Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
Changes in Physicochemical Components of Stewed Pumpkin Juice with Ingredients(Ginger, Onion, Jujube, Boxthorn) during Storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1027~1033
Stewed pumpkin juice(SPJ) has recently become popular as a health drink, and its consumption is growing rapidly. Well ripened pumpkin was heated in a pressure cooker and squeezed to an extract and then packed in retort pouches. The ingredient of ginger, onion, jujube and boxthorn was added to samples of SPJ in order to observe the effect on the composition of SPJ during production and storage at 28oC for 60 days. The level of the main mineral(K) in pumpkin varied when the ingredients were added. The pH of control SPJ showed more changes than the SPJs with ingredients added, and there was almost no change in the samples with boxthorn. During storage, titrable acidity decreased in all samples, and the SPJs with ginger and jujube showed relatively little change compared to the samples of control SPJ and SPJ with onion. As for soluble solid and reducting sugar, the SPJs with jujube and boxthorn showed the highest reading. For carotenoid, the SPJs with jujube, ginger, boxthorn and onion listed according to the amount of carotenoid contained more total carotenoid than the control SPJ. Most of the carotenoid in pumpkin and its extract was found to be carotene by HPLC and Chandler's method. Sensory evaluation of the SPJ samples with ingredients revealed preference for the taste of the SPJs with jujube, ginger and boxthorn in declining order of preference. The taste of SPJs with ingredients added was generally preferent over the control SPJ except the case of SPJ with onion.
Quality and Functional Characteristics of Cultivated Hoelen (Poria cocos Wolf) under the Picking Date
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1034~1040
The nutritional quality and physiological activity of cultivated hoelen from 13 months to 24 months were examined to compare with natural hoelen. General compositions of hoelen were as follows re spectively; crude protein 1.80~2.50%, crude fat 0.68~1.23%, crude ash 0.12~0.43%, crude fiber 6.30~7.14%, nitrogen free extract 89.25~90.44%. The major free sugar was glucose, and the content of 13 months cultivated hoelen was higher than any other cultivated hoelen. The major fatty acids of hoelen were linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids was 62.62~77.96% and the content was higher in cultivated hoelen than in natural hoelen. The contents of amino acid were high in the order of tyrosine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine, and increased as the day of cultivation became longer. The contents of mineral components were higher in the order of Ca, K, Mg and the contents of Na and Ca were higher in natural hoelen than in cultivated hoelen. The contents of pachymic acid and dehydropachymic acid was similar in the natural and cultivated hoelen. On the results of antimicrobial test the ethanol extract showed a stronger effect than water extract, and had an excellent antimicrobial activity on Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The ethanol extract of hoelen showed comparatively strong electron donating ability. The ethanol extract of hoelen showed a high inhibition activity on the growth of lung cancer, ovary cancer, skin cancer, central nerve cancer and rectum cancer, especially the activity of 19 months cultivated hoelen was the highest. On the above results of nutritional quality and physiological activity of hoelen, it is supposed that the picking date of cultivated hoelen was suitable over than 19 months.
Changes of Non-Cellulosic Neutral Sugars of Cell Wall in Soybean Sprouts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1041~1046
This study was carried out to investigate the changes and composition of the non-cellulosic neutral sugars in cell wall of soybean sprouts during growth. The composition of non-cellulosic neutral sugars in cell of soybean sprouts was rhamnose, fucose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and glucose. The galactose content of cell wall was higher than other non-cellulosic neutral sugars, and was remarkably decreased during growth. The major non-cellulosic sugars of pectic substances were rhamnose, arabinose, and galactose. The arabinose content of pectic substance was increased in cotyledon and hypocotyl during growth. The contents of non-cellulosic neutral sugars were decreased in hypocotyl during growth. The galactose content of pectic substance was higher in cotyledon than those in hypocotyl, and was increased in cotyledon. The content of rhamnose was higher in ionically associated pectic substance than that in covalently bounded pectic substance. The major non-cellulosic neutral sugars of hemicellulose were glucose, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose. The galactose of hemicellulose was decreased remarkably during growth.
Effects of Antioxidants on Oxidation of Lard Induced by Gamma Irradiation
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1047~1052
The effects of antioxidants such as ascorbyl palmitate(AP), tocopherol( Toc), BHA and ascorbyl palmitate＋ tocopherol(AP＋ Toc) on lipid peroxide formations in lard have been investigated during storage at 50oC after gamma irradiation with the dose of 1~10kGy. Immediately gamma irradiation greatly increased the initiative oxidation of lard as expected. But antioxidants were found to be greatly effective in minimizing the radiation induced peroxidation of lard. The decreasing order of effects on their antioxidative activities was AP>AP＋ Toc>BHA> Toc. Oxidation of lard during storage at 50oC after irradiation induced the acceleration of autooxidation. But the additions of an tioxidants inhibited the formation of peroxides. Their antioxidative activities during storage were BHA> AP＋ Toc> Toc>AP. Especially AP＋ Toc mixture was not significantly different from BHA (p>0.05).
Identification of Aroma-Active Components in Salt-Fermented Big-Eyed Herring on the Market
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1053~1058
Volatile flavor compounds in salt fermented big eyed herring were analyzed by vacuum simultaneous distillation solvent extraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/olfactometry and aroma extract dilution anlaysis. A total of 44 volatile compounds were detected by GC/O analysis. Of these, 23 were positively identified, and composed of aldehydes(7), esters(5), ketones(4), sulfur containing compounds (3), aromatic hydrocarbons(2), alcohol(1) and nitrogen containing compound(1). Predominant odorants (Log3FD
5) in sample were ethyl butanoate(bubble gum /sweet candy-like), 3 methylbutyl butanoate (almond /nutty), 1 octen 3 one(earthy/mushroom like), (E,E) 2,6 nonadienal(roasted wheat/grainy), dimethyl trisulfide(soy sauce /cooked cabbage like), 2 acetylpyrazine(nutty/baked potato like) and unidentified compound(RI=1867, seaweed like).
Fermentation Aspects of Fruit-Vegetable Juice by Mixed Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi and Yeast
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1059~1064
Fermented beverage using lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi was investigated. Lactic acid bacteria KL 1, KD 6, KL 4 strains from kimchi, or obtained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides with and without yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were inoculated in fruit vegetable juice for single and mixed culture fermentation. During the fermentation by bacterial strain and yeast for 1~3 days at 30oC, various fermentation behaviors were observed. The growth rate of mixed culture of KL 1 and yeast was higher than that of single culture by KL 1 alone during the fermentation. The amount of organic acid produced by the mixed culture fermentation of KL 1 and yeast was 0.82%(3 day) or 0.58%(1 day) and with the final pH of 3.3(3 day) or 4.2(1 day). These mixed culture systems of isolated strains or other bacterial strains had almost similar results of growth rate and acid production. Among several bacterial strains, KL 1 was suitable for the mixed culture fermentation with yeast in terms of desirable fermentation behavior and organoleptical quality. The selected strain, KL 1 was identified as Leuconostoc spp. through the series of tests on carbohydrate fermentation and biochemical characteristics.
Chemical Changes of Fruit-Vegetable Juice during Mixed Culture Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi and Yeast
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1065~1070
Lactic acid bacteria KL 1, KD 6, KL 4 strains isolated from kimchi, or obtained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides with and without yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were inoculated in fruit vegetable juice for mixed culture fermentation 3 days at 3
, and then their chemical changes were studied during fermentation. The amount of organic acid produced by the mixed culture fermentation of KL 1 and yeast was 0.82%(3 days) or 0.58%(1 day) and with the final pH of 3.3(3 days) or 4.2(1 day). These mixed culture systems of isolated strains or other bacterial strains had almost similar results of growth rate and acid production. The contents of vitamin C and carotene were retained and stabilized as 70~80% level of their initial values after 24 hrs fermentation. And also ethanol was produced as of the range in 9.6mg%(W/V) by the mixed culture fermentation of KL 1 and yeast, however, the content of ethanol in single culture fermentation by KL 1 strain was much lower than that of mixed culture. The major components of organic acids in fermented juice by mixed culture were considered as malic(26.0%), lactic(49.9%), succinic and citric acid, whereas these of unfermented juice were malic(53.2%), citric and other acids. On other hand, reducing sugar was decreased from 18.3mg/ml in fresh juice to about 12mg/ml in juice by mixed culture fermentation. Concentrations of fructose, glucose and sucrose were also greatly reduced in fermented juice.
Changes of Chlorophylls and their Derivatives Contents during Storage of Green Onion, Leek and Godulbaegi Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1071~1076
Threetypes of Korean traditional kimchi were prepared using green onion, leek or godulbaegi as raw materials and stored at 5oC and 20oC for 13 days. Changes in salt and ascorbic acid contents, pH and total acidity as well as the relationship of the decomposition of chlorophylls and the production of their derivatives were investigated. For the all kimchi samples tested, salt content was not significantly changed during storage at both temperatures, whereas pH and total acidity were decreased and increased, respectively. Especially their remarkable changes were shown at the third day of storage. Ascorbic acid content was remained at high level in the leek kimchi for the experimental period at both storage temperatures, meanwhile godulbaegi kimchi retained the least amount of ascorbic acid. Chlorophylls were decomposed to pheophytin and pheophorbide during storage at both storage temperatures, and this phenomenon was apparent at the third day of storage. Reduction of chlorophylls and increasements of its decomposed products such as pheophytin and pheophorbide were the least in leek kimchi and the greatest in godulbaegi kimchi during storage at both temperatures. These results indicate that decomposition of chlorophylls in kimchi and increasements of pheophytin and pheophorbide were closely related to the ascorbic acid content in kimchi.
Effects of Yeast Addition during Salting and Preparation on Fermentation of Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1077~1085
The effects of yeast on the fermentation of kimchi were investigated. The treatments were divided into two groups; yeast treatment during salting of Chinese cabbage(YS) and yeast treatment added in kimchi preparation(YF kimchi). The edible periods of the kimchi after yeast treatment during salting (YS kimchi) was extended 4~5 days by the results of pH, acidity, sensory quality. The activities of amylase, polygalacturonase and galactosidase of YS kimchi were retained at low levels compared to non treated condition throughout all fermentation periods, whereas protease activity was not significant different from the non treated condition. In addition, the contents of total hexose and uronic acid did not show remarkable change throughout fermentation, but total pentose was decreased by more than 7% at the early middle stage of fermentation(7~14 day after soaking). The change of free amino acid content was decreased by 16~44% than the non treated condition. In contrast, in the YF kimchi, the sensory quality was not good. The activities of amylase, protease, polygalacturonase and gal actosidase were appreciably higher than that of the non treated condition. Meanwhile, the contents of total hexose, total pentose and uronic acid, as products of degradation of cell wall constituents by the above enzymes, were decreased by 18~68% throughout fermentation than the non treated con dition, and total free amino acids were higher than the YS kimchi. Thus, yeast treatment during salting was found to be more effective to extend the edible periods of the kimchi.
Effect of Grapefruit Seed Extract and Ascorbic Acid on the Spoilage Microorganisms and Keeping Quality of Soybean Sprouts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1086~1093
The antimicrobial effect of mixed solutions of grapefruit seed extract(250ppm) and ascorbic acid(1%) on the spoilage microorganisms such as Staphylococcus epidermis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae, Candida albicans and Corynebacterium xerosis isolated from the spoiled soybean sprouts were investigated. Cell wall and membrane were partially destroyed and the contents of the destroyed cell were exuded after treatment. Packages with 30 m cast polypropylene(CPP), 16 m polyolefin(RD 106) and 10 m high density polyethylene(HDPE) were applied for soybean sprouts dipped in mixed solutions respectively. Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration inside packages were dependent on the kind of films during storage at 5oC. The antimicrobial activity of mixed solutions was maintained for 5 days at CPP package. Package with HDPE showed a severe browning than the others after 5 days. Ascorbic acid content of mixed solution treatment was higher than that of control for each package.
Microbiological Quality Control of Cooked Rice by Aseptic Process Using Heat Shock Treatment
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1094~1099
Newly introduced aseptic process for cooked rice was optimized by evaluating the process parameters. The optimal conditions were as follows: ratio of washing water to rice, 3:1 by weight; steeping at 20oC for 20min; heat shock at 140oC for 7sec with 8 repetitions; addition of 0.2% glucono lactone solution; cooking at 103oC for 30min. The final products were incubated at 37oC and 50oC for 8 weeks and no spoilage was occurred at both temperatures. Furthermore, any significant losses of sensory and physicochemical qualities were not observed.
Effect of Heating Conditions on Preference of Cowpea Mook
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1100~1104
The preference test of cowpea mook(gel prepared with air-dried sediment of cowpea) indicated that the optimum concentration and heating temperature for mook-making were 8% at 95
or 9% at 90
with continuous heating method(A), and 8% at 85
or 7% at 9
with instantaneous heating method(B). Among the samples the mook made from 9% at 95
with the method A was the most preferable. The degree of increase in hardness of mook prepared by the method B stored at 6
for 8hr was much slower than that by the method A. the preference test of the mook stored at 6
for 1 day revealed that the mook by the method A with 8%(95
) and by the method B with 7 and 8% (85
) were not significantly different.
Thermostability of Superoxide Dismutase from Cucumber(Cucumis sativa)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1105~1109
The superoxide dismutase(SOD) in peeled pericarp of cucumber was most stable at pH 8.0 and relatively stabe between pH 5.0 and 9.0. The enzyme was stable up to 6
and retained 12% by heat treatment at 10
for 5 min. At pH 2.0, the peeled pericarp enzyme activity was decreased to 10% by incubation for 3 hrs. However, the enzyme activity was increased above 25% after incubating the enzyme at pH 7.0 for 6 hrs. Retention of SOD activity in cucumber by various heating methods was also measured. The residual SOD activities of peeled pericarp and whole cucumber was estimated to be 25% and 27% after blanching(2 min), respectively. The skin enzyme retained 53% of its activity after steaming (3 min). When the peeled pericarp enzyme was incubated at 4
for 20 days, the enzyme activity remained about 81%. However, when the enzyme incubated at 3
for 20 days, the peeled pericarp enzyme activity decreased to 17% of its original activity. The enzyme activity of peeled pericarp cucumber was not changed after exhaustive dialysis for 3 days, which indicated that the SOD activity in cucumber seems to have molecular weight above 12,000.
Effect of Weak Acid Pretreatment on the Enzymic Hydrolysis against Wheat Gluten of High Concentration
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1110~1116
To determine the optimum conditions for the enzymic hydrolysis against wheat gluten of high con centrations (6~14%, w/w, protein), a hydrolysis system combining weak acid pretreatment and enzymic hydrolysis was investigated. Alcalase showed the highest DH(degree of hydrolysis) of the tested proteases. After hydrolysis by alcalase, subsequently peptidases were applied for the better DH of the wheat gluten hydrolyzate. Peptidase NP2 showed the highest DH of the tested peptidases, but flavour zyme was shown for the lowest bitter taste of the resulting hydrolyzate. In order to minimize aggregation or gelling at higher initial substrate concentration during heat treatment, wheat gluten suspension was pretreated with possibly low concentrations of hydrochloric acid at 105oC for 1 hour, and then enzy matically hydrolysed with alcalase and subsequently with flavourzyme. Each required minimum concen tration of hydrochloric acid in the wheat gluten suspension of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14%(w/w, protein) was 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.225, and 0.275N, respectively. After the subsequent enzymic treatment by alcalase and peptidase NP2 for 24 hrs, the nitrogen solubility in the final wheat gluten hydrolysates was increased to 94.9, 86.4, 85.3, 89.3 and 95.0%, and their amino nitrogen content was increased to 2.87, 5.68, 7.34, 9.71 and 12.50mg/m, respectively.
Characteristics of Caseinomacropeptid(CMP) Purified from Whole Casein by Using Immobilized Chymosin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1117~1124
Chymosin was purified from commercial rennet with DEAE Sepharose CL 6B and immobilized on CeliteTM using glutaraldehyde. Whole casein from fresh raw milk was hydrolyzed by immobilized chymosin and total CMP was isolated by trichloroacetic acid(TCA) and ultrafiltration, and characterized. The amount of chymosin purified from 15g commercial rennet by DEAE Sepharose CL 6B was 0.16g and 18mg of chymosin was immobilized on 1g of CeliteTM by 5% glutaraldehyde. Immobilized chy mosin hydrolyzed most of casein on whole casein within 2 hours to leave para casein and casei nomacropeptide(CMP). The total CMP isolated from 10g of whole casein hydrolyzate by TCA and ultrafiltration was 0.4g and 0.1g, respectively. Results of electrophoresis, amount of sialic acid, com position of amino acid and ratio of A280 to A214 showed that total CMP by TCA was purer and had more CMP without carbohydrate than one by ultrafiltration. CMP isolated from total CMP by 12% TCA precipitation was 50% of total CMP and most of caseinoglycopeptide(CGP) was removed from total CMP, indicating less amount of sialic acid in CMP than in total CMP.
Rheological Properties of Dough Added with Wheat Bran
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1125~1131
The rheological properties of wheat flour dough were investigated in the dough added with 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of wheat bran. The ratios of ash contents in wheat flour and wheat bran were 0.43% and 5.28%, respectively. The ratios of fiber contents in wheat flour and wheat bran were 0.18% and 11.86%, respectively. The farinograph water absorption was increased as the amount of wheat bran was increased. Both arrival time and development time of the dough added with wheat bran were longer than those of wheat flour. As the amount of wheat bran was increased, the weakness was increased. The extensograph showed that extensibility and resistance to extension of dough were decreased, while the ratio of resistance to extensibility(R/E) was increased with increasing the amo unt of wheat bran. The maximum viscosity by amylograph was decreased gradually with the adding amount of wheat bran, while the gelatinization temperature was slightly increased with wheat bran.
Optimization on Organoleptic Properties of Kochujang with Addition of Persimmon Fruits
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1132~1136
The optimum mixing conditions of kochujang(persimmon kochujang) added persimmon puree was optimized by four dimensional response surface methodology. The organoleptic color of persimmon kochujang showed the maximum score in 86.74g red pepper powder, 133.51g persimmon puree and 26.31g salt. The organoleptic aroma persimmon kochujang showed the maximum score in 83.48g red pepper powder, 135.38g persimmon puree and 24.50g salt. The organoleptic taste of persimmon ko chujang showed the maximum score in 85.09g red pepper powder, 133.61g persimmon puree and 25.57g salt. The overall palatability of persimmon kochujang showed the maximum score in 82.99g red pepper powder, 133.10g persimmon puree and 25.47g salt. The optimum mixing conditions for overall orga noleptic properties of persimmon kochujang were 83.00g red pepper powder, 133.00g persimmon puree and 25.00g salt.
Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Keeping Freshness of Enoki Mushroom(Flammulina velutipes)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1137~1142
Modified atmosphere packagings were designed by combining the respiration characteristics of the enoki mushroom at 10oC and the measured film permeabilities to O2 and CO2 gases to attain the beneficial package atmosphere were fabricated and tested during storage. The packages of 100g size with 30 m low density polyethylene and cast polypropylene showed the good agreement between estimated and experimental package atmospheres. However, polyvinylchloride stretch wrap packs showed the gas composition close to the air, which was due to leaking of stretch wrapping. The CPP package attaining O2 below 1% and CO2 concentration of 15~20% gave the best retention of quality and thus the longest shelf life among the tried packages, and it was superior to the others in the Hunter L value, stipe elongation and sensory qualties.
Enzymatic Characterization of Peroxidase from Soybean Sprouts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1143~1147
Enzymatic characterization of peroxidase(E.C. 188.8.131.52) from soybean sprouts was investigated. The optimum pH of the purified peroxidase was 7.0 and relatively stable at pH 6.0~7.0. And the optimum temperature was 50oC. The enzyme was most active with guaiacol as a substrate, followed by (＋)catechin, pyrogallol and p phenylenediamine. The Km values for guaiacol and H2O2 were 4.2mM and 2.5mM, respectively. L Ascorbic acid and 2 mercaptoethanol greatly inhibited the enzyme activity, while Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ activated the enzyme.
Inhibition of Teeth Decalcification and Glucosyltransferase Activity by Juniperus rigida S. et Z.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1148~1151
We investigated the inhibition effects of teeth decalcification and glucosyltransferase(GTase) activity on the Juniperus rigida S. et Z. Teeth decalcifications by Streptococcus mutans were respectively inhibited to 70.13, 74.93% on methanol and n hexane fractions. In the inhibition test of GTase activities by solvent fractions of J. rigida, they were respectively inhibited to 86.6, 89.5% to a similar degree. And in the result to identify GTase produced by S. mutans with SDS PAGE, the band near 65KD estimated as GTase did not show in the lanes of methanol, n hexane and chloroform fractions.
Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Biotin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1152~1159
In order to develop more rapid and reproducible analysis of biotin known as vitamin H, attempts were made to establish the condition for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) compared with traditional microbiological assay(MBA). Antibiotin and antiserum were obtained from the immunized rabbits injected with emulsion of biotin KLH conjugate and Freund's adjuvant. The antiserum showed cross reactivity on biocytin, a derivative of biotin, which is converted to biotin in intestine, at the rate of 177%(median inhibitory concentration(IC50)=12.58ppb), but not on other derivatives such as desthiobiotin, diaminobiotin and 2 imino biotin. Specific antibody for biotin was purified from the antiserum through protein A column and desalting column. The conditions of competitive direct ELISA (cdELISA) were established. Detection range of biotin concentration by cdELISA was 0.01∼300ng/ ml(ppb). In the spike test with milk, fruit flake and pine carrot juice, the correlation coefficient between two methods of MBA and ELISA was reliably consistent at the value of r=0.992. But detection of biotin by microbiological assay(MBA) was rather restricted in range and nonspecific. Detection range of biotin by MBA was 0.1∼0.5ng/ml(ppb). It showed cross reactivities on biocytin and desthiobiotin at the rate of 80.1% and 66.7%, respectively. In conclusion, ELISA revealed a significant improvement compared with MBA for the biotin detection in terms of sensitivity, detection range and cross reactivity. In addition, a variety of samples could be analyzed rapidly and conveniently at one time by using ELISA. These results strongly suggest that the ELISA is very promising for the practical application to detect biotin contents in a wide range of food stuffs.
Circular Plasmid DNA from a Red Algae, Porphyra tenera
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1160~1165
When total cellular DNA was isolated from Porphyra tenera by ultracentrifugation on Hoechst dye/CsCl gradients method, plasmid like DNA's were concentrated at the upper band which were characterized with a A＋T rich organelle DNA's in the CsCl gradients. Based on their electrophoretic migration in different concentration of agarose gel, buffer system, and electric power etc. and the results of restriction digestion, the plasmid like DNA's were concluded to have circular conformation. This is the first report of putative circular plasmid DNA from the P. tenera, which is a autonomously replicating plasmid existing with a high copy number plasmid in the cell. The minimum size of this plasmid estimated by restriction endonuclease digestion was appeared to be 2.5kb in size.
Rapid and Efficient Purification of Nucleic Acids from the Macroalga Porphyra(Rhodophyta)
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1166~1172
A method for the isolation and purification of DNA from a red algae, Porphyra was innovated. The innovation of the method consists mainly of three steps that include sodium acetate treatment, chloroform extraction, and 0.2 volume isopropanol precipitation step. The sodium acetate treatment was designed to remove polysaccharide contamination, and the isopropanol step to remove proteins and salts contaminents. Genomic DNA,s of several species(for example, P. tenera, P. yezoensis, P. seriata, and P. pseudolinearis) was successfully isolated by the innovated method. The amount of DNA purified from one g of sample material with the innovated method was 53 g in average. The resulting DNA was characterized to include high molecular weight and showed no nuclease activity. The DNA was pure enough to be digested directly by various restriction enzymes without any difficulties. Porphyra DNA was pure enough and adequate for amplification reaction through the polymerase chain reaction (small nuclear rDNA PCR amplification).
Mechanism of Glycogen Biosynthesis by Glycogen Synthetase from Escherichia coil B
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1173~1176
Glycogen synthetase[EC 184.108.40.206] in E. coli B was isolated and purified by sonication, ultracentri fugation, DEAE cellulose chromatography and gel chromatography. In the case of using glycogen or maltotriose as a primer in the enzyme reaction, 64% and 23.7% of labelled ADP glucose were incorporated into primer, respectively. 8.1% of labelled ADP glucose was polymerized into glycogen in enzymatic reaction without a primer.
Antimutagenicity and Cytotoxicity Effects of Woorimil Wheat Flour Extracts Added with Wild Herb and Seaweed Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1177~1182
The antimutagenic and cancer cell growth inhibitory effects of woorimil contained herb and seaweed powders were examined. While woorimil itself showed only 40% antimutagenic effect on S. typhymurium TA98 against 4NQO(0.15 g/plate), water extracts of mountain herbs and seweeds including Comfrey, wormwood, Kale, Angelica utilis and pine leaves showed 80~90% antimutagenicity. On the other hand, these extracts along with woorimil showed 68 to 80% antimutagenic activities. Low antimutagenic activities of less than 50% were shown when these extracts were tested on TA98 against Trp P 1(0.5 g/plate), but high antimutagenic activities of 80~93.3% were shown on TA100. Water extracts of Capsella bursa pastoris and Allium grayi exhibited 60~80% of the activites in cytotoxicity tests of woorimil water extracts(0.5mg/ml) on human lung carcinoma cell. A549 showed 10% cell growth inhibitory effect. When mixed with Comfrey and Angelica utilis extracts, it showed 23~25% inhibition and other extracts showed only 12~23% inhibition. Cytotoxicity test of woorimil extracts on human liver cancer cell Hep3B revealed 20% inhibition. The additions of pine needle extracts, Angelica utilis and Comfrey showed 33%, 29% and 25% inhibition, respectively. But other extracts showed only 20% inhibition.
Studies on Anti-Mcirobial and Anti-Cancer Functions of Polysaccharide Extracted from Ganoderma lucidum
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1183~1188
This study was carried out to elucidate the immunomodulating activity of protein bound polysac charide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum(PSG). Macrophage drived reactive radicals were known as an effector for antimicrobial and anticancer functions. The promising immune response molecule, reactive oxygen intermediates(ROIs), was determined in TIB 71 cells with PSG at various experimental conditions. Treatment with 0.5mg PSG significantly increased the production of ROIs, superoxide anion as well as hydrogen peroxide, from TIB 71 cells(p<0.001). Under the same concentration, con siderable results were obtained from 24 hour cultivation with 106 cells at 5% CO2 incubator. The cells were trigged with PMA(5.3 M) after primed BCG(100 M) or IFN (100U) alone could not induce the production of ROIs, but it had a significant potentiating effect on ROIs secretion when the cells were treated with PSG.
Antioxidative Effect of Kimchi Ingredients on Rabbits Fed Cholesterol Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1189~1196
The antiatherogenic effect of kimchi ingredients was studied in terms of antioxidative effect against Newzealand white rabbits that fed 1% cholesterol. Experimental groups was fed 8% Baechu (Brassica pekiinensis), or 1% red pepper(Capsium annum), or 1% garlic(Allium sativum) for 12 weeks. Blood samples were drawn every 2 weeks to analyze vitamin E, POV, and TBARS. Hepatic antioxidative enzyme activity, vitamin E, and carotene concentration also were measured. Plasma TBARS and POV level were markedly lowered in both red pepper and garlic fed rabbits(p<0.05) compared to control. Hepatic POV and protein carbonyl values were lowered in the rabbits fed kimchi ingredients compared to control(p<0.05). Plasma vitamin E concentration was increased in the rabbits fed red pepper and garlic compared to control(p<0.05). Hepatic vitamin E concentration was increased in red pepper and garlicfed rabbits compared to control. For the hepatic antioxidative enzyme acitivity, catalase activity was significantly increased in red pepper and garlic fed rabbits compared to control. Therefore, Baechu, red pepper, and garlic exert an antioxidative effect against rabbits fed 1% cholesterol for 3 months.
The Status of Serum Lipids and Antioxidant Vitamins in Male Patients with Derebrovascular Disease
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1197~1203
This study was conducted to investigate serum lipids and antioxidant vitamins status of male patients with cerebrovascular disease. The study consisted of 16 hospital patients(57.8
13.7 years) at 3 General Hospitals in Taegu who suffer from cerebrovascular disease and 21 healthy adults(55.5
7.2 years). The results were as follows: The systolic blood pressure of the patients(150.0
13.7mmHg) was sig nificantly higher than healthy control(126.0
17.4mmHg). In patients the percentages of drinking alcohol(more than 5 times/week) and smoking were also higher. And the patients had more stress than control. Total calorie, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin B1 and niacin intakes were significantly lower in the patients. The energy nutrients consumption reached the recommended level in all subjects who were investigated. HDL cholesterol(24.99 vs 37.86mg/dl) and vitamin E(12.94 vs 20.88mg/L) level showed significantly lower, but triglyceride level(175.50 vs 117.69mg/dl), total cholesterol/HDL cho lesterol(6.22 vs 4.39) and atherogenic index(5.22 vs 3.39) were significantly higher in the patient group. Therefore, it might be expected that refraining from drinking alcohol and smoking, and that having proper exercise and certain other healthy living habits which can decrease stress in addition suitable consumption of antioxidant vitamins can prevent the occurrence of cerebrovascular disease.
Studies on the Blood Anticoagulant Polysaccharide Isolated from Hot Water Extracts of Hizikia fusiforme
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1204~1210
This study was focused on the purification, characterization and promotion mode of an anticoagulant polysaccharide from Hizikia fusiforme. The anticoagulant crude polysaccharide(HF 0) was obtained by using hot water extraction at 100oC for 3 hrs after homogenizing desalted Hizikia fusiforme. The anticoagulant polysaccharide(HF 2 3 1a) was purified from the crude extract(HF 0) through stepwise gradient ethanol precipitation(HF 2), DEAE Toyopearl 650C(HF 2 3), Sephadex G 75(HF 2 3 1), Sepharose CL 6B(HF 2 3 1a) chromatography and HPLC to homogeneity. HF 2 3 1a was estimated at 5.3
105 Da molecular weight and composed of fucose(51.92%), galactose(19.34%), mannose(13.92%), xylose (7.14%), arabinose(3.95%) and rhamnose(3.78%), and comprimised 29.7 % sulfate residue. The sulfated anticoagulant polysaccharide from HF 2 3 1a was proposed to inhibit via the intrinsic pathway and common pathway in the blood coagulation. The HF 2 3 1a exhibited the anticoagulant activity by activating an antithrombin III and the activity depended on the concentration of HF 2 3 1a. Acute toxicity of HF 2 in mice was not detected. Only 14 of 33 control mice(11.4%) that had taken saline survived for 30 min after injecting thrombin(100 NIH unit/ml).
Effect of Fiber on Serum Lipid Metabolism in Rats with Diet-Induced Cholesterolemia
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1211~1216
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of cholesterol and fiber on serum lipid metabolism in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administrated 1% cholesterol and 0.25% sodium cholate to induce hypercholesterolemia and were fed on diet containing three concentrations(0%, 5%, 10%) of cellulose and pectin, respectively. The rats were sacrified after 5 weeks of feeding periods. Serum triglyceride concentration was significantly decreased in proportion to level of fiber. Phospholipid concentration was more decreased in 10% fiber groups than 5% fiber groups but did not show any difference by fiber types. Free cholesterol and cholesteryl ester concentrations in serum were significantly decreased by fiber supplement and pectin was more effective than cellulose in cholesterol lowering effect. Whereas HDL cholesterol concentration and HDL C/TC were increased in proportion to level of fiber and the effect of pectin was not more significant than that of cellulose. Serum chylomicron cholesterol concentration also showed significant decrease by pectin supplement and LDL , VLDL cholesterol concentrations were more significantly decreased in 10% fiber groups than those of 5% fiber groups. The results indicate that 10% pectin may have beneficial roles in hypercholesterolemia.
Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Methanol Extracts from Mulberry Leaves in Cholesterol-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1217~1222
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of mulberry leaves on lipid metabolism in cho lesterol induced hypercholesterolemia rats. The mulberry treatment group showed decreases of serum lipid concentration compared with hyperlipidemic group. Also, Mulberry leaves inhibited the activity of HMG Co A reductase, increased lipase activity. In histopathological examination, abdominal aorta showed no critical lesions with mulberry leaves treatment. These results suggest that hypolipidemic effects of mulberry leaves on rats were the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and acceleration of cholesterol catabolism in the liver. For human, serum triglyceride contents were more significantly decreased with treatment of mulberry leaves powder.
The Effect of Feeding Juice and Powder of Houttuynia cordata Thunb on Serum Lipids in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1223~1229
This study was designed to observe the effects of feeding Houttuynia cordata juice and powder on the improvement of the lipids in the serum of dietary hypercholesterolemic rats. Experimental groups such as 5% cellulose for control group, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% H. cordata powder for group 2, 3, 4, 5, respectively, and 5%, 10%, 15% H. cordata juice for group 6, 7, 8, respectively, were admi nistered to the male rats of the Sprague Dawley for 4 weeks. Concentrations of total cholesterol in serum were significantly lower in all experimental groups than in the control group, and particularly, the lowest in group 8. The ratio of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol was the highest in group 5. Atherosclerotic index was lower in group 5 and 8. Concentrations of free cholesterol and cholesterol ester in serum were significantly lower in all experimental groups than in the control group, and then concentrations of free cholesterol and cholesterol ester were the lowest in group 5 and 8, re spectively. Concentrations of triglyceride and phospholipid were the lowest in the group 5. Con centrations of chylomicron and VLDL were significantly lower in all experimental groups than in the control group. And the concentration was remarkably the lowest in group 5. Concentration of glucose in blood was not significantly different, but lower in the group 5 and 8. Concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, Fe were not significantly different in all experimental groups. The GOT and GPT activites were lower in all experimental groups than in the control group, especially the lowest in group 7 of GOT and group 8 of GPT. The LDH activity was the lowest in group 8.
Effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb Powder and Juice on Lipid Composition of Liver, Brain and Kidney in Dietary Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1230~1235
For the investigation to the effects of H. cordata on prevention of hypercholesteromia, dietary hypercholesteromic rats were fed for 4 weeks with basial diet containing 5, 10, 15, 20% H. cordata powder, 5, 10 and 15% H. cordata juice. Total cholesterol and triglyceride contents of livers were significantly lower in experimental groups than in control group. Phospholipid contents in livers were not significant difference between control and experimental groups. Contents of free cholesterol in livers were ranged from 0.4
0.2 to 0.7
0.5mg/kg and cholesteryl ester contents were lower in H. cordata juice added groups than H. cordata powder added groups. Total cholesterol content in brains were not significant difference between cholesterol not added, H. cordata powder added at 15, 20% and its juice added group at 15%. The more powder and juice of H. cordata were added to basial diets, the lower contents of triglyceride and phospholipid were detected in brains. Contents of free cholesterol and cholesteryl ester in brains were not significance in all experimental groups. In kidneys, total cholesterol contents were not significant in control group and H. cordata powder of 5% was added group. Triglyceride, phospholipid and cholesteryl ester contents in kidney were not significant in all groups. Contents of free cholesterol in kidney were equally significant between cholesterol free and 15% H. cordata juice treated group.
Biochemical Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Protein and Lipid in Patinets with Alcoholic Liver Disease
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1236~1243
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nutritional status of protein and lipids in the patients with alcoholic liver disease, to find an effective way of dietary management for patients with alcoholic liver disease and to obtain the materials for nutritional education for alcoholics. The subjects consist of 80 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis(ALC) and 12 patients with alcoholic fatty liver(AFL). The control group included 57 alcoholics without liver disease(A), 32 patients with viral liver cir rhosis(VLC) and 194 normal(NL). Biochemical evaluation of nutritional status was performed by ana lyzing the profiles of protein and lipids in blood samples. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The frequency of subjects below the normal range of serum total protein was 26.3% in ALC, 16.7% in AFL and 3.5% in A. Serum albumin was lower in 41.3% of ALC. 2) The alcoholics without liver disease showed significantly higher level of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than the other groups. The alcoholic subjects had lower HDL cholesterol than normal subjects. Overall, the protein and lipids status of the alcoholic subjects in this study was evaluated to be very poor on the basis of biochemical assessments. The results suggest that alcohol abuse and poor dietary intake could cause malnutrition. An extensive nutritional education should be emphasized for the alcohol consuming population. High quality of protein and other dietary intakes from early stage of the disease may be effective in nutritional therapy for the patient with alcoholic liver disease.
Biochemical Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Vitamins and Minerals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1244~1252
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin and minerals in the patients with alcoholic liver disease and to obtain the materials for nutritional education for alcoholics. The subjects consist of 80 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis(ALC) and 12 patients with alcoholic fatty liver(AFL). The control group included 57 alcoholics without liver disease(A), 32 patients with viral liver cirrhosis(VLC) and 194 normal men(NL). Biochemical evaluation of nutritional status was investigated by the analysis of blood samples. The frequency of vitamin B1 deficiency in the ALC, AFL and A groups as indicated by the erythrocyte transketolase activity coefficient were 46.0%, 66.7% and 57.9% respectively. The frequency of vitamin B2 deficiency in the ALC, AFL and A groups as indicated by the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient were 9.8%, 8.3% and 38.6% respectively. Vitamin A deficiency was not detected in the alcoholic subjects. The frequency of vi tamin E deficiency in ALC, AFL and A were 96.3%, 66.7% and 86.0% respectively. The levels of plasma lipid peroxidation products were significantly higher in the alcoholic subjects than in the normal subjects. The frequency of subjects below normal range of hemoglobin were 85.0% in ALC, 50.0% in AFL and 31.6% in A. The frequency of copper deficiency in the ALC, AFL and A groups were 48.4%, 16.7% and 17.5% respectively. The frequency of zinc deficiency in the ALC, AFL and A groups were 83.8%, 41.7% and 66.7% respectively. Overall, the vitamin and minerals status of the alcoholic subjects in this study was evaluated to be very poor on the basis of biochemical assessments. The results suggest that alcohol abuse and poor dietary intake could cause malnutrition and may be important risk factors in causing alcoholic liver disease in alcoholics. In addition, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, Cu, Fe and antioxidant supplementation may be effective in nutritional therapy for chronic alcoholics.
Changes of Fatty Acid Compositions in Hepatic Total Lipids and Phosholipids of Rats Supplemented with Cholesterol and Taurine
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1253~1261
Effects of dietary cholesterol and taurine supplementation on hepatic total and phospholipid fatty acid compositions were evaluated in rats fed one of the following semisynthetic diets for 5 weeks : control diet(CD, cholesterol free and taurine free diet); high cholesterol diet(HCD, CD＋1.5% cho lesterol); high cholesterol, high taurine diet(HCHTD, HCD＋1.5% taurine). Diet induced changes in hepatic total fatty acid compositions were very similar to those in hepatic phospholipid fatty acid compositions. The HCD significantly decreased the percentage of total saturated fatty acids(SFA), and increased the percentage of total monounsaturated fatty acids(MUFA) of hepatic total lipids and phospholipids as compared to the values for the control rats(p<0.001). HCHTD significantly elevated the percentage of
SFA and lowered the percentage of
MUFA compared to the values for the HCD(p<0.001). Percentages of hepatic total and phospholipid 18:3
6 and 20:3
6 were significantly higher in rats fed the HCD than the values for the control rats, and the percentages of their elongation and desaturation products(22:5
6 and 22: 5
6) were significantly lower in rats fed the HCD compared to those for the control rats. HCD significantly lowered the Δ5 desaturation(20:3
6) and Δ4 desaturation(22:4
6) indices, and the elongation index of
3 fatty acid(20:5
3) in rat liver. HCHTD reversed the cholesterol induced changes in the compositions of
6 fatty acids. These results suggest the possibility that dietary cholesterol and taurine supplementations affect plasma and liver lipid levels, at least in part, by changing the hepatic phospholipid fatty acid compositions and thereby modulating the physical characteristics of the membrane and the activities of microsomal enzymes involved in lipid metabolism.
Peroxidative Damage in Rat Liver Exposed to Microwave
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1262~1266
The purpose of this study was to investigate peroxidative damage and antioxidative defense systems such as superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH Px), glutathione S transferase (GST) and vitamin E of liver in rat exposed microwave. Sprague Dawley male rats 200
10gm were randomly assigned to normal and microwave(MW) groups. After rats were irradiated with microwave at frequency of 2.45GHz for 15min, the change patterns of antioxidative defense system and peroxidative damage of liver tissue in MW group were investigated for 16 days(the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 16th days) compared with those of normal group. The activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in MW group was increased at the 2nd day compared with that of normal group, but not significantly. The glutathione peroxidase(GSH Px) in MW group was decreased to 24% and 25% at the 4th and 6th days, respectively, compoared with that of normal group, but GSH Px was increased to level of normal group at the 16th day. The activity of glutathione S transferase(GST) in MW group was decreased at the 2nd day after irradiated with microwave, but GST showed to that of normal group at the 16th day. The content of vitamin E in MW group was lower than that of normal group at the 6th and 8th days after the irradiation, but was recovered to the level of normal group at the 16th days. The content of thi obarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) of liver in MW group was increased to 28.9%, 53.8%, 69.7% and 30.2% of normal group at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th days after the irradiation, respectively, but recovered to the level of normal group at the 16th day. The present results indicated that antiox idative defense systems of rats irradiated microwave was weaken more than that of normal group, which lead to acceleration of lipid peroxidation.
Effect of Royal Jelly on Therapy and Prevention of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1267~1272
In order to investigate the preventive and therapeutic of royal jelly on diabetes, the levels of blood glucose and serum lipids as well as the number of blood cells were determined in streptozotocin(STZ) diabetic rats. Rats were divided into seven groups. The RJ group was administered royal jelly and the STZ group was treated with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. To determine the preventive effect, diabetes was induced after administration of royal jelly for 2 weeks in group RS1/RS2. In group SR1/SR2 diabetic rats were administered royal jelly for 2 weeks to investigate the therapeutic effect. After 3 weeks, the body weight was reduced in STZ and SR1 groups and food intake was increased in the STZ, RS1 and SR1 groups. The blood glucose level was similar to the control group in the RJ, RS1 and RS2 groups and there was no effect in the other groups. The total lipid and triglyceride level were lower in the SR1 group as compared to STZ, and the total cholesterol level was higher in the STZ group. The index of atherogenesis was lower in the RJ and SR1 groups compared to the normal group. The number of red blood cells and hemoglobin was higher in the RJ and SR1 groups and the number of white blood cells was higher in the RJ and SR2 groups.
Effect of Iron Intakes on Macromineral Utilization in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1273~1278
The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of iron intakes on utilization of macrominerals (Ca, Mg, Na, K) in rats fed adequate, 2 fold, 4 fold iron for 12 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, body weight gain, serum and liver levels of macrominerals across iron groups. Ca level in kidney of 4 fold iron group was significantly higher than those in other groups. Excretions of Mg through feces and Ca, Mg, Na, and K through urine were significantly increased with increment of iron intake. In the case of macromineral balances, daily retentions of Mg, Na, and K in adequate iron group were higher than those in 2 /4 fold iron groups. However there was no difference in Ca retention across iron groups. Therefore, it should be considered interaction with macromineral in iron supplementation.
Bone Densities of the Middle Aged Women Residing in the City and Related Factors
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1279~1284
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of physiological and behavioral factors on the bone density of 125 middle aged women who visited Saint Bundo Hospital. 16.1% of subjects had osteoporosis and 40.3% had osteopenia according to the measurement of the bone density of lumbar spine. Mean age was 56.9 in osteoporosis group and 53.7 in osteopenia group. It was significantly different from the mean age of control group, 50.7. The mean bone density of the women who had menarche after 15 years old was significantly lower than that of the women who had menarche before 15. But the age of menopause, the total year of menstruation, irregularity of the menstrual cycle and percentage of subjects who had ovariectomy were not significantly different among osteoporosis, osteopenia and control group. The use of medication such as oral contraceptive, steroid, depressant, diuretic, and Ca supplement and the preference of salty food were not significantly different among three groups. The percentage of subjects who had rheumatism, gastric ulcer, and pain in neck or shoulder was higher in osteoporosis and osteopenia group than in control group. This study shows that the age and the age of menarche affect the bone density, and that behavioral factors were not sig nificantly different in osteoporosis and osteopenia group compared to the control group. Further researches are needed to find out the effective way to minimize the effect of age and other physiological conditions on the decrease of bone density.
Effect of Food Behaviors on Nutrients and Food Intake in College Students
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1285~1296
This study was performed to investigate the food behaviors of college students through a food record method. In this study, one hundred and sixty seven students of Dankook university were chosen(male:77, female:90). We collected data about nutrients intake and food behaviors. Food behaviors included a frequency of both meal and snack, meal time, eating place, person with whom they ate, reason for eating, feeling after eating, and activities during mealtime. The results of the study were summarized as follows. Energy intake per day of male and female were 2201kcal and 1781kcal, respectively. Expect for the protein, vitamin C and phosphate, nutrients were not satisfied with the RDA, especially the intake of vitamin A, Vitamin B2, and calcium was very low. Average eating frequency per day was 5.1 and meal eating frequency per day was 2.6. In addition, male ate more frequently than female did. The interval between breakfast and lunch was 295 minutes, and between lunch and dinner was 373 minutes. The places where they ate the meal and snack were mostly school and restaurant at lunch and dinner, and there was not a significant different between weekday and weekend. On weekdays, the 40~50% of subjects had a breakfast with family, and most students had a lunch or dinner with friends. During weekend, although the percentage of students who had a lunch and dinner with family were increased, a lot of students had a lunch and dinner with friends or alone. In case of reason for meal and snack, the 60~70% of subjects answered that they ate the meal for hunger, and there was not different between weekday and weekend. 60~70% of subjects felt that they eat proper, but the percentage of overeat was increased for dinner. Most students were talking with others while they had a lunch. About 20% of subjects ate only food at both breakfast and dinner and 30% of subjects were watching TV. In correlation between nutrients intake and food behaviors, the higher frequency of eating, the higher carbohydrate intake in male. In case of female, protein intake and dinner time showed the negative correlation, and protein intake and mean intervals of eating had a positive correlation. In case of male, reason for eating affected the nutrient intake, but eating place, after feeling and activity for eating had no relation with nutrients intake. But in case of female, these factors affected nutrient intake. Therefore, food behaviors had an effect on nutrients intake, and the type of effect was different between male and female.
Biological Functions and Production Technology of Carotenoids
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 27, issue 6, 1998, Pages 1297~1306
Carotenoids are yellow to orange red pigments that are ubiquitous in the nature and its annual pro duction amounts to one hundred million ton. This review discussed physicochemical properties, antiox idative activity, anticancer activity of carotenoids and its production technology. Carotenoids, mainly used as food colourants, are characterized by its strong reactive conjugated double bonds, related to oxidation by heat, light, acid, and metal ions. The provitamin A activity of carotenoids is higher in trans form than in cis form. Antioxidative properties of carotenoids are related to ionone structure and long, conjugated polyene chain number. In particular, carotene, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lycopene possess strong antioxidant activity, compared with tocopherol. Especially, carotene, astaxanthin, carotene, fucoxanthin, halocynthiaxanthin and peridinin impart strong anticancer activity against lung cancer, breast cancer, buccal pouch cancer and nerve cell cancer. Carotene and astaxanthin are produced by biotechnology using algae such as Dunaliella salina and Haematococcus pluvalis. But the change of cultivation conditions and screening of algae, efficiently producing carotenoids, are needed for its commercial production. Carotenoids are expected to be used in the various fields through explanation of its biological activity and establishment of commercial production technology.