) according to the level of dietary xylooligosaccharide supplementation. These experimental diets were fed ad libidum for 4 weeks. The weight gain of high cholesterol diet group were significantly increased more than that of normal group, but those of 10% and 15% dietary xylooligosaccharide groups were significantly decreased more than that of high cholesterol diet(C)group. The higher content of xylooligosaccharide, the more food intake was increased. The food efficiencies of 10%, 15% cholesterol diet groups were lower than that of high cholesterol diet(C)group. The levels of serum triglyceride(TG) and total cholestoral were significantly high in cholesterol diet groups compared with normal diet group but were decreased in groups fed 5% and 10% dietary xylooligosaccharide. Especially, the lowest level showed in group fed high cholesterol diet containing 10% xylooligosacchride. High cholesterol diet group containing 10% xylooligosaccharide increased HDL-cholesterol level and then decreased LDL-cholesterol level and atherogenic index compared with other groups. The level of TBARS(thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in serum was decreased in rat group fed xylooligosaccharide in high cholesterol diet. The higher content of xylooligosacchride, the more gastrointestinal transit time was decreased. The results indicate that dietary xylooligosaccharide can improve status of TG and total cholesterol and repress lipid peroxidation in serum lipid at hypercholesterolemia induced by high cholesterol diet.
Effect of Sea Tangel Intake on Cytokine Production in Macrophage from Normal and Diabetic Mice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 952~959
To investigate the effect of sea tangle on macrophage activity in normal and diabetic states, 10week old ICR mice were fed control(C) and sea tangle(S) diet containing 5%(w/w) cellulose and 13.6%(w/w) dry sea tangle for four weeks, after which two thirds of mice(CD and SD) were made diabetic by intramuscular injection of streptozotocin(150mg/kg bw). At 4th day after diabetes was apparent by urinary glucose, one half of diabetic mice(CDM and SDM) were treated with metformin(500mg/kg bw) orally. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from 3%-thioglycollate treated mice were cultured in the presence of lipopolysaccaride from Salmonella abortus equi(10
/ml) for 24 hrs and tumor necrosis factor-
)and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) were measured in culture media. Release of IL-1
and PGE2 from macrophage were increased in normal mice by sea tangle diet and had the same tedency in diabetic mice with or without metformin treatment although not statistically significant. Release of TNF
tended to be reduced by diabetes but were not changed significantly by sea tangle diet. Fatty acid compositions of macrophage and liver phospholipids showed that diabetes reduced arachidonic acid/linoleic acid ratio and sea tangle diet appeared to increase contentsof polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Effect of Sea Tangle and Hypoglycemic Agent on Lipid Metabolism in Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 960~967
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of sea tangle and hypoglycemic agent on lipid metabolism in normal and dabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawely rats were fed AIN-76 based experimental diets containing 5%(w/w) cellulose or 15%(w/w) sea tangle for 3 weeks, after which diabetic groups were made diabetic by intramuscular injection of streptozotocin(STZ, 45mg/kg BW). Metformin(350mg/kg BW) as a hypoglycemic agent was given once a day using a feeding tube for 5 days. Body weight grains were reduced significantly by STZ treatment, but not influenced by metformin feeding. Blood glucosel levels in sea tangle groups were reduced, compared with those in cellulose groups. Metformin feeding showed the lowering effect of blood glucose. Plasma levels of triglyceride were increased significantly in diabetic rats, but decreased in metformin group by sea tangel feeding. Total cholestero contents showed a similar tendency with triglyceride, but were reduced in diabetic groups without metformin by sea tangle feeding. Plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol were reduced in diabetic rats, compared with those in normal rats. There was a significant increase in fecal weights in diabetic rats fed sea tangle. Fecal contents of cholesterol were lower in diabetic rats than in normal rats. In normal rats, it tended to increase by sea tangle feeding, but not significantly. Fecal excretions of coprostanol and coprostanone were reduced significantly in diabetic rats, compared with those of normal rats. It tended to increase in diabetic rats by simultaneous feeding of sea tangle and metformin, but not significantly. Diabetes reduced fecal excretion of bile acid, but it was increased by sea tangle and metformin feeding.
Modulation of Anticarcinogenic Enzyme and Plasma Testosterone Level in Male Mouse Fed Leek-Supplemented Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 968~972
Allium tuberosum Rotter(Liliaceae) is a perennial herb of which leaves are used for food. Leek has been reported to have pharmacological effects including alleviations of abdominal pain, diarrhea, hematemesis, snakebite, and asthma. To investigate the effect of dietary leek supplementation on the drug-metaboizing enzymes, quinone reductase(QR) and arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase(AHH) activities in the liver, stomach, small intestine and lung, and on the plasma testosterone and dihydrosterone hormone levels, mice were fed 2% and 5% leek diets for 8 weeks. Quinone reductase, an anticarcinogenic enzyme, was significantly induced in stomach, small intestine, and lung but slightly lowered in hepatic tissue in the experimental groups compared to control group. Arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase activity, involved in bioactivation of procarcinogens, was significantly decreased in liver and lung. Leek feeding led to the reduction in the plasma level of dihydrotestosterone which is associated with the incidence of prostate cancer. These findings support the potential chemopreventive activity of leek supplementation.
Effects of Pumpkin Powder on Chemically Induced Stomach and Mammary Cancers in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 973~979
This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of pumpkin powder in the diet of experimental animals on chemically induced stomach and mammary canceers. Three weeks old male SpragueDawley rats were randomly allocated to either 1) basal diet+MNNG, 2) basal diet+MNNG+PMC, 3) 2.5% pumpkin powder supplemented diet+MNNG+PMC, or 4) 5.0% pumpkin powder supplemented diet+MNNG+PMC for stomach cancer experiment. And female Sprague-Dawley(5 weeks old) rats were randomly assigned to either 1) basal diet only, 2) basal diet+DMBA, 3) 2.5% pumpkin powder supplemented diet+DMBA, or 4) 5.0% pumpkin powder supplementd diet+DMBA. In both experiments, supplements of pumpkin powder in basal diet decreased body weight of both male and female experimental animals. Pumpkin powder in rat diet decreased significantly(p<.05) chemically induced stomach cancer. With its suppressing effects on stomach cancer, pumpkin powder in diet of experimental rats had decreasing effects on the initiation and development of DMBA-induced mammary cancer. In conclusiion, current study may provide in vivo data to develop health foods using pumpkin. Further studies, however, are essential to clarify the exact role of pumpkin powder in chemically induced stomach and mammary cancers.
Effect of Mungbean Sprouts Juice on Cadmium-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 980~986
The effects of mungbean sprout juice on cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats were investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 90g were divided into 4 groups and raised for 6 weeks. ; control group(CON), mungbean sprouts juice-administered group(MSJ), cadmium-administered group(CAD) fed water containing 40 ppm cadmium chloride and mung bean sprouts juice and cadmium-administered group(MCD). The diet was supplied every day for the measurement of feed efficiency ratio(FER) and net weight gain was measured every 3 days. The activities of serum glutamic oxaloactic transaminase(GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase(GPT), superoxide dimutase(SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) in the liver and the hepatic contents of glutathione were examined. The contents of Cd in liver and kidney of the rats were determined by using ICP(Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer). Growth rate and FER were decreased in CAD group, compared with CON group but the changes were not significant in MCD group. The activities of serum GOT and GPT, SOD, catalase and GSH-Px in the liver were increased by Cd administration, but the alterations were decreased by supplementation with mungbean sprouts juice. The level of glutathione decreased in CAD group(26.8
9.0mg/g liver), whereas it increased in MCD group(36.4
15.8mg gliver). The content of Cd in the liver and kidney in MCD group(9.57 ppm, 4.88 ppm) was decreased, compared with CAD group(12.81 ppm, 5.46 ppm). This result suggested that mungbean sprout juice has a lowering effect on the accumulation of Cd in the liver and kidney and it is believed that the juice has some protective effects to Cd-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, but the mechanism of these effects was obscure.
Cytotoxicity of Ligularia fischeri Extracts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 987~992
This study was investigated to observe the cytotoxicity effect of Ligularia fischeri extracts against cancer cell lines including human lung carcinoma(A549), human cervix epitheloid carcinoma(HeLa) and human hepatocellular carcinoma(HepG2) using SRB(sulforhodamine B) method. The ethanol and methanol extracts of 1
showed approximately 79.2% and 86.4% cytotoxicity effects on HepG2 cell line and the ethyl acetate fracton fractionated from ethanol extracts showed the strongest cytotoxicity effect with 94% inhibition. The inhibitory effect of ethanol extract on HeLa cell line was somewhat low with 50~56% inhibition, but ethyl acetate fraction showed higher cytotoxicity effect with 91% and 91.9% inhibition on the HeLa and A549 cell line. On the contrary, the ethanol and methanol extracts showed the lower inhibition effects on the normal liver cell, WRL68, compared to human cancer cell lines.
Antimicrobial Activity and Characteristics of Amblytropis pauciflora Kitagawa Extract
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 993~999
Methanol extract of roots of Amblytropis pauciflora Kitagawa showed the antimicrobial activity to three test strains. Antimicrobial spectra of various extracts of Amblytropis pauciflora Kitagawa were tested against 24 strains of bacteria and fungi. The crude methanol extract inhibited the growth of 12 strains of bacteria and Asp. fumigatus with the exception of yeasts. The properties of the antimicrobial substance were very stable under heat(at 12
), acid(pH 3.0) and alkali(pH 11.0) treatment. Only the root harvested in spring showed the antimicrobial activity. Among the components extracted by butanol, ginseng saponin Rg1 and various saponin-like materials were detected by TLC analysis using a plate of silica gel 60F254. The antimicrobial compound was purified by methanol extraction, activated charcoal column chromatography, Sep-pak(C18) pretreatment and reverse phase HPLC. The purified compound was detected at 13.520 min as a single peak(about 98% purity) through the HPLC analysis.
A Study on the Dietary Attitude of College Freshmen by Nutrition Knowledge, Purpose Value of Meal and Residence
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 1000~1006
The purpose of this survey was to study nutrition knowledge, dietary attitude, residences and purpose value of meal in the college freshmen. The survey was conducted from May 1 to May 25 in 1997. The results are summarized as follows. The female students showed higher scores than male students in nutrition knowledge score, but there was no difference in dietary attitude. Dietary attitude of the students living in home were higher than that of the other students. Female students tended to choose food for the pleasure of its taste. On female students, no difference was founded on nutrition knowledge and dietary attitude with purpose value of meal. The male students who have purpose value of meal on intake of nutrients showed the highest score in nutrition knowledge.
The Perception of Desirable Body Shape in Some Middle School Students of Gyeongnam Area
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 1007~1014
A questionnaire was administered to 850 middle school students in Jinju city and Hamyang province to asses their body shape preferences. Their mean current BMI(body mass index, Kg/㎡) in males(19.23±2.77) was higher than that in females(18.61±2.59). On the other hand, significant differences in BMI were not found between areas. The perceived desired weights for their current height were about+0.22kg(males) and -4.32kg(females) of their actual weights. In spite of the average weight group, many wished to lose weight because of their tendency to perceive themselves as overweight, especially among rural females. Their ideal body shape as perceived by them were 'normal' in males and 'a bit thin' in females, independent of the areas. As for the 'contentment' regarding their current weight and health, the most satisfied group in males were estimated average weight and slightly overweight group, respectively. While, the most satisfied group in females were estimated slightly underweight and overweight group, respectively. Their extreme slim-body preference might have its root in the lack of proper understanding of what the 'standard' body weight was.
Inhibition of in vitro Nitrosation by Capsaicin and Its Metabolites
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 1015~1018
Capsaicin(8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide: CAP) known well as a major compound of not taste in hot pepper, was investigated for the inhibition effect on in vitro nitrosation. CAP(100
mol) inhibited the formation of N-nitrosoproline(NPRO) and N-nitrosothioproline(NTPRO) by 56% and 26%, respectively. Vanillyl alcohol inhibited the nitrosation of proline by a concentration-dependent manner, and vanillic acid and vanillin were less effective in blocking the nitrosation of proline compared to CAP and anillyl alcohol. The inhibitory effect of NPRO formation by CAP was evaluated to similar with alpha-tocopherol, and vanillyl alcohol was more effective than alpha-tocopherol in blocking the nitrosation of proline. Our results suggested that CAP and its metabolites such as vanillyl alcohol could inhibit endogenous nitrosation in hydrophobic biological environment.
Thermodynamic Incompatibility of Food Macromolecules
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 5, 1998, Pages 1019~1025
Proteins and polysaccharides are major food macromolecules. Generally, the mixture of these macromolecules can be separated into two phases because of their thermodynamic incompatibility. Phase separ-ation is explained by equilibrium phase diagram, which comprises binodal curve, critical point, phase separation threshold, tie-line and rectilinear diameter. Phase separation of protein-polysacc-haride solution is affected by pH, temperature, ionic strength, molecular weight, molecular structure, etc. Membraneless osmosis has been developed to concentrate protein solutions, using the phase diagram constituted by proteins and polysaccharides. Protein-polysaccharide mixtures are very promising fat mimetics because solution of mixtures forms water-continuous system with two phase-separated gels, which give plastic texture and a fatty mouthfeel.