Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Physicochemical Properties of Korean Sweet Potato Starches
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~8
Starch was isolated from nine Korean sweet potato varieties(Shinmi, Seangmi, Yulmi, Shinyulmi, Sunmi, Jeungmi, Mokpo 26, Mokpo 29, and Mokpo 30) and analysed in its physicochemical properties in comparison with a commercial sweet potato starch(Kumokanyu) imported from China. Protein content in the isolated starch was highest(1.1%) in Mokpo 29 and lowest(0.3%) in Kumokanyu, whereas lipid content was equally less than 0.2%. Pasting analysis by Rapid Viscoanalyser(RVA) showed that Yulmi starch had the lowest pasting temperature(70.2oC) whereas Kumokanyu did the highest one (74.3oC). Under a differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), however, Kumokanyu showed the lowest onset temperature(61.8oC) and enthalpy(42.0 J/g) for crystal melting. Shinyulmi showed the highest peak viscosity of the starch paste, but shear thinning was significant like commercial potato starch. Kumokanyu, however, displayed the least peak visicosity but good shear stability. With the starch gels prepared at 4oC, Mokpo 29 showed the highest hardness, whereas Shinyulmi did the lowest one. Against repeated freeze thawing treatments, the starch gel of Kumokanyu was most stable, and among the Korean varieties, Yulmi, Shinyulmi, Jeungmi and Mokpo 26 had good stability. According to the chain distribution analysis, Shinyulmi and Mokpo 29 consisted of larger quanitites of shorter amylopectin chains than Kumokanyu, potato and corn starches.
Taurine Contents in Beverages, Milk Products, Sugars and Condiments Consumed by Koreans
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 9~15
Taurine contents in alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages, milk and milk products, sugars and condiments were determined for 83 food items commonly used by Koreans. Taurine concentrations of food samples were analyzed by using an automated amino acid analyzer(Biochrom 20, Pharmacia LKB) based on ion exchange chromatography. Taurine was not detected in most carbonated beverages, but found in a variety of fruit and vegetable beverages(canned) in the range of 0.13 ~1.43mg taurine/ 100g wt, and in instant coffee or tea beverages(canned) in the range of 0.10~0.41mg taurine/100g wt. The traditional Korean turbid rice wine(takju) sample contained the highest level of taurine (2.29mg/100g wt) among alcoholic beverages tested, which was followed by wine(0.59~0.88mg tau rine/100g wt) and beer(0.53~0.73mg taurine/100g wt). Ordinary milk samples contained 1.05~1.40 mg taurine/100g wt, and a variety of taurine supplemented infant formulas manufactured by Korean companies included 17.3~25.4mg taurine/100g wt. Taurine was not detected in most sugars and sweetners except a couple of chocolate samples(2.13~2.18mg taurine/100g wt). Exceptionally high level of taurine was found in a curry powder sample(16.9mg taurine/100g wt), while the rest of commonly used condiments contained less than 2.90mg taurine/100g wt.
Taurine Contents in Commercial Milks, Meats and Seafoods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 16~21
Taurine content was determined by HPLC equipped with RF detector in commercial milks, meats, edible viscera, ham, sausage, fishes and shellfishes, mollusca and crustacea. Taurine contained 1.06~1.57mg/100g in milks, 37.9~169.8mg/100g in lean meats, 11.3~192.4mg/100g in viscera, 45.0~109.1 mg/100g in ham, 11.7~26.0mg/100g in sausage, 31.6~431.9mg/100g in fishes, 125.9~1078.8mg/100g in shellfishes, 340.2~ 1305.6mg/100g in mollusca and 79.3~316.5mg/100g in crustacea. Webfoot octopus had the highest content of 1,306mg/100g, followed by small ark shell(1,079mg/100g), little neck clam (868mg/100g), hard shelled mussel(852mg/100g) and beka squid(734mg/100g).
A Study on the Contents of Heavy Metals in Carassis auratus of River and Reservoir on Cheonbuk Area
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 22~27
This study was performed to investigated the contamination levels of harmful heavy metals were sampled from Aug. 1 to Aug. 31, 1997, at 9 areas in Cheonbuk area. The heavy metal contents were determinated by ICPS(Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer) method. The levels of total lead, cadmium, aluminum, iron and copper were determined and the results were summarized as follows: The minimum and maximum values(ppm) of 9 areas of Carassius auratus were Pb: 2.03~6.19, Cd: 0.06~ 0.76, Al: 8.84~23.5, Zn: 10.68~48.71, Cu: 0.60~1.51ppm. Among the five heavy metals contents, the highest was zinc and the lowest was cadmium. The results showed that the contents of Pb, Cd, Al, Zn and Cu in Carassius auratus were lower than the FAO/WHO maximum allowance.
N-Nitrosamine of Marketing Radish Kimchi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 28~32
A total of 18 marketing radish kimchi samples, 7 species of kakdugi, 6 species of chonggak kimchi and 5 species of dongchimi were analyzed for their N nitrosamine levels by gas chromatography thermal energy analyzer(GC TEA). N nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA) was the only volatile N nitr osamine found in this study and was positive in all collected samples. The average amount of NDMA for kakdugi, chonggak kimchi and dongchimi were 22.9, 13.7 and 23.4 g/kg, and the range were 3.3~ 35.9, 2.6~50.6 and 4.5~65.1 g/kg, respectively. The range of pH for all samples were 3.6~5.4 and the average recovery of internal standard(N nitrosodipropylamine) were 82.0%. NDMA amounts were highest in chonggakkimch (50.6 g/kg) and dongchimi(65.1 g/kg) among collected samples.
The Formation of N-Nitrosamine during Fermentation of Kakdugi
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 33~39
Traditional kakdugi prepared from salted radish by the addition of fermented shrimp or anchovy sauce along with seasonings and spices, e.g., red pepper powder, garlic or ginger, which has been examined for the formation of volatile nitrosamine(NA) during its fermentation at 5oC and 17oC. Changes of acidity were increased; while, those of ascorbic acid and pH were continually de creased and besides concentrations of salt were scarcely observed during the fermentation of kakdugi at 5oC and 17oC. High initial levels of nitrate in radish followed by a gradual decreased in nitrate concentration, along with increasing levels of nitrite, during its fermentation. During the fermentation of kakdugi, NA such as N nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA) and N nitrosodiethylamine(NDEA) was identified; these NA in kakdugi that had been prepared with shrimp sauce contained in the higher levels than kimchi that had been prepared with anchovy sauce, and both NDMA and NDEA were detected higher levels in the fermented sample at 17oC than in the fermented sample at 5oC. In kakdugi, NDMA and NDEA levels were continually increased during its fermentation; its levels after 35 days fermentation at 17oC were 0.5~16.7 and 0~5.2 g/kg in added shrimp sauce sample, 0. 5~8.7 and 0~4.7 g/kg in added anchovy sauce sample and 0.4~4.8 and 0~2.4 g/kg in control, respectively. The occurrence of NA such as NDMA and NDEA appeared to arise from the fermented sauce and radish used in preparation of the kimchi.
Biological Quality and Storage Characteristics of Gamma-Irradiated Whilte Ginseng
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 40~46
Microbiological quality of commercial white ginseng was examined, together with investigation on its water absorption pattern and radiosensitivity of molds isolated from the samples. Comparative effects of phosphine fumigation and gamma irradiation on microbial control and disinfestation of the samples packed in a commercial laminated film and stored for six months at ambient(20oC, 70% RH) and accelerated(40oC, 90% RH) conditions were studied. Commercial white ginseng was contaminated with coliforms by 103~104CFU/g and molds by 102~104CFU/g and thus decontamination process was required for hygienic quality and storage stability. Phosphine fumigation showed no sterilizing effects on microbes contaminated, while gamma irradiation at around 5kGy was effective for decontaminating microorganisms, showing D10 values of 0.48~0.60kGy for isolated molds. Even though the storage insects, Plodia interpuctella Hubner and Lasioderma serricorne(cigarette beetle) were easily destroyed by phosphine fumigation, gamma irradiation less than 5kGy was found effective for both purposes to improve biological quality of stored white ginseng, thereby extending the storage life of packed samples resulting from increased critical moisture content by about 1%(Aw 0.76).
Comparative Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Phosphine Fumiagion on Color and Organoleptic Quality of White Ginseng
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 47~52
Comparative effects of phosphine fumigation and gamma irradiation were evaluated on the qualities of white ginseng prepacked in a commercial laminated film in terms of water absorption, Hunter color parameters(L, a, b) and organoleptic properties(overall color/appearance, flavor) during 6 months of storage at ambient(20oC, 70% RH) and accelerated(40oC, 90% RH) conditions. Moisture content of packed white ginseng(initial 8.44%) linearly increased with storage period, thereby reaching to about 10% (r=0.9966) in ambient and more than 15%(r=0.9886) in accelerated conditions, respectively, at the 6th month of storage. The storage at severe conditions resulted in remarkable changes in Hunter's color values, decrease in whiteness(L) and increase in redness(a) and yellowness(b), while both treatments, phosphine and irradiation less than 5kGy, did not cause any significant changes in color parameters. Phosphine fumigation was shown detrimental to overall flavor of white ginseng(p<0.01), however or ganoleptic qualities of stored samples were effectively maintained by irradiation less than 5kGy(p< 0.05). As the index on the guality of white ginseng stored at severe conditions its organoleptic quality was highly correlated with moisture content(r= 0.9777) and Hunter color values(over 0.9), suggesting the critical values of 15.5% moisture and 72.56, 7.15, 21.45 in Hunter's L, a, b values, respectively.
Studies on the Production of Vinegar from Fig
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 53~60
Possibility of utilization of fig as a source of vinegar was tested. Alcohol fermentation was conducted by inoculation of Saccharomyces bayanus into fig juice. After 5 days of fermentation at 27oC, fig wine with alcohol content of 13.6%. Then fig vinegar was produced by cultivation of Acetobacter sp. E which was isolated from fig vinegar. Optimum concentration of alcohol, starter content and fermentation temperature for the acid production were 8~9%, 5% and 27~30oC, respectively. More acetic acid was produced by adding 0.5% of yeast extract and 0.01% of Ca pantothenate. Adjustment pH of culture broth with acetic acid and shaking cultivation method were not effective in higher yield of acid production. Addition of sulfite up to 50 ppm did not inhibit for acetic acid fermentation. Addition of 1% bentonite or 1% kakishibu was more effective for the clarification of fig vinegar than any other clarifying agents tested. During aging and racking, acidity, absorbance and tannin content of fig vinegar decreased, while redness and yellowness increased. Aged and racked fig vinegar showed higher sensory score than non aged one in the aspects of color and overall acceptability.
Characteristics of Kochujang Prepared by Monascus anka koji
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 61~66
The purpose of this study was to improve the palatability of kochujang. The activities of liquefying amylase and saccharogenic amylase in Monacus anka koji were lower than those in Asp. oryzae koji. The acid protease activity(1.4 units/g) in M. anka koji was also lower than that(1.6 units/g) in Asp. oryzae koji. Glucosamine amount in Asp. oryzae koji was 1075 g, and that in M. anka koji was 318 g. Four kinds of Kochujang were prepared with Asp. oryzae koji(A), M. anka koji(M), mixed koji of Asp. oryzae and M. anka(A＋M), and mixture of M. anka koji and malt(M＋M). The pH of four kinds of kochujang was 5.1 in the beginning and was between 4.70~4.83 after 120 days of fermentation. Reducing sugar of kochujang was between 16.3~20.7% after fermentation and kochujang prepared with M＋M showed the highest reducing sugar content. Amino nitrogen of kochujang was between 182 mg%~230 mg% after fermentation and the highest amino nitrogen content was observed at kochujang prepared with A＋M. Kochujang prepared with M and M＋M showed higher a value than kochujang prepared with A and A＋M.
Effects of Ozone and Light Illumination on the Enzymation Activity of Malt
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 67~73
In order to increase the enzymatic activity of malt used as a source of traditional processing foods, the enzymatic activities of various barley were examined and the effects of ozone and light illumination treatment on the enzymatic activities of amylase, amylase, and glucanase in malt during man ufacture were also examined. Barley didn't show amylase activity prior to soaking, but the activity of barley increased quickly after soaking. Glutinous barley showed the highest amylase activity among Duru barley, Ol barley, two rowed barley and naked barley. Naked barley showed the lowest activity. The amylase activity was the highest in Duru barley and decreased in the order of in glutinous barley, naked barley and two rowed barley. It was showed that the enzymatic activity of malt was higher than that of control when malt was soaked for 24hr at the concentration of 0.3ppm of ozone. The enzymatic activity of malt treated with light illumination was higher than that of control. The bud and root of light illuminated malt was much stronger than that of control. The root of light illuminated malt was much shorter than that of control. In addition, light illuminated malt showed a little green color which matches the demand of consumer. These studies demonstrated that both ozone and light illumination treatment increased the enzymatic activity of malt to result in high quality of malt manufacture.
Production of the Bacteriocin from the Tofu-Residue
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 74~80
Growth and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sp. GM7311 in tofu residue treated with two commercial amylases were investigated. The optimal condition of amylase Ⅰ(liquefied enzyme for sauce) and Ⅱ(multienzyme 2,000) for the enzyme reaction was showed at pH 6.0 and 4.0, respectively. The optimal temperature was 40oC both. At the enzyme dosage 4% and 3% and reaction time 1hr, about 2% of reduced sugar needed bacteriocin production was obtained. The enzymatic treatment of tofu residue enhanced bacteriocin production by lactic acid bacteria, particularly in the tofu residues added 2.0% yeast extract. But, we couldn't see the increment of bacteriocin activity in the tofu residues added other nitrogen sources such as proteose peptone No. 3 and lab lemco powder. Also, in the comparision of amylase I and Ⅱ, bacteriocin activity in the tofu residue treated with amylase Ⅰ was better than that of amylase Ⅱ.
Thermostability and Reactivation of Peroxidase from Soybean Sprouts
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 81~86
The factors affecting thermostability and reactivation of peroxidase from soybean sprouts(Glycine max L.) were investigated. The enzyme was the most stable at pH 7.0 and below 60oC. Thermostability of the enzyme was reduced by addition of sodium chloride and saccharides. The partially inactivated enzyme by heat treatment at 75oC for 10 min was reactivated up to 211.5% at the optimal reactivation condition. The optimal pH and temperature for reactivation of the enzyme were pH 9.0 and 40oC, respectively. The reactivation was completely inhibited by addition of sulfhydryl reagent such as L cysteine.
Effects of Nucleic Acid Related Compounds on Cytidine Deaminase Activity Produced by Bacillus subtilis ED 213
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 87~93
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of nucleic acid related compounds and metal ions on activities of cytidine deaminase from Bacillus subtilis ED 213. The purified cytidine deaminase was weakly inhibited by 1mM GMP, IMP and ATP, but not affected by other nucleic acid related compounds such as CMP and UDP. The apparent Km values for cytidine, deoxycytidine, 5 methylcy tidine, fluorodeoxycytidine, and 5 bromocytidine were calculated to be 6.6
10-4M, and 2.0
10-3M, respectively. The cytidine deaminase was completely inhibited by 1mM Hg2＋, and mildly inhibited over 40% by metal ions such as Na＋ and Fe2＋. However the enzyme activity was activated more than 40% by 1mM Mg2＋.
The Antibacterial Action of Garlic, Onion, Ginger and Red Pepper Juice
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 94~99
This study was carried out to determine the inhibitory effect of juice of garlic, onion, ginger and red pepper against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae which are food born disease organisms. It was found that 1~2.5%(wt/vol.) garlic juice showed strong antimicrobial action against growth of all test bacteria at 1/20
10-6 dilution. Especially 1% garlic juice completly inactivated Vibrio parahaemolyticus but approximately 71.9~88% of reduction at same concentration in other bacteria was occurred. 2.5% onion juice had 28.5% antimicrobial activity on Sal. enteritidis, but 50% reduction was occurred on St.aureus and V. parahaemolyticus at same concentration. Antibacterial activity of ginger juice was similar to that of onion juice. 2.5% ginger juice showed approximately 50% reduction on Sal. enteritidis and V.parahaemolyticus, but less antimicrobial activity was occured on St. aureus and E. cloacae. Red pepper juice showed the least antimicrobial activity on food born disease organism compared to that of other juices. 2.5% red pepper juice showed 11.3%, 18.7% and 8.1% reduction on St. aureus, Sal. enteritidis and V.parahaemolyticus, respectively.
Antimicrobial Activities of Commercially Available Tea on the Harmful Foodborne Organisms
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 100~106
Use of chemical preservative for controlling harmful microorganisms in food products has been debated due to public concerns about food quality because of perceived toxic and carcinogenic potential. Thus, use of non toxic natural antimicrobial agents has become essential. This study was investigated to determine the antimicrobial activity of water or ethanol extract of commercially available tea, and of solvent fractionated ethanol extracts obtained from steamed green tea. Both of water and ethanol extracts of green tea(steamed or roasted), oolong tea and black tea exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria, but not effective against yeast and mold. Also, antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of 4 different kinds of tea was stronger than that of water extract. Among 4 different tea, ethanol extract of steamed green tea was further fractionated. One thousand g/disk buthanol extract had the strongest antimicrobial activity against bacteria and mold. The concentration of the antimicrobial activity of buthanol extract in tested microorganisms ranged from 125~1000 g/disk except for Rhizopus javanicus. Antimicrobial activity of buthanol extract of steamed green tea was not destroyed by heating at 100oC for 60 min and at 121oC for 15 min, which is very stable over heat treatment. The inhibitory effect of the buthanol extract on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Growth of both strains was started in the presence of 250 and 500 g/ml after 12 and 24 hour respectively, whereas complete inactivation of both strains was occurred in the presence of 1000 g/ml.
Changes in Physicochemical Properties and Microorganisms during the Storage of Kimchi Stew저s Sauce
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 107~112
Physicochemical properties and microflora of kimchi stew's sauce were investigated during 6 months at 13oC, 27oC and 37oC to study the changes of its quality. The final pH values in the sauce showed a slight decrease to 4.46, 4.38 and 4.21 during storage at 13oC, 27oC and 37oC, respectively. Color(L, a, b values), salinity, moisture and Aw in the sauce were decreased during storage. However, the values of brix and browning, and the amounts of total sugar, crude protein and crude fat in the sauce were increased during storage. All the reactions occurred more rapidly in the samples stored at 37oC than those stored at 27oC and 13oC. The viable cell counts of aerobic bacteria in the sauce were changed remarkably during storage, but viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria were decreased. Yeast, mold and E. coli were not found in the above temperatures during storage. Regression analysis between sensory scores and quality characteristics showed that the ΔE value was a major quality index for the deterioration of kimchi stew's sauce. The shelf lives of sauces at 13oC, 27oC, 37oC were estimated to be 24 months, 6 months and 6 months, respectively.
Effect of Leek(Allium tuberosum) Powder on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Breads
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 113~117
Physiological and sensory characteristics of breads prepared with the flour substituted with leek powder were evaluated. Leek powder contained 34.6% total dietary fiber. Substitution of wheat flour with 2% and 3% of leek powder decreased loaf volume by 13 and 27%, respectively. Moisture content was slightly increased and staling rate during storage at 25oC decreased in breads with leek powder. The addition of leek powder slighty increased hardness of fresh bread, but did not affect hardness of stored breads. Breads with leek powder turned into greenish and had characteristic flavor. Nontheless, no significant differences were observed between control and that with 2% of leek powder in sensory evaluation.
Properties on the Quality Characteristics of Bread Added with Angelica keiskei Koidz Flour
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 118~125
Effects of adding of Angelica keiskei Koidz flour on the quality characteristics of bread were inves tigated. The content of total dietary fiber was 31.89% in flour of Angelica keiskei Koidz leaf and 43.37 % in that of stem. The content of insoluble dietary fiber increased by blanching, but those of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased by steeping in NaCl solution. In the results of sensory evaluation of Angelica keiskei Koidz flour, leaf steeped in NaCl solution and blanched stem showed good overall preference. With the addition of Angelica keiskei Koidz flour, water binding capacity and loaf weight increased, while the loaf volume decreased. The loaf volume of bread added with leaf steeped in NaCl solution and blanched stem were higher than those added with natural Angelica keiskei Koidz flour. The lightness and redness values decreased with the increase of Angelica keiskei Koidz flour content in bread but yellowness values increased. In the texture analyzer measurement for bread added with Angelica keiskei Koidz flour, hardness and springiness somewhat increased, while cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness decreased. As the results of sensory evaluation of bread added with Angelica keiskei Koidz flour, the score of the breads added with 5% leaf steeped in NaCl solution and 5%, 10% blanched stem were somewhat lower than those of control bread. In terms of rate of addition of Angelica keiskei Koidz flour, the bread added with leaf at 5% level, natural stem at 5% level and stem by blanching at 5%, 10% level had good overall preference.
Variation of Retrogradation and Preference of Bread with Added Flour of Angelica keiskei Koidz during the Storage
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 126~131
We have got the following results from tests in the course of time retrogradation and taste change in bread with added flour of Angelica keiskei Koidz, which had been stored in room temperature (27±2oC), refrigerating(2±1oC) and freezing( 20±1oC), respectively. Bread with the added flour showed a little lower degree of retrogradation than control group, and every group in room temperature retrograded from the very first day. The degree of retrogradation of the group in refrigerating was far greater comparing with the group in room temperature. The longer bread was stored, the lower the degree of retrogradation was, and the higher the adding rate of the flour got, the later its retrogradation happened. Especially the flour of this vegetable's stem turned out to be the most effective in retarding its retrogradation. Group stored 30 days in freezing didn't show a wide difference in retrograde comparing with the group before storage. Preference for color and shape of the flour added bread stored in room temperatue, refrigerating and freezing did not change significantly from the group before storage. Although preference decreased for flavor, texture, mouth feel and overall quality with the lapse of time, flour added group improved in preference for these factors comparing with the control group. Above all, added flour of pretreated stem proved to be the most effective in the sensory tests. With respect to the storing method, the group stored in refrigerating showed greater preference for the texture and mouth feel over the groups in room temperature and freezing. Flavor preference of the group in freezing was the lowest of all.
Physicochemical Properites of Potato Starches Crosslinked with Epichlorohydrin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 132~139
Physicochemical properties of the crosslinked potato starches of MDC(Molar Degree of Crosslinking) 0.137~3.333 treated with epichlorohydrin were examined. MDC increased proportionally as epichlorohydrin concentration increased. Water binding capacity increased but blue value decreased with increasing MDC. Gelatinization trends obtained from DSC thermograms and transmittance showed that the gelatinization temperature of the crosslinked potato starch was higher than that of native potato starch, but there was no significant difference among the crosslinked potato starches. Solubility and swelling power decreased with increasing MDC. X ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron micrographs showed that the crosslinking of starch did not affect the crystallinity and the granule shape of starch.
Quality Characteristics of Hamburger Patties Added with Seaweed Powder
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 140~144
The physicochemical and organoreptic characteristics of hamburger patties with 1~5% powder of Sargassum thunbergii(ST) or Gelidium amansii(GA) were investigated. The addition of seaweed powder resulted in significant changes of L, a and b values of the patty. Water content of the patty increased with GA but not changed with ST. As increasing the amount of the powder, more cooking yield was observed. Na was the most abundant mineral, followed by Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn. The hamburger patty with 3% GA showed similar sensory scores of color and overall acceptability to control.
Protein Qualities of Loach as Affected by Cooking Methods
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 145~152
To explore the possibility of using freeze dried loach for instant choo o tang(Korean traditional loach soup), protein qualities and fatty acid composition were evaluated on boiled and steamed loach. Total lipid and ash content were lowered in both heated(boiled and steamed) loaches due to deboning and eviscerating during cooked meat preparation. Profiles of total amino acids were not changed seriously by the type of cooking, but the amount of essential amino acids were comparable in all samples. Two times more free amino acids were quantified in cooked samples compared to raw meat. Available lysine was marginally decreased by cooking, and that caused some measurable change in typsin indigestible substrate(TI) in streamed whole loach. In vitro protein digestibility of the heated loaches was not altered drastically and the protein quality determined as computed protein efficiency ratio(C PER) was similar for the raw, boiled and steamed loach. The ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids changed measurably in heated whole loach. The results shows that heating caused apparent oxidative deterioration of the polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Storage Stability of Freeze Dried Loach for Instant Choo-o-tang
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 153~160
Storage stability of boiled and freeze dried loach and antioxidative effect of Zanthoxylum schinifolium were studied to confirm the possibility in development of instant choo o tang(Korean traditional loach soup). Packaging and storage temperature did not cause a measurable change in in vitro protein digestibility and trypsin indigestible substrate within 45 days of storage but remarkable quality changes were occurred in all samples stored after 60 days. Vacuum packaging and low temperature storage(4 oC) had some effect in retarding protein quality deterioration due to delaying polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation. Maximum peroxide value and TBA value were reached in 15 days, and there were a slow(TBA value) and rapid reduction(POV) after peaks were reached. In contrast, increasing brown pigment development and fluorescence intensity continued until 90 days of storage. Treatment of ethanolic extracts from Zanthoxylum schinifolium prior to freeze drying could protect against lipid oxidation of freeze dried loach products.
Extension of Tofu Shelf-Life with Water Soluble Degraded Chitosan as a Coagulant
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 161~166
CaCl2 and water soluble degraded chitosan mixtures were used as coagulants for extending the shelf life of tofu. Microbial counts, pH, and turbidity in tofu immersion solution were analyzed during the periods of storage at 4oC and physico chemical properties of tofu were determined by rheological properties, color and yield. There was no significant difference in moisture content and yield between tofu made with and without chitosan. Failure stress and stress relaxation values were reduced when chitosan was added to CaCl2, but there was no significant change among contents of chitosan added to tofu. The pH values were decreased at the beginning and then slowly increased after 14 days storage. The changes in turbidity were increased during storage, but the change in 2.0g degraded chitosan mixture with 7.0g CaCl2 coagulant(2.0:7.0 ratio) was lower than others and initial turbidity was lower as much as chitosan added to coagulant. These data showed that the water soluble degraded chitosan had a good anti microbial effect and increases the shelf life of tofu.
Studies on the Improvements of Storage property in Meat Sauasge Using Chitosan-I
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 167~171
The production of emulsion sausage generally contain nitrite as a curing agent for preservative effect and color as well as flavor development. This investigation describe a study on the inhibitory effect of chitosan against some spoilage bacteria and substitution effect of nitrite in sausages. Among of the chitosan, M.W. 120KDa of chitosan has shown an antimicrobial effect. When 0.2% of chitosan and half of normal nitrite content were added to sausage, effect of preservative quality was same that added to normal content of nitrite in sausages. Sausage added to 0.5% of chitosan has been a good storage property even though without nitrite. The growth of most of bacteria was inhibited 80% or more at 0.01~0.2% of chitosan. These results indicated that M.W. 120KDa of chitosan as a natural material could provide sausage protection and very reduced or substituted amount of nitrite against spoilage bacteria.
Production and Characterization of Branched Maltodextrin
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 172~177
Branched maltodextrin which contains branched sugars as well as linear sugars was produced by Tranzyme L 500. Branched sugar content increased as reaction time between substrate(D.E. 19) and 0.05% of Tranzyme L 500 at pH 5.5, 55oC increased. Branched sugar content was 14.9% at 24 hr of reaction and reached 27% after 60 hr. Total branched sugar content increased regardless of substrate D.E. as enzyme concentration increased. However, when concentrations of enzyme were 0.1, 0.2%, production of branched sugars of which content were 46.6%, 52.6% respectively at those enzyme concentrations, was higher at D.E. 19 than any other conditions.
A Simulation Model for the protein Deposition of Pigs According to Amino Acid Composition of Feed Proteins
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 178~190
This study was conducted to develop a simulation model for the growth dynamics of pigs and to describe quantitatively protein deposition depending on the amino acid composition of feed protein. In the model it is assumed that the essential processes that determine the utilization of feed protein in the whole body are protein synthesis, breakdown of protein, and oxidation of amino acid. Besides, it is also assumed that occurrence of protein deposition depends on genetic potential and amino acid composition of feed protein. The genetic potential for the protein deposition is the maximum capacity of protein synthesis, being dependent on the protein mass of the whole body. To describe the effect of amino acid composition of feed on the protein deposition, a factor, which consist of ten amino acid functions and lie between 0 and 1, is introduced. Accordingly a model was developed, which is described with 15 flux equations and 11 differential equations and is composed of two compartments. The model describes non linear structure of the protein utilization system of an organism, which is in non steady state. The objective function for the simulation was protein deposition(g/day) cal culated according to the empirical model, PAF(product of amino acid functions) of Menke. The mean of relative difference between the simulated protein deposition and PAF calculated values, lied in a range of 11.8%. The simulated protein synthesis and breakdown rates(g/day) in the whole body showed a parallel behavior in the course of growth.
Antioxidative and Hepatoprotective Activity of Colured-Scented and Korean Native Rice Varieties Based on Different Layers
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 191~198
Fifteen varieties of Oryza sativa mainly including those of Korean native rice were exactly cutted into three layers such as L1 layer(the outer part of 92% from rice center), L2 layer(the part of 81∼91% from the rice center) and L3 layer(the inner part of 80% from the rice center) We biologically evaluated the antioxidative effect on the every layer(L1, L2 and L3) of all the varieties, by observing malondialdehyde (MDA) produced by galactosamine in the mouse. L1 layer of some varieties showed significant antiox idative effect, while L2 and L3 layer didn't show the activity. It was also suggested that coloured rice(Suwon 425 and Sanggaehangbyeolna) showed stronger activity than other general rices, probably due to high contents of anthocyanins. Successively, we evaluated antihepatotoxic effect, based on the determination of serum ALT and AST activity. Some varieties of only L1 layer, except for L2 and L3 layer, significantly decreased the serum ALT and AST activity. This finding indicate that oral diet of some raw rice are able to protect hepatotoxicities. Among all the samples tested, L1 layer of Suwon 425 showed the strongest antihepatotoxic effect. From quantitative analysis on ferulic acid derivatives, it was found that the more it enters from the surface into the rice center, the more those secondary metabolites contents were highly reduced. These findings above suggested that Suwon 425 could be a promising candidate for the development of health rice food.
Effects of Artemisia iwayomogi Extracts on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats Administered Benzo(
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 199~204
This study has attempted to examine the effect of Artemisia iwayomogi extract on antioxidant and liver function related enzymes in rats fed high fat diet along with B( )P administration. The activities of the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase of the rats fed Artemisia iwayomogi ethanol extract were decreased compared to the control. Similarily, the activities of the enzymes were also decreased when the combination of B( )P and ethanol extracts were administered compared to the group adminstered only B( )P. On the other hand, high fat diet increased the above liver function related enzymes. The activities of antioxidant enzymes including GST, catalase and Cu,Zn SOD were significantly increased by feeding the extracts (p<0.01) in addition to the increase of tocopherol contents in the serum. These results suggest that Artemisia iwayomogi extracts can protect cell membranes from the damages by free radicals or hydroperoxides and further may lead to the protection from cancer risks.
Effects of Houttyunia cordata Ethanol Extracts on Serum Lipids and Antioxidant Enzymes in Rats Fed High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 205~211
Effects of Houttuynia cordata ethanol extracts on lipid metabolism and antioxidant enzymes in Sprague Dawley male rats were investigated. High fat used in the diet mixture included 10% of lard, 1% of cholesterol and 0.25% of sodium cholate. Total serum cholesterol contents of the rats fed Houttuynia cordata extracts were decreased compared to the control. On the other hand, HDL cholesterol contents were increased along with the decrease of athrogenic index. When high fat diet was fed, total serum cholesterol contents were significantly increased(p<0.01) with the athrogenic index increase of four times of the control. With the administration of Houttuynia cordata extract HDL cholesterol was increased by 53% in the high fat diet group. Antioxidant enzymes including GST and catalase activities were increased comparing the control. On the otherhand, the extracts lowered phospholipid(p<0.01), GOT, GPT, Cu,Zn SOD and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities in the serum which are related to the liver functions. Therefore, the above results suggest that Houttuynia cordata ethanol extracts can help to maintain normal liver functions and help to protect from peroxidative damages caused by excess dietary fat intake.
Effects of Nuruk or Wheat Bran Supplemented Diet on the Serum Levels of Cholesterol and Activities of Hepatic Oxygen Free Radical Metabolizing Enzymes in Rats
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 212~217
The effects of nuruk and wheat bran on cholesterol level in serum and activities of free radical metabolizing enzymes were investigated in rats. The rats were fed a diet containing nuruk or wheat bran for one month. Body weight and food intake were measured. Animals were sacrificed after one month. The increased food efficiency ratio throughout whole growth period was observed in the rats fed with either nuruk containing Aspergillus terreus or wheat bran compared with control group on normal diet. In the rats fed with nuruk, hepatic GSH content, glutathione S transferase activity, hepatic cytochrome P 450 content, and aniline hydroxylase activities were generally increased. In the rats fed with nuruk containing other fungi except Aspergillus terreus, xanthine oxidase activity was decreased. The decreased cholesterol level in serum was observed in rats fed with nuruk prepared from Aspergillus terreus and wheat bran. LDL cholesterol level was decreased in rats fed with nuruk prepared with other fungi such as Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. But HDL cholesterol level was increased in all groups fed with nuruk from any fungi and wheat bran. These results suggested that nuruk or wheat bran supplemented diet might exert their effect by decreasing cholesterol level in serum and amount of oxygen free radical level.
Effects of Extrasct of Pueraria radix on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High Fat Diet
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 218~224
This study was designed to investigate the effect of Pueraria radix extract on lipid metabolism in the rats fed high fat diet. Male sprague dawley rats were given 5% Pueraria radix extract and fed diet containing 20 weight % fat. The results obtained were summarized as follows. Serum ALT and AST activities were reduced by Pueraria radix extract. Levels of total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the serum were higher in the HF group than in the control, but showed no significant differences between control and HF Pue group. Liver total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride contents were increased by high fat diet, but were lower in the HF Pue group than in the HF group. Fat absorption rate was increased with high fat diet feeding and higher in the HF Pue group than in the HF group.
Effects of Apo E Polymorphism on the Plasma Lipid Profiles and Free Amino Acids in Korean Women
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 225~232
Apo E polymorphism(e2, e3, e4) was among the first reported genetic polymorphism that explained part of the normal variation in plasma cholesterol concentrations. Among 62 normolipidemic healthy females, aged 19 up to 22 years, the relative frequencies of E3/3 was 0.806(n=50), E3/2 was 0.081(n=5), E3/4 allele was 0.113(n=7), and no E2/2, E2/4 and E4/4 were found. Based on the five samples of E2 allele, five subjects were randomly selected by E3 and E4 groups for the study of effects of apo E polymorphism on the distribution of serum lipid and amino acids profiles. No differences in the anthro pometric data among apo E isomers were found, otherwise the pulsation was higher in E4 than that in the others. There were no differences in plasma total HDL , HDL3 , HDL2 & LDL cholesterol, and apo A I concentrations. However, phenotype means significantly rank E2>E3>E4 allele in average TG levels(p=0.014), and rank E4>E3>E2 in total cholesterol levels(p=0.011). Atherogenic index(AI) such as lipoproteins was significantly increased in E2 & E4 than that in E3(p=0.045). Subjects with E3/2 allele had significantly higher concentrations of glutamine, phosphoserine and taurine, while subjects with E3/4 allele showed significantly lower concentrations of arginine and am inobutyrate and elevated level of phosphoserine in plasma com pared to those of E3/3 allele. Higher level of plasma taurine in subjects with E3/2 or E3/4 allele appears to be related to the elevated level of plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations compared to those of E3/3 allele.
Effects of Fermented Milk Feeding on Function and Suppression of Aluminum Accumulation in Kidney of Rat
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 233~239
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of the supplementation of lactic acid bacterias (LAB; S. thermophilus, L. acidophilus) aluminum accumulation and function kidney in rats treated with 250 g/g aluminum sulfate for 4 weeks. Fifty male Sprague Dawley strains were divided into five groups according to the types of supplement. the control, S. thermophilus culture group(A), autoclaved S. thermophilus culture(B), L. acidophilus culture group(C) and autoclaved L. acidophilus(D). The weight gain was increased by supplementation of S. thermophilus culture(A), autoclaved S. thermophilus culture(B), L. acidophilus culture(C), autoclaved L. acidophilus culture(D), especially by supplementation of S. thermophilus cultured(A) as compared to control group. The amount of water intake was increased in control group as compared to the LAB supplemented group. The content of aluminum were decreased 19.57%, 31.25%, 37.10%, and 32.40% in kidney after supplementation of non autoclaved culture group (A,C), and autoclaved group(B,D) respectively, as compared to control group. Water balance, urine volume, and excretion of sodium and potassium decreased in LAB supplemented group and control group. Excretion of creatinine increased in control group and tendency to increased in LAB supplemented group. In conclusion, the effect of suppression of aluminum accumulation was more effective in sup plementation of S. thermophilus culture(A), and L. acidophilus culture(C) than autoclaved S. thermo philus culture(B), and L. acidophilus culture(D).
Anticancer Effect of Doenjang in in vitro Sulforhodamine B (SRB) Assay
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 240~245
Growth inhibitory effect of doenjang(Korean soypaste) methanol extracts in SRB assay using AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cell, Hep 3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cell and HT 29 human colon cancer cell was studied. The treatment of doenjang methanol extracts(2mg/assay) to the AGS, Hep 3B and HT 29 cancer cells inhibited the growth of the cancer cells by 55%, 60%, and 71%, respectively. Doenjang methanol extracts exhibited the highest inhibitory effect among other soybean fermented foods and original materials in the SRB assay. In addition, to separate active compounds of doenjang methanol extracts, we fractionated the doenjang with hexane, methanol, dichloromethane, ethylacetate and butanol. Growth inhibitory effect on the AGS, Hep 3B, HT 29 and MG 63 cancer cells was the highest in the fractions of dichloromethane and ethylacetate among other solvent fractions of the doenjang. These results showed that some compounds contained in the fractions of dichloromethane and ethylacetate might play a role on the anticanceric effect of doenjang.
The Perception and the Consumption Behavior for the Meats in Koreans
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 246~256
This study was undertaken to investigate the perception and the consumption behavior for the meats in Koreans. The subjects were 491 Koreans including the ones residing in New Zealand. Most of subjects answered the meats are used for supper time. The frequency of the meats intake was affected by education and monthly income level. 69.2% of the subjects had positive response such as increased stamina and fulled stomach for psychological state after the meats intake. The use of meats recently revealed that 48% of the subjects have decreased its consumption. The main reasons diminished the use of meats were for the good health and economic state. Women were found to avoid the meats fat to a greater degree than men. The kinds of the meat used frequently were beef, pork and chicken. The younger tended to higher the frequency of the processed meats intake than the older. According to 3 level of BMI of the subjects, there were significant differences in the amount of the meat intake and perception for necessity of the meat. This study showed that the higher the preference for meat, the education and the monthly income level, the more the meat intake frequency. There were not significant differences between Koreans residing in domestic and New Zealand except the dog meat in the perception and consumption of the meat.
The Relationship between the Life Style and the Status of Serum Lipis and Antioxidant Vitamins in University Students
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 257~264
This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the life style and the nutritional status of serum antioxidant vitamins and lipids in university male and female students. 48 male and 49 female students attending Andong university, aged between 18 and 25 years, were selected. Questions about the life styles including dietary intakes, food habits, smoking, drinking alcohol, exercise, stress were answered. And serum levels of antioxidant vitamins and lipids were determined. Average serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL C, HDL C, and triglyceride in male and female subjects were 158.6
38.6mg/dl respectively. Average serum levels of antioxidant vitamin A, E and C in male and female subjects were 42.6
9.8 g/dl, 1.11
0.29mg/dl and 164.66
80.11 g/dl respectively. There was no significant difference between smoking habits and either serum lipids or antioxidant vitamins level. The serum vitamin C level of drinkers was significantly lower(p=0.038), but serum lipids(total cholesterol, LDL C, and triglyceride) were higher than non alcoholic subjects. The subjects with severe stress had lower in HDL C and higher in atherogenic index than others. This result indicates that oxidative stress may be increased in stressful environment from undesirable life styles and influence the status of serum lipid and antioxidant vitamins.
A Study on Dietary Status of Elderly Koreans with Ages
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 265~273
Elderly Koreans living in Muju Gun, Jeonbuk were divided into two groups with ages(65~74 years old group & over 75 years old group) and surveyed with questionnaire to investigate their dietary status and those factors affected with ages. The score of food habit in both sexes showed a falling tendency as their ages increased. Compared with elderly men, elderly women showed lower quality of diet. Elderly Korean were more consumed cereals and green vegetables than milk, egg, meat & fish, seaweed and fats & oils. As education level increased, the food habit score showed a rising tendency. The correlation coefficient between the score of food habit and education level was positive in illiterate and school graduates. The score of food habit of living together with their family was higher than those of living alone or living with their spouse. As household income increased, the food habit score showed a rising tendency. In the case of self consciousness of socioeconomic status was middle, food habit score is higher than those of very low. Dental status of eldery people did not affect food habit score. Palatability showed no significant correlation with age. Elderly Koreans prefered sweet taste than salty, sour, and bitter taste.
Analysis of Microencapsulation Yield of Sardine Oil Spray Drying
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, volume 28, issue 1, 1999, Pages 274~276
Sardine oil was microencapsulated by spray drying method in wall systems containing corn syrup in combination with sodium casein or wheat protein. Analysis of microencapsulation yield of sardine oil was carried out by a modified soxhlet method which could reduce the extraction time of surface oil. Microencapsulation yield of sardine oil was ranged from 65.3 to 93.5 % depending on the sodium casein content.